Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
North Maleny, Queensland
North Maleny is a locality in the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. The Baroon Pocket Dam is in the north-east of the locality; the Maleny Provisional School opened on 22 July 1897, becoming Maleny State School on 1 January 1909. It was renamed Maleny North State School in 1913 but closed in 1914. On 27 February 1922 it reopened as Maleny North Provisional School, becoming Maleny North State School on 4 July 1927, it closed in 1953. The Baroon Pocket Dam was opened by Queensland Premier Mike Ahern on 28 July 1989. Media related to North Maleny, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland; the Gubbi Gubbi's ethnonym is formed from the reduplication of kabi, their most common word for "no", a generic denominator of several tribes speaking similar dialects to the Gubbi Gubbi. Gubbi Gubbi is classified as one of the Waka -- Kabic languages. One variety of the language was first described by the Reverend William Ridley on the basis of notes taken from an interview with James Davis in 1855. Davis lived among the Ginginbara clan and called it Dippil, Norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 square miles and lay west of Maryborough; the northern borders ran as far as Hervey Bay. On the south, they approached the headwaters of Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan. Gubbi Gubbi country is located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north.
Their habitat was rain forest, with cleared areas created by regular firing of the scrub. John Mathew's description of the Kabi group he knew describes their land as embracing, the Manumbar Run in the south-west corner of the Burnett District, the country watered by the Amamoor and Koondangoor creeks, tributaries of the Mary River, the Imbil Station; the Gubbi Gubbi were divided into several clans or bora: Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the mass poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have been killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847; as colonial entrepreneurs pushed into their territory to establish pastoral stations, they together with the Butchulla set up a fierce resistance: from 1847 to 1853, 28 squatters and their shepherds were killed. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep. Gregory Blaxland, the 7th son of the eponymous explorer Gregory Blaxland took vengeance, heading a vigilante posse of some 50 squatters and station hands and, at Bingera, ambushed a group of 100 sleeping myalls of the "Gin gin tribe" who are identified now as the Gubbi Gubbi.
They had feasted on stolen sheep. Marksmen picked off many those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River; the slaughter was extensive, the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850, his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis, in addition to dwelling with several other tribes, is said to have lived for a time with the Gubbi Gubbi. John Mathew, a clergyman turned anthropologist spent 5 years with them at Manumbar and mastered their language, he described their society in Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Kabi he grew up with numbered no more than a score by the early 1880s; the Gubbigubbi were one of the two host tribes for the great bunya nut festivals every three years, which attracted many people from distant areas to the area of the Blackall Range. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them, forbidding its consumption.
It was known in their language as "dala". Arthur Beetson, Queensland Rugby League legend and former Australian captain Bianca Beetson, a contemporary artist Naomi Wenitong, a Hip hop performer from the duo Shakaya and associated with The Last Kinection The descendants of the Gubbi Gubbi made a application for native title on 31 May 2013. Kabi Cabbee Karbi Karabi Carbycarbery Kabbi, Carby Gabigabi Dippil Dipple Maiba Dundu:ra Doondoora, Doondooburra. Dowarburra.. Wiyidha/widha widha karum pa'bun a'von mothar/dhi mular http://www.gubbigubbi.com https://web.archive.org/web/20140517232411/http://www.triballink.com.au/index.php/gubbigubbi http://library.sunshinecoast.qld.gov.au/sitePage.cfm?code=maroochy-region Bibliography of Gubbi Gubbi people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Montville is a small town in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, on the Blackall Range in Queensland, around 400 metres above sea level. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 886; the original inhabitants of Montville were the Kabi tribe. The first white settlers arrived in the area in 1887 and the town Razorback, was named at a community meeting where it was voted on; the name was recommended by Henry Smith after a suggestion by his mother, as it reminded her of their early years in Montville, USA. From about 1900 the town became a popular mountain resort. Montville was the setting for Eleanor Dark's 1959 novel Lantana Lane. Montville Post Office opened by February 1910. Montville was predominantly a logging farming community until a tourism boom which commenced during the 1970s, taking advantage of the scenic views of the Sunshine Coast and the nearby rainforest walks. Montville has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Razorback Road and Main Street: Montville Memorial Precinct The town is well served with facilities, including churches, a village green and community hall and a large sportsground featuring a football field, tennis courts and a wood working centre.
The Montville State School, founded in 1896, has grown in recent years and now has around 160 pupils. The Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a mobile library service; the town is now a popular short break tourist destination for the people of Brisbane and is famous for its parks and walks including the Sunshine Coast Hinterland Great Walk. Popular attractions include galleries, wineries, clock shop, cheese factories, craft and clothing shops; the world-renowned Australia Zoo is a 20-minute drive down the range at nearby Beerwah. Montville is becoming a popular location for destination weddings at its many resorts, b&bs, wineries and restaurants; the Baroon Pocket Dam in nearby North Maleny, which provides water for Caloundra and Maroochydore, is a recreational facility, permitting boating and picnicking. There are many places to stay in and around Montville, with accommodation ranging from private cottages to family style units and suites. Media related to Montville, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Montville Montville history Baroon Pocket Dam
The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format, its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory; the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier the Brisbane Courier and since 1933 The Courier-Mail; the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859 daily under the editorship of Theophilus Parsons Pugh from 14 May 1861; the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon, assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon referred to as the "father of the Press" in the colony of Queensland, had served as a writer and journalist in Melbourne, moved on to found and edit journals such as Moreton Bay Free Press, North Australian and Darling Downs Gazette.
Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and arrived in Brisbane from Sydney in early 1846 to establish a newspaper, he persuaded a printer of Lang's Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him. Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, Brisbane, in a garret of a building known as the North Star Hotel; the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of editorial policy, including transportation of convicts and squatting. Lyon took over sole control in late 1847, but had money problems, gave sole control to Swan. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859; the Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier in 1864. In June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to "The Brisbane Newspaper Company".
He was the managing director. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, the Tasmanian-born former public servant Gresley Lukin. Although called'managing editor', actual writing and editing was by William Augustine O'Carroll. Most prominent of the various editors and sub-editors of the Queenslander'literary staff' were William Henry Traill NSW politician and editor of the famed Sydney journal'The Bulletin', Carl Adolph Feilberg, Danish born but from the age of six educated in England and in France. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and the de facto editor of the Queenslander to January 1881, he succeeded William O'Carroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887. Lukin's roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott, former'Postmaster General' in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16 managing director chairman of all the company's publications.
The first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited acquired newspaper control, outstanding shares of Queensland Newspapers Pty Ltd; the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right leaning newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007; the Courier-Mail supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq; the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia. Its average Monday-Friday net paid print sales were 172,801 between January and March 2013, having fallen 8.0 per cent compared to the previous year. Its average Saturday net paid print sales were 228,650 between January and March 2013, down 10.5 per cent compared to the previous year.
The paper's Monday-Friday readership was 488,000 in March 2013, having fallen 11.6 per cent compared to the previous year. Its Saturday readership was 616,000 in March 2013, down 13.8 per cent compared to the previous year. Around three-quarters of the paper's readership is located in the Brisbane metropolitan area. Although claimed to be Brisbane's only daily newspaper since the demise of Queensland Newspapers' own afternoon newspaper The Telegraph in 1988, it arguably has had two competitors since 2007. News Corp itself published mX, a free afternoon newspaper, since 2007, but mX had a low news content, was discontinued in mid 2015. Fairfax Media has published the online Brisbane Times since 2007. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Courier-Mail's website is the 141st and 273rd most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 25th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 2.6 million visitors per month. Prominent journalists and columnists include Mike O'Connor.
Its current Editor is Lachlan Heywood. Its editorial cartoonist is Sean Leahy, its National Political Corresp