Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Last.fm is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom in 2002. Using a music recommender system called "Audioscrobbler", Last.fm builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of the tracks the user listens to, either from Internet radio stations, or the user's computer or many portable music devices. This information is transferred to Last.fm's database either via the music player itself or via a plug-in installed into the user's music player. The data is displayed on the user's profile page and compiled to create reference pages for individual artists. On 30 May 2007, it was acquired by CBS Interactive for UK£140 million; the site offered a radio streaming service, discontinued on 28 April 2014. The ability to access the large catalogue of music stored on the site was removed replaced by links to YouTube and Spotify where available; the current Last.fm website was developed from two separate sources: Last.fm and Audioscrobbler, which were merged in 2005. Audioscrobbler began as a computer science project of Richard Jones when he attended the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science in the United Kingdom, with the term scrobbling defined as the finding and distribution of information involving people and other data.
Jones developed the first plugins, opened an API to the community, after which many music players on different operating system platforms were supported. Audioscrobbler was limited to keeping track of which songs its users played on a registered computer, which allowed for charting and collaborative filtering. Last.fm was founded in 2002 by Felix Miller, Martin Stiksel, Michael Breidenbruecker and Thomas Willomitzer, all of them from Germany or Austria, as an internet radio station and music community site, using similar music profiles to generate dynamic playlists. The site name takes advantage of a domain hack using.fm, the top level domain of Micronesia, popular with FM radio related sites. The "love" and "ban" buttons allowed users to customise their profiles. Last.fm won the Europrix 2002 and was nominated for the Prix Ars Electronica in 2003. The Audioscrobbler and Last.fm teams began to work together, both teams moving into the same offices in Whitechapel, by 2003 Last.fm was integrated with Audioscrobbler profiles.
Input could come through a Last.fm station. The sites shared many community forums, although a few were unique to each site; the old Audioscrobbler site at the audioscrobbler.com domain name was wholly merged into the new Last.fm site on 9 August 2005. Audioscrobbler.net was launched as a separate development-oriented site on 5 September 2005. However, at the bottom of each of the Last.fm pages there was an Audioscrobbler "slogan", which changes each time the page is refreshed. Based on well-known sayings or advertisements, these appeared at the top of the Audioscrobbler website pages and were all created and contributed by the original site members. An update to the site was made on 14 July 2006, which included a new software application for playing Last.fm radio streams and for logging of tracks played with other media players. Other changes included the improvement of the friends system and updating it to require a two-way friendship, the addition of the Last.fm "Dashboard" where users can see on one page relevant information for their profile, expanded options for purchasing music from online retailers and a new visual design for the web site.
The site began expanding its language base on 15 July 2006, with a Japanese version. The site is available in German, French, Polish, Swedish, Russian and Simplified Chinese. In late 2006, the site won Best Community Music Site at the BT Digital Music Awards in October. Last.fm teamed with EMI on Tuneglue-Audiomap. In January 2007 it was nominated for Best Website at the NME Awards. At the end of April 2007, rumours of negotiations between CBS and Last.fm emerged, suggesting that CBS intended to purchase Last.fm for about £225 million. In May 2007 it was announced that Channel 4 Radio was to broadcast a weekly show called Worldwide Chart reflecting what Last.fm users around the world were listening to. On 30 May 2007, it was announced that Last.fm had been bought by CBS for £140 million with Last.fm's current management team staying in place. In July 2008, the "new generation" Last.fm was launched featuring a new layout, color scheme, several new features, as well as some old ones removed. This was, met with dissatisfaction amongst some users, who complained about the "ugly and non-user-friendly layout", slowness.
Still, a month after the redesign a CBS press release credited the redesign with generating a 20% growth in the site's traffic. On 22 February 2009, Techcrunch claimed that " RIAA asked social music service Last.fm for data about its user's listening habits to find people with unreleased tracks on their computers. And Last.fm, owned by CBS handed the data over to the RIAA." This led to several public postings from both Last.fm and Techcrunch, with Last.fm denying passing any personal data to RIAA. The request was purportedly prompted by the leak of U2's then-unreleased album No Line On The Horizon, its subsequent widespread distribution via peer-to-peer file sharing services such as BitTorrent. Three months on 22 May 2009, Techcrunch claimed that it was CBS, the parent company of Last.fm, that handed over the data. Last.fm again denied that this was the case, saying that CBS couldn't have handed over the data withou
Hinder is an American rock band from Oklahoma, formed in 2001 by lead singer Austin Winkler, guitarist Joe "Blower" Garvey, drummer Cody Hanson. The band released four studio albums with Winkler. After Winkler left the band in 2013, they looked for a new lead vocalist, added Marshal Dutton, they have since released: The Reign with their new vocalist. Their seventh studio album is expected in 2019, with the lead single "Halo"; the band was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame in 2007. Before the band formed, Austin Winkler sang in an Oklahoma City cover band until July 2001, when he met drummer Cody Hanson and lead guitarist Joe Garvey at a college party. Soon after meeting, the three formed Hinder. Hanson commented on Austin Winkler shortly after the band formed saying he was "blown away" and "he has the kind of charisma few people have and that unique voice. You can't compare him to anybody." After recruiting bassist Cole Parker, they recorded a 4 track demo disc, with the track listing "Someday", "Like Me", "Broken", "Worthless Home".
The tracks "Someday" and "Broken" would be re-recorded and put on their debut EP Far From Close and the other two tracks "Like Me" and "Worthless Home" still remain unreleased, only being able to find them on their demo CDs, although they are now posted on YouTube. The band began. Profits from the shows went to advertising, as well as paying the expenses for the group's first release. In April 2003, Hinder entered the March Bandness contest for Oklahoma City radio station KHBZ-FM, they made it to the Final Four out of a field of thirty-two losing to the OKC group Falcon Five-O. After saving enough money from local concerts the band's debut EP Far From Close was released in 2003 on the independent label Brickden Records and sold around 5,000 copies. Bassist Mike Rodden and rhythm guitarist Mark King joined the band that year. Cody Hanson, along with former lead singer Austin Winkler, wrote the majority of the band's music on their first four albums. After the release of Far from Close, Hinder was offered record deals by Atlantic Records, Roadrunner Records, Universal Records signing with Universal Records in 2005.
The album was produced by Brian Howes, along with Cody Hanson and Austin Winkler, wrote most of the material on the album. The album was engineered by Jay Van Poederooyen; the album reached triple-platinum certification for sales,Hinder toured and released singles in support of their first album. Hinder's debut single, "Get Stoned", was released in October 2005; the band's second single, "Lips of an Angel", entered charts in the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. The band's third single, "How Long", was released in September 2006 and appeared at number six on the US Billboard Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. In 2006, as a Christmas gift to their fan club, the Hinder Army, the band recorded their version of the public domain song "A Little Drummer Boy" and released it on their fan club website, their second song to be released in New Zealand was "Better Than Me", which spent three weeks on the New Zealand charts, peaking at number 16. In 2007, Hinder was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, in October of the same year, the band released their limited edition CD/DVD of Extreme Behavior entitled You Can't Make This S**t Up.
The first single from the band's second album, "Use Me", was released on July 15, 2008 and peaked at No. 3 on the US Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. The second album, Take It to the Limit, was released on November 4, 2008; the title track features Mötley Crüe's Mick Mars on guitar. They announced the release of the album's second single, "Without You," through their official MySpace page on September 13, 2008. Take It To the Limit debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 with 81,000 sales its first week and ended up going Gold in the US Through late 2008, Hinder headlined the Jägermeister Music Tour with Trapt and Rev Theory on the bill. In early 2009, Hinder embarked on Mötley Crüe's Saints Of Los Angeles Tour, which included Theory of a Deadman and The Last Vegas. In July, Hinder embarked on Nickelback's Dark Horse Tour, which ran through Live Nation outdoor amphitheaters. On March 27, 2013 Take It To The Limit was certified gold in the US. During early 2010, the band was engaged in writing and recording material for their third album, titled All American Nightmare.
The album was released on December 7, 2010, with the first single, the title track, released on September 14, 2010. Although the album was planned to be produced by Howard Benson, Kevin Churko was announced to be the producer. Winkler said. “We wrote 70 or so songs, recorded about 50 and cut it down to 12," the singer explained. "It’s something that we’ve never done before, so it’s like our ultimate baby. A lot of the songs could be shit, too, we don’t know. You don’t know until you put it out there and have more than two people’s opinion on it.” Both he and drummer Cody Hanson mentioned the song "Memory" as one, a strong contender for the final cut. "It’s about being with your
Seether are a South African rock band founded in May 1999 in Pretoria, South Africa. The band performed under the name Saron Gas until 2002, when they moved to the United States and changed it to Seether to avoid confusion with the deadly chemical known as sarin gas. Disclaimer is their original album and major label debut, they gained mainstream popularity in 2002 with their US Active Rock number one single "Fine Again", their success was sustained in 2004 with the single "Broken" which peaked at number 20 on the Billboard Hot 100. They have experienced continued success with number one hits on the Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart such as "Remedy", "Fake It", "Country Song", "Words as Weapons", "Let You Down"; the band consists of lead vocalist/rhythm guitarist Shaun Morgan, bassist Dale Stewart, drummer John Humphrey, guitarist Corey Lowery. Seether has undergone several lineup changes since their formation in 1999, with vocalist/guitarist Shaun Morgan being the only constant member; the band formed in South Africa in May 1999 under the name Saron Gas.
Consisting of frontman vocalist and guitarist Shaun Morgan, bassist Tyronne Morris, drummer Dave Cohoe, the band released their first album, Fragile, in 2000 under Johannesburg-based independent record label Musketeer Records. Despite the region's focus on pop and indigenous music, the band found success, caught attention of American record label Wind-Up Records, who signed them to a record deal to begin releasing music in North America. Upon signing to the label, they were told they needed to change their name due to its similarity to sarin gas, switched their name to Seether, after the Veruca Salt song. In August 2002, Seether launched their first official album, which earned the band three singles: "Fine Again", "Driven Under", "Gasoline", in which only the first managed significant success. After the release of Disclaimer, the band toured constantly. Near the end of the Disclaimer Tour, the band decided to return to the studio to record their second album, a project that had to be delayed by a year, since at that time Seether was on world tour with Evanescence.
"Fine Again" was included in the video games Madden NFL 2003 in 2002 and 1080° Avalanche in 2003. Following the release of Disclaimer, the band toured continually in order to increase sales and name recognition. A planned second album was delayed for nearly a year when Seether was selected as the support act for an Evanescence worldwide tour. Seether reworked their acoustic ballad, "Broken", as an electric ballad with guest vocals by Amy Lee of Evanescence. Favourable audience response led the band to record the revised version, with Lee on vocals; the track, along with a new song entitled "Sold Me", was featured on the soundtrack for the 2004 film The Punisher, became a major success for the band in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia. A romance developed between Morgan during this time. Morgan has stated that the reworking of "Broken" was due to the wishes of the record company, rather than those of the band. An alternate version of the original album, with many of its songs remixed or re-recorded, was released in June 2004 and entitled Disclaimer II.
The alternate version featured eight extra tracks. The band's follow-up album and Effect, was released in May 2005. Titled Catering to Cowards, the name was changed at the record label's demand. "Karma and Effect" debuted at number 8 on the US Billboard 200 album charts, was certified gold in the US and Canada. The album spawned three singles, "Remedy", "Truth", "The Gift". "Remedy" reached number 1 on Seether's first number 1 hit. Seether released an acoustic CD/DVD set titled One Cold Night, recorded at Grape Street, in Philadelphia, on 22 February 2006. Morgan had been suffering from a stomach ailment, decided to do an acoustic performance of their set rather than cancel the show; the exclusion of "Needles" and "Burrito" from the album is due to the label's desire that it contain no obscenities. Lead guitarist Patrick Callahan's departure from the band was announced in June 15, 2006, his last performance with the band was on June 3. No reason was given, but he did not enjoy Seether's new material.
Shaun Morgan commented: "Um... relieved a little... a lot. He was the guy in the band, always our naysayer, he was the negative energy as far as writing. I have no love lost, weird for some reason'cause he was my friend for four years, but when he walked out, it kinda walked out with him."Morgan entered a rehabilitation program for what he felt was "dependence on a combination of substances" in August 2006, which forced the band to cancel a tour with Staind and Three Days Grace. Shaun Morgan, prior to the next album's debut, claimed that it would be more diverse than previous efforts. Finding Beauty in Negative Spaces was slated for an August release, delayed until 23 October 2007 due to the suicide of Morgan's brother, Eugene Welgemoed; the album debuted at number 9 in the Billboard 200 album charts, sold 57,000 copies in its first week. Its cover artwork featured "Candice the Ghost", was illustrated by David Ho; the first single, "Fake It", reached the top position of the US Mainstream Rock Charts and Modern Rock Charts, held that spot for at least 9 weeks on both charts.
It became the theme for WWE's No Way Out. "Rise Above This", written for Eugene Welgemoed, was released as a single and reached the No. 1 spot on the Modern Rock Tracks chart and No. 2 on its mainstream counterpart. The final single from the album was "Breakdown", the video of, relea
Computer and Video Games
Computer and Video Games was a UK-based video game magazine, published in its original form between 1981 and 2004. Its offshoot website was launched in 1999 and closed in February 2015. CVG was the longest-running video game media brand in the world. Computer and Video Games was established in 1981. Published monthly between November 1981 and October 2004 and web-based from 2004 onwards, the magazine was one of the first publications to capitalise on the growing home computing market, although it covered arcade games. At the time of launch it was the world's first dedicated video games magazine; the first issue featured articles on Space Invaders, Chess and advice on how to learn programming. The magazine had a typical ABC of 106,000. Launched in August 1999, CVG was one of the Europe's leading gaming web sites. Known for its news service, CVG features a mix of current and next-generation multi-format gaming reviews, previews and interviews, as well as a new emphasis on video and multimedia content.
CVG was owned by EMAP, before being bought by Dennis Publishing. In 2004 CVG was acquired by Future Publishing. In 2006, the site underwent a major re-design and relaunch to bring it up to scratch for the so-called next generation of Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Wii gaming. In 2007, CVG became the hub of a new CVG Network, hosting magazine sites for all of Future Publishing’s unofficial gaming magazines including PC Gamer, PC Zone, Xbox World 360, PlayStation World, PSM3 and NGamer as well as long standing cheats site, CheatStation; the CVG Network expanded further in May 2007 to include sites like Xbox 360 Magazine and Next Generation.biz. CVG has a popular forum with many users and topics. CVG has had a cult following with an award thread they used to run known as the yakkies. In May 2007, CVG submitted to electronic audit by the Audit Bureau of Circulation and registered 1.56 million monthly unique users and 11.4 million page impressions. Future has since incorporated the forums of many of its other games related publications to ComputerAndVideoGames.com in addition to devoting sections to those that did not have a formal website, such as PC Gamer.
In early 2014, CVG, amongst other Future-operated websites, was earmarked for closure by management, but instead received staff cuts in July. Future announced the closure of the website in December 2014; the website closed on 26 February 2015, with all pages redirecting to Gamesradar+, another Future publication. Until the closure of CVG, their official YouTube channel provided a variety of video game related content, providing everything from walkthroughs of games to news regarding video game consoles and regarding gaming events, their second longest running series, GTA V O'clock covered news and conspiracy theories regarding Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto V and Grand Theft Auto Online. It was one of the few publications invited to see and play Grand Theft Auto V before its release to the public on 17 September 2013 and re-release for PC on 14 April 2015; when the magazine did reappear it was in a new form, titled CVG Presents, on 16 April 2008 with a bi-monthly release schedule. The new format concentrates the whole magazine on a single subject.
The first issue of the new format concentrated on the history of the Grand Theft Auto series of games. CVG Presents has not been published since 2009. CVG hosted the annual Golden Joystick Awards, the longest running gaming ceremony in the world and acknowledged as one of the most prestigious, as they’re voted for by the general gaming public. Created in 1982 as the CVG magazine's annual awards ceremony, the awards moved onto the web with CVG.com in 1999. In April 1983, the magazine published the results of its first Golden Joystick Awards, along with pictures from the ceremony in Berkeley Square. DJ Dave Lee Travis presented the award for best game of the year to Jetpac; the 2006 Golden Joystick awards attracted over 540,000 votes and were webcast for the first time. The Golden Joystick Awards entered their 25th Silver Anniversary year in 2007 and attracted over 750,000 votes from gamers around the world, with Microsoft's Gears of War winning four Joysticks including Ultimate Game of the Year.
Gareth Ramsay Johnny Minkley Stuart Bishop John Houlihan Gavin Ogden Tim Ingham Andy Robinson John Houlihan computerandvideogames.com at the Internet Archive
Post-grunge is a rock music subgenre that emerged in the 1990s. The term was used pejoratively to label bands such as Bush and Collective Soul that emulated the original sound of grunge. In the late 1990s, post-grunge morphed into a more defined style that married the sound and aesthetic of grunge with a less intense and abrasive tone, rising to prominence that lasted in the 2000s. Bands such as Foo Fighters, Puddle of Mudd, Nickelback and Matchbox Twenty all achieved mainstream success. During the 1990s, a post-grunge sound emerged which emulated the attitudes and music of grunge its thick, distorted guitars, but with a less intense and less abrasive tone. Unlike a lot of early grunge bands, post-grunge bands worked through major record labels and incorporated influences from a variety of musical genres including: jangle pop, pop punk, ska revival, alternative metal and classic rock. Post-grunge music tends to be in mid-tempo and is noted for having "a polished, radio-ready production". Grierson of About.com wrote that musically, post-grunge bands "split the difference between plaintive ballads and aggressive rockers, resulting in songs that combine the two extremes into a sad-eyed, propulsive middle ground".
Post-grunge tends to feature the "...same kind of melody as...bubblegum pop" and pop song structures. Sometimes post-grunge music features both an electric guitar and an acoustic guitar playing simultaneously. Post-grunge tends to have production quality, much higher and cleaner than grunge. A "major rift" between grunge and post-grunge is in the lyrical substance of the music. While describing lyrics that are common in post-grunge, Sasha Geffen of Consequence of Sound wrote that post-grunge "plunged directly into the "I." " Geffen wrote that most post-grunge songs that achieved mainstream success "call after a prospective or past companion in the first person". Post-grunge lyrics tend to be about topics such as relationships and drug addiction. According to Geffen, "grunge's frontmen posed with their addictions. Geffen states that post-grunge songs "fit the mold of songs made for...teenage and pre-teen girls" who were "longing for a distant someone", the songs "wore signs of femininity" which she posits may be why the "...post-grunge moment pissed off so many angry dudes."
According to Geffen, artists such as Alanis Morissette, No Doubt and Sarah McLachlan all "crystallized the songwriting strategy that would form the emotional core of the post-grunge moment". Post-grunge was a label, meant to be pejorative, suggesting that grunge bands labelled as post-grunge were musically derivative, or a cynical response to an "authentic" rock movement; when grunge became a mainstream genre because of bands such as Nirvana and Pearl Jam, record labels started signing bands that sounded similar to these bands' sonic identities. Bands labeled as post-grunge that emerged when grunge was mainstream such as Bush and Collective Soul are all noted for emulating the sound of bands that launched grunge into the mainstream. According to Tim Grierson of About.com, the pejorative use of the "post-grunge" label to describe these bands was "suggesting that rather than being a musical movement in their own right, they were just a calculated, cynical response to a legitimate stylistic shift in rock music".
During the late 1990s, post-grunge morphed, becoming a derivative of grunge that combined characteristics of grunge with a more commercially accessible tone. During this time, post-grunge bands such as Creed and Nickelback emerged. Grierson wrote: Creed and Nickelback espoused a more conventional conservative worldview built around the comforts of community and romantic relationships; this attitude was diametrically opposed to the antisocial angst of the original grunge bands, who railed against conformity and instead explored troubling issues such as suicide, societal hypocrisy and drug addiction. Grierson wrote, "Post-grunge was a profitable musical style, but bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam were beloved because of their perceived integrity in avoiding the mainstream. Post-grunge, by comparison, seemed to exist in order to court that audience." At the height of their popularity, after the release of Nevermind brought grunge to international attention, Nirvana experienced increasing problems caused by Kurt Cobain's drug addiction and growing dissatisfaction with commercial success.
In late 1992, Cobain was photographed in a T-shirt with'Grunge is Dead' printed on its front and the genre's decline started to be discussed. The death of Cobain in 1994, as well as Pearl Jam's touring problems, marked a decline for grunge that year. Problems of addiction for Layne Staley of Alice in Chains led to the band cancelling scheduled dates in 1995; when grunge was mainstream, major record labels began signing and promoting bands emulating the genre. In spite of the fact that bands such as Bush and Candlebox have been categorized as grunge, both bands have been categorized as post-grunge. Tim Grierson of About.com wrote about bands like Bush and Candlebox: Perhaps not because these bands seemed to be ripping off a trendy sound, critics dismissed them as bandwagon-jumpers. Tellingly, these bands were labeled pejoratively as'post-grunge', suggesting that rather than being a musical movement in their own right, they were just a calculated, cynical response to a legitimate stylistic shift in rock music.
Collective Soul and Live are two other bands categorized as post-grunge that emerged along wit