South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The
Syringa is a genus of 12 recognized species of flowering woody plants in the olive family, native to woodland and scrub from southeastern Europe to eastern Asia and cultivated in temperate areas elsewhere. The genus is most related to Ligustrum, classified with it in Oleaceae tribus Oleeae subtribus Ligustrinae. Lilacs are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including copper underwing, scalloped oak and Svensson's copper underwing, they are small trees, ranging in size from 2 to 10 metres tall, with stems up to 20 to 30 centimetres diameter. The leaves are opposite in arrangement, their shape is simple and heart-shaped to broad lanceolate in most species, but pinnate in a few species; the flowers are produced in spring, each flower being 5 to 10 millimetres in diameter with a four-lobed corolla, the corolla tube narrow, 5 to 20 millimetres long. The usual flower colour is a shade of purple, but white, pale yellow and pink, a dark burgundy color are found; the flowers grow in large panicles, in several species have a strong fragrance.
Flowering varies between mid spring depending on the species. The fruit is a brown capsule, splitting in two at maturity to release the two winged seeds; the genus Syringa was first formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus and the description was published in Species Plantarum. The genus name Syringa is derived from Ancient Greek word syrinx meaning "pipe" or "tube" and refers to the hollow branches of S. vulgaris. The English common name "lilac" is from the French lilac via the Arabic ليلك from Persian نیلک meaning "bluish". Lilacs are popular shrubs in parks and gardens throughout the temperate zone, several hybrids and numerous cultivars have been developed; the term French lilac is used to refer to modern double-flowered cultivars, thanks to the work of prolific breeder Victor Lemoine. Lilacs grow most in well-drained soils those based on chalk, they flower on old wood, produce more flowers if unpruned. If pruned, the plant responds by producing fast-growing young vegetative growth with no flowers, in an attempt to restore the removed branches.
Lilac bushes can be prone to powdery mildew disease. The wood of lilac is close-grained, diffuse-porous hard and one of the densest in Europe; the sapwood is cream-coloured and the heartwood has various shades of brown and purple. Lilac wood has traditionally been used for engraving, musical instruments, knife handles etc; when drying, the wood has a tendency to be encurved as a twisted material, to split into narrow sticks. Lilacs are considered to symbolize love. In Greece and Cyprus, the lilac is associated with Easter time because it flowers around that time. In the poem "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd", by Walt Whitman, lilacs are a reference to Abraham Lincoln. Syringa vulgaris is the state flower of New Hampshire, because it "is symbolic of that hardy character of the men and women of the Granite State". Several locations in North America hold annual Lilac Festivals, including: The Arnold Arboretum in Boston, which celebrates "Lilac Sunday" every May; the Arboretum shows off its collection of 194 different varieties.
Lilac Sunday is the only day of the year. Lombard, called the "Lilac Village", which has an annual lilac festival and parade in May; the village contains Lilacia Park, a garden with over 200 varieties of lilacs, as well as over 50 kinds of tulips. Mackinac Island, in Michigan, which celebrates lilac parade each June. Rochester, New York, which has held its Lilac Festival since 1898, hosts the longest-running festival in North America. Held in Highland Park, this celebration features 1,200 shrubs, representing over 500 varieties, many of which were developed in Rochester, it is the largest collection of varieties at any single place. The Royal Botanical Gardens near Hamilton, which holds its Lilac Celebration each May. Spokane, known as the "Lilac City", which holds an annual lilac festival and lilac parade. Franktown, Canada, holds an annual festival. Species and subspecies accepted as of July 2016: Syringa emodi Wall. Ex Royle - Himalayan lilac - northern India, Tibet, Nepal Syringa josikaea J. Jacq.
Ex Rchb.f. - Carpathian Mountains of Romania and Ukraine Syringa komarowii C. K. Schneid. - Gansu, Shaanxi, Yunnan Syringa oblata Lindl. - Korea, Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Shandong, Sichuan Syringa oblata subsp. Dilatata Nakai - Korea, Liaoning Syringa persica L. - Persian lilac - Afghanistan, western Himalayas, Qinghai Syringa pinetorum W. W. Sm. - Sichuan, Yunnan Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl. - Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Sichuan Syringa pubescens Turcz. - Korea, Hebei, Hubei, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shandong, Sichuan Syringa reticulata H. Hara - Japanese tree lilac - Primorye, Korea, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Sichuan Syringa tomentella Bureau & Franch. - Sichuan, Yunnan Syringa vill
Brighton Pavilion (UK Parliament constituency)
Brighton Pavilion is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Caroline Lucas of the Green Party. 1950–1983: The County Borough of Brighton wards of Hollingbury, Patcham, Preston, Preston Park, Regency, St Nicholas, St Peter's, West. 1983–1997: The Borough of Brighton wards of Hollingbury, Preston, Regency, St Peter's, Seven Dials and Westdene. 1997–2010: The Borough of Brighton wards of Hanover, Patcham, Regency, St Peter's, Seven Dials and Westdene. 2010–present: The City of Brighton and Hove wards of Hanover and Elm Grove and Stanmer, Preston Park, Regency, St Peter's and North Laine, Withdean. The constituency was created in 1950 from the former two-member constituency of Brighton, for which Brighton Pavilion's first Member of Parliament, Sir William Teeling, had been the joint representative; the present name is derived from the Royal Pavilion. On current boundaries, the pavilion itself is right on the South-Eastern border of the seat – the opposite side of the road is Brighton Kemptown.
It encompasses the heart of the city, including the Georgian and Regency alleyway properties of The Lanes and the Bohemian North Laine shopping area. The developed centre of the promenade above the pebbled beach has Brighton Pier, major entertainment venues and the city's largest hotels including the Grand Hotel and Hilton Brighton Metropole, it is a affluent constituency, since average income is higher than the UK average and the unemployment rate is lower than average. From 1950–1997 the seat elected Conservative MPs. In 1997, David Lepper of the Labour Party began service as MP for thirteen years by winning the two subsequent elections; the Conservatives' share of the vote has declined at every election there since 1979. In July 2007, the Green Party selected Caroline Lucas to contest the seat, at which point she was neither Leader nor Principal Speaker for the party. In November 2009, Charlotte Vere was selected as the Conservative Party candidate at an open primary attended by local Conservative Party members and residents.
In January 2010, the Liberal Democrats selected a female candidate, Bernadette Millam. Labour had selected Nancy Platts, a local campaigner and former union worker, as their candidate in June 2007; this meant that, all of the four leading parties in the constituency had female candidates. In 2010, Labour's share of the vote fell by 6.5%, Lucas, by leading the Green Party, won the seat. In contrast to national results, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat share of the vote fell. Lucas retained the seat for the Green Party at the 2015 general election with an increased majority. Purna Sen, who held senior roles at the Commonwealth, LSE and Amnesty International, was selected to contest the seat for Labour. Clarence Mitchell, a former BBC News reporter and spokesman for the family of Madeleine McCann, was selected as the Conservative Party candidate. On 26 April 2017, it was announced that the local Liberal Democrat party had chosen to not field a candidate in the seat during the upcoming snap election, endorsing Caroline Lucas instead due to their shared pro-EU stance.
This occurred on the same night as the local Green Party stood aside in Brighton Kemptown in order to ensure the seat was not won by the Conservatives due to a split vote between progressive parties. Caroline Lucas retained Brighton Pavilion for the Greens at the 2017 general election, being returned with the biggest numerical majority for any candidate in the seat since 1959. List of Parliamentary constituencies in East Sussex Opinion polling for the next United Kingdom general election in individual constituencies SourcesElection result, 2005 Election results, 1997 – 2001 Election results, 1997 – 2001 Election results, 1983 – 1992 Election results, 1992 – 2005 Election results, 1951 – 2001 By-election result, 1969 F. W. S. Craig. British Parliamentary Election Results 1950–1973. Nomis Constituency Profile for Brighton, Pavilion — presenting data from the ONS annual population survey and other official statistics
Brighton hotel bombing
The Brighton hotel bombing was a Provisional Irish Republican Army assassination attempt against the top tier of the British government that occurred on 12 October 1984 at the Grand Brighton Hotel in Brighton, England. A long-delay time bomb was planted in the hotel by IRA member Patrick Magee, with the purpose of killing Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet, who were staying at the hotel for the Conservative Party conference. Although Thatcher narrowly escaped the blast, five people connected with the Conservative Party were killed, including a sitting Conservative MP, 31 were injured. Patrick Magee stayed in the hotel under the pseudonym Roy Walsh during the weekend of 14–17 September 1984. During his stay, he planted the bomb under the bath in his room, number 629, five floors above Thatcher's suite for the conference; the device was fitted with a long-delay timer made from videocassette recorder components and a Memo Park Timer safety device. IRA mole Sean O'Callaghan claimed.
The device was described as a "small bomb by IRA standards" by a contemporary news report and may have avoided detection by sniffer dogs by being wrapped in cling film to mask the smell. The bomb detonated at 2:54 am on 12 October; the blast brought down a five-ton chimney stack, which crashed down through the floors into the basement, leaving a gaping hole in the hotel's facade. Firemen said that many lives were saved because the well-built Victorian hotel remained standing. Thatcher was still awake at the time working on her conference speech for the next day in her suite; the blast badly left its sitting room and bedroom untouched. She and her husband Denis escaped injury, she changed her clothes and was led out through the wreckage along with her husband and her friend and aide Cynthia Crawford, driven to a Brighton police station. At about 4:00 am, as Thatcher left the police station, she gave an impromptu interview to the BBC's John Cole saying that the conference would go on as usual. Alistair McAlpine persuaded Marks & Spencer to open early at 8:00 am so those who had lost their clothes in the bombing could purchase replacements.
Thatcher went from the conference to visit the injured at the Royal Sussex County Hospital. The bombing killed none of whom were Cabinet ministers. However, a Conservative MP, Sir Anthony Berry, was killed, along with Eric Taylor, Lady Shattock, Lady Maclean, Roberta Wakeham. Donald and Muriel Maclean were in the room in which the bomb exploded. Several more were permanently disabled, including Walter Clegg, whose bedroom was directly above the blast, Margaret Tebbit. 34 people were recovered from their injuries. When hospital staff asked Norman Tebbit, less injured than his wife, whether he was allergic to anything, he is said to have answered "bombs"; the IRA claimed responsibility the next day, said that it would try again. Its statement read: Mrs. Thatcher will now realise that Britain cannot occupy our country and torture our prisoners and shoot our people in their own streets and get away with it. Today we remember we only have to be lucky once. You will have to be lucky always. Give Ireland peace and there will be no more war.
Thatcher began. She dropped from her speech most of her planned attacks on the Labour Party and said the bombing was "an attempt to cripple Her Majesty's democratically elected Government": That is the scale of the outrage in which we have all shared, the fact that we are gathered here now—shocked, but composed and determined—is a sign not only that this attack has failed, but that all attempts to destroy democracy by terrorism will fail. One of her biographers wrote that Thatcher's "coolness, in the immediate aftermath of the attack and in the hours after it, won universal admiration, her defiance was another Churchillian moment in her premiership which seemed to encapsulate both her own steely character and the British public's stoical refusal to submit to terrorism." Afterwards, her popularity soared to the level it had been during the Falklands War. The Saturday after the bombing, Thatcher said to her constituents: "We suffered a tragedy not one of us could have thought would happen in our country.
And we picked ourselves up and sorted ourselves out as all good British people do, I thought, let us stand together for we are British! They were trying to destroy the fundamental freedom, the birth-right of every British citizen, freedom and democracy." At the time of the bombing, the miners' strike was underway. Morrissey, frontman of the English alternative rock band the Smiths, joked shortly after: "The only sorrow of the Brighton bombing is that Thatcher escaped unscathed." David Bret wrote in the book Morrissey: Scandal & Passion that "The tabloids were full of such remarks. A working-men's club in South Yorkshire considered a whip-round "to pay for the bomber to have another go". In 1986, English punk band the Angelic Upstarts celebrated the IRA's assassination attempt with their single "Brighton Bomb", they released an album of the same name in 1987. Once investigators had narrowed the seat of the blast to the bathroom of Room 629, police b
Withdean Stadium is an athletics stadium in Withdean, a suburb of Brighton. Between 1999 and 2011 it was the home ground of football team Brighton & Hove Albion F. C.. The capacity of the ground was all seated; the stadium was temporary home for Brighton whilst a new stadium was built in nearby Falmer. The club's former stadium, the Goldstone Ground, was sold for redevelopment in 1997 by the board of the time, none of whom any longer has any involvement with the club; this resulted in the team playing their home matches for two seasons at Gillingham's Priestfield Stadium, over 70 miles from Brighton, before moving to Withdean Stadium. The only other local option for Albion had been to play at Hove. Withdean Stadium was voted the fourth worst stadium in the UK by The Observer in 2004; the temporary nature of the stadium is obvious - the stadium is used for athletics. The largest is the South Stand; the east end of the pitch contains one small stand. One of the larger stands here is designated as the family stand.
The West Stand was the designated away stand. Changing and hospitality facilities are provided with portable cabins placed haphazardly around the site, there is limited on-site car parking. There was considerable opposition in the neighbourhood to allowing the club to use the stadium. After some unique concessions were made, the club was allowed to move into Withdean in 1999. Amplified music was banned during football matches, matchday parking restrictions were imposed within a one-mile radius of the ground. After a year, the music restrictions were eased; the price of each match ticket included a public transportation voucher allowing free bus or rail travel throughout the Brighton and Hove area. For Albion's match against Sheffield United on 2 October 2004 the stadium was temporarily renamed Palookaville as it hosted the launch party for Fatboy Slim's album of the same name; the album was released on Skint Records the club's shirt sponsor, for that match the team wore shirts bearing the name Palookaville instead of Skint.
The name Palookaville was considered appropriate by fans because it reflected the inadequacy of the club's temporary home. Additional seating was added at the East and West Ends of the ground in November 2005; the club played their last game at Withdean on Saturday 30 April 2011 against Huddersfield Town. The stadium was managed and maintained under contract from Brighton and Hove city council by D C Leisure Management; the staff responsible for the preparation and maintenance of the stadium on match days used to be employed and managed by D C Leisure until the 2003–2004 football season when responsibility of match day stadium staff was handed over to Brighton and Hove Albion F. C.. The staff responsible for the leisure facilities of the stadium complex including the gym and tennis courts and the stadium on non-match days are still employed and managed by D C Leisure. Withdean Sports Complex at Brighton & Hove City Council website
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm