Wittmund is a town and capital of the district of Wittmund, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Wittmund is a town of 21,000 inhabitants located in Germany's historic coastal district of East Frisia, between the towns of Aurich and Jever; the town's borough covers an area of 52,000 acres which make it one of the largest boroughs in Lower Saxony. While the town of Wittmund is about 9 miles from the North Sea coast, its borough includes the little port of Harlesiel, the starting point for ferries to the island of Wangerooge. Harlesiel is named after a small river that starts and finishes within Wittmund borough. Villages: - Ardorf - Asel - Blersum - Berdum - Burhafe - Buttforde - Carolinensiel - Eggelingen - Funnix - Hovel - Leerhafe - Uttel - Willen Towns: - Wittmund Since November 1, 2006, Rolf Claußen is the mayor of Wittmund, he was reelected in 2014. The town of Wittmund, on the edge of the geest, its surroundings are an ancient area of settlement, it was linked to inland East Frisia's network of roads early on and commercially oriented to the nearby coast.
Around 1200, Wittmund was the hub of the rural parish of Wangerland and was called Wiedemund or Wiedemundheim at that time. The territorial units of the rural parishes were based on old Frisian districts. Esens was the administrative centre of the Harlingerland; the chieftain family of Kankena lived in a castle in the town in the late 14th century. Around 1400, Hamburg forces occupied the castle grounds as a result of allegations that the Kankenas had supported piracy against the Hanseatic city; the release of the castle into the hands of the ruling chieftain family of tom Brok saw the Kankenas regaining possession of their estate. The subsequent ruler of the Brokmerland, Focko Ukena, cleverly took advantage of the weakness of the Kankenas and enlisted them for military operations in the Battle of the Wild Fields, which he won. In 1454 the castle fell to the ruler of Sibet Attena. In the same year, Sibet Attena united the rulers of Esens and Wittmund in order to ensure the independence of Harlingerland against the East Frisian counts.
Not until 1600 was the Harlingerland, including Wittmund joined to East Frisia through political and family mergers. In 1584, the place is recorded on a card as Witmondt; the town was given a district constitution and made into an Amt as part of the new comital order. In 1730 Witmundt is recorded within the Amt of Witmundt on another map. In 1744, East Frisia was absorbed by Prussia, after a brief period under Dutch/French rule, became part of the Kingdom of Hanover in 1815. Under Hanoverian rule, the Landdrostei emerged, with the Landdrost as the highest state representative in the province. In 1866, East Frisia once again became part of Prussia; the state of Prussia took over the Amt structure with its existing Ämter of Aurich, Emden, Leer, Stickhausen and Wittmund. From 1884 they were transferred into the new district structure. In East Frisia the new districts of Aurich, Leer, Norden and Wittmund were created; the former Hanoverian Landdrostei were transformed into administrative provinces. The district hall was built in Wittmund in 1903.
Wittmund was given town rights as early as 1567 by Agnes, Countess of Rietberg. In the 17th century these rights were rescinded and were not granted again until 1929; the Luftwaffe's 71st Tactical Fighter Squadron is based at Wittmundhafen Air Base. A public event is organized each year by the German Luftwaffe. Wittmund is twinned with: Simsbury, Connecticut Hans-Wilhelm Müller-Wohlfahrt, the well-known sport physician has been a sports physician of the German national football team since 1995 and was a sports physician of FC Bayern München from 1977-2015 Timo Schultz, footballer Christian Alder, footballer Sculpture Garden Funnix Flugzeugforum.de
Esens, Lower Saxony
Esens is a municipality in the district of Wittmund, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated near approx. 14 km northwest of Wittmund, 20 km northeast of Aurich. Esens is the seat of the Samtgemeinde Esens. David Fabricius, major amateur astronomer and cartographer Johann Hülsemann, Lutheran theologian Philipp Heinrich Erlebach, composer Christian Everhard, Prince of East Frisia, Prince of East Friesland from the House of Cirksena Enno Rudolph Brenneysen and chancellor of East Friesland Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller, theologian and professor in Erlangen Theodore Thomas, founder of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra Gerhard Tappen, General of the Artillery Timo Schultz, German footballer Media related to Esens at Wikimedia Commons
Wilhelmshaven is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the western side of a bay of the North Sea. Wilhelmshaven is the centre of the "JadeBay" business region; the adjacent Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park provides the basis for the major tourism industry in the region. The Siebethsburg castle, built before 1383, operated as a pirate stronghold. Four centuries the Kingdom of Prussia planned a fleet and a harbour on the North Sea. In 1853, Prince Adalbert of Prussia, a cousin of the Prussian King Frederick William IV, arranged the Jade Treaty with the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, in which Prussia and the Grand Duchy entered into a contract whereby Oldenburg ceded 3.13 square kilometres of its territory at the Jade Bight to Prussia. In 1869 King William I of Prussia founded the town as an exclave of the Province of Hanover and a naval base for Prussia's developing fleet. All the hinterland of the city remained as part of the Duchy of Oldenburg. A shipbuilding yard developed at the Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven.
On 30 June 1934 the "pocket battleship" Admiral Graf Spee was launched at Wilhelmshaven. In 1937 Wilhelmshaven and Rüstringen merged and the united city, named Wilhelmshaven, became a part of the Free State of Oldenburg. In World War II, Allied bombing destroyed two thirds of the town's buildings while the main target Naval Shipyard Wilhelmshaven remained operational despite serious damage. On 28 April 1945, the Canadian First Army captured Emden and Wilhelmshaven and took the surrender of the entire garrison, including some 200 ships of the Kriegsmarine; the Poles remained as part of the allied occupation forces until 1947. During World War II Alter Banter Weg functioned as a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp. In 1947 the city council decided to seek a new emblem for the city. After the Control Commission for Germany - British Element had rejected several designs, Wilhelmshaven selected the image of a Frisian warrior, designed after a nail man erected in the city during the First World War to collect war donations.
Between 1947 and 1972 Wilhelmshaven was the home of PRINCE RUPERT SCHOOL, a comprehensive boarding school for children of British Army and RAF personnel serving with BAOR. The school relocated to Rinteln in 1972. There is an active association of former Wilhelmshaven pupils called The Wilhelmshaven Association. After World War II the shipyard was disarmed under the British Commander in Chief, of course many military buildings were damaged or vacant. While it was prohibited to develop any kind of military linked business Wilhelmshaven took the chance to establish a convenient location for the Olympia Werke which become one of the most popular and quality typewriter factories in the world. In 1953 7000 worker were employed. Largest groups of foreign residents Wilhelmshaven is Germany's only deep-water port, its largest naval base. Concerning the new plans for the Bundeswehr which took shape in 2011 it has become the largest military base in Germany as well; the benefits of the deep shipping channel were recognised at the end of the 1950s with the construction of the first oil tanker jetty.
Wilhelmshaven has been the most important German import terminal for crude oil since. Pipelines from here supply refineries in Hamburg. Other major business operations followed, constructed jetties for crude oil and oil products and chemical products. One of the main industrial sectors in Wilhelmshaven is the port industry with its wharves, sea port service companies, service providers and repair businesses and handling businesses, agencies, etc; the "JadeWeserPort" – Container Terminal Wilhelmshaven, operational since 2012 and the development of the neighbouring Freight Village provide prospects for employment in areas such as logistics and distribution. In 2016 Eurogate increased transhipment volume up to 480.000 Container. And since Volkswagen is interested in using the deep-water facilities the number of employed workers is assumed to rise from 400 to 600. Another element of the "Wilhelmshaven energy hub" programme is the chemical industry, as well as power generation; the German defence forces together with the public sector, are the main pillars of the local employment market.
The Jadestadion, the stadium of Regionalliga Nord club SV Wilhelmshaven Aquarium Wilhelmshaven, located on the Helgolandkai – a view of the oceans and underwater habitats around the world. The Botanischer Garten der Stadt Wilhelmshaven, a municipal botanical garden; the Deutsches Marinemuseum, whose main exhibits are the former German Navy destroyer Mölders, a submarine, some smaller warships as well as an exhibition of German naval history from the 19th century onwards. UNESCO World Heritage Site Wadden Sea Visitor center; the large permanent interactive exhibition provides insight into the wadden sea environment. One of the special displays is the 14-metre-long skeleton of a sperm whale which beached on the island of Baltrum in 1994 and weighed 39 tonnes when alive; the whale's organs were plastinized by Gunther von Hagens. The Küstenmuseum; the exhibition displays a broad spectrum of the past and future of the coast. The Bontekai, city harbor jetty, featuring the former light v
Aurich is a town in the East Frisian region of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Aurich and is the second largest City in East Frisia, both in population, after Emden, in area, after Wittmund; the history of Aurich dates back to the 13th century, when the settlement of Aurechove was mentioned in a Frisian document called the Brokmerbrief in 1276. In 1517, Count Edzard from the House of Cirksena began rebuilding the town after an attack, he established the town centre, still in place today. In 1539, the land authorities were brought together in Aurich, making it the county capital and East Frisia, remaining the seat of the land authorities when East Frisia was inherited by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1744. After the Prussian Army was defeated in the Battle of Jena in 1807, Aurich became part of the Kingdom of Holland in 1808. In 1810, the Kingdom of Holland was annexed by France and Aurich was made the capital of the department Ems-Oriental of the First French Empire. After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, it passed to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1815, was annexed by Prussia in 1866 and made part of the Province of Hanover.
From October 21, 1944, until December 23, 1944, a Nazi concentration camp was established in Aurich. The camp was a subcamp to the Neuengamme concentration camp. After World War II, Aurich became part of the new state of Lower Saxony; the local council has 40 members The elections in September 2016 showed the following results SPD: 13 seats CDU: 11 seats AWG 4 seats Gemeinsam für Aurich, 4 seats Alliance 90/The Greens 3 seats The Left 2 seats Grün-Alternative Politik 2 seats FDP, 1 seat Aurich's coat of arms is drawn by the blazon: "Arms: Landscape with chief two-thirds sky and base third earth, a shield Gules emblazoned with letter'A' Or, an open-topped crown Or above, two growing trees Vert at sides. Crown: A battlement Gules with three merlons and two embrasures. Supporters: Two branches of mistletoe with leaves and berries Or.". Note that the coat of arms of the eponymous district differs. Liefmann Calmer, important personage in French Jewry of the eighteenth century Rudolf von Jhering, jurist Karl Deichgräber, classical philologist Rudolf Eucken, German philosopher, winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, writer Friedrich August Peter von Colomb, Prussian general Yitzhak Raveh, Israeli judge Aloys Wobben, German engineer List of subcamps of Neuengamme Official German list of concentration camps Record of the concentration camp and its sub-camps Official website
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
A levee, dyke, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is earthen and parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines. Speakers of American English, use the word levee, from the French word levée, it originated in New Orleans a few years after the city's founding in 1718 and was adopted by English speakers. The name derives from the trait of the levee's ridges being raised higher than both the channel and the surrounding floodplains; the modern word dike or dyke most derives from the Dutch word dijk, with the construction of dikes in Frisia well attested as early as the 11th century. The 126 kilometres long Westfriese Omringdijk, completed by 1250, formed by connecting existing older dikes; the Roman chronicler Tacitus mentions that the rebellious Batavi pierced dikes to flood their land and to protect their retreat. The word dijk indicated both the trench and the bank, it parallels the English verb to dig.
In Anglo-Saxon, the word dic existed and was pronounced as dick in northern England and as ditch in the south. Similar to Dutch, the English origins of the word lie in digging a trench and forming the upcast soil into a bank alongside it; this practice has meant that the name may be given to the bank. Thus Offa's Dyke is a combined structure and Car Dyke is a trench - though it once had raised banks as well. In the midlands and north of England, in the United States, a dike is what a ditch is in the south, a property-boundary marker or small drainage-channel. Where it carries a stream, it may be called a running dike as in Rippingale Running Dike, which leads water from the catchwater drain, Car Dyke, to the South Forty Foot Drain in Lincolnshire; the Weir Dike is a soak dike in Bourne North Fen, near Twenty and alongside the River Glen, Lincolnshire. In the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads, a dyke may be a drainage ditch or a narrow artificial channel off a river or broad for access or mooring, some longer dykes being named, e.g. Candle Dyke.
In parts of Britain Scotland, a dyke may be a field wall made with dry stone. The main purpose of artificial levees is to prevent flooding of the adjoining countryside and to slow natural course changes in a waterway to provide reliable shipping lanes for maritime commerce over time. Levees can be found along the sea, where dunes are not strong enough, along rivers for protection against high-floods, along lakes or along polders. Furthermore, levees have been built for the purpose of empoldering, or as a boundary for an inundation area; the latter can be a controlled inundation by the military or a measure to prevent inundation of a larger area surrounded by levees. Levees have been built as field boundaries and as military defences. More on this type of levee can be found in the article on dry-stone walls. Levees can be permanent earthworks or emergency constructions built hastily in a flood emergency; when such an emergency bank is added on top of an existing levee it is known as a cradge. Some of the earliest levees were constructed by the Indus Valley Civilization on which the agrarian life of the Harappan peoples depended.
Levees were constructed over 3,000 years ago in ancient Egypt, where a system of levees was built along the left bank of the River Nile for more than 600 miles, stretching from modern Aswan to the Nile Delta on the shores of the Mediterranean. The Mesopotamian civilizations and ancient China built large levee systems; because a levee is only as strong as its weakest point, the height and standards of construction have to be consistent along its length. Some authorities have argued that this requires a strong governing authority to guide the work, may have been a catalyst for the development of systems of governance in early civilizations. However, others point to evidence of large scale water-control earthen works such as canals and/or levees dating from before King Scorpion in Predynastic Egypt, during which governance was far less centralized. Another example of a historical levee that protected the growing city-state of Mēxihco-Tenōchtitlan and the neighbouring city of Tlatelōlco, was constructed during the early 1400s, under the supervision of the tlahtoani of the altepetl Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl.
Its function was to separate the brackish waters of Lake Texcoco from the fresh potable water supplied to the settlements. However, after the Europeans destroyed Tenochtitlan, the levee was destroyed and flooding became a major problem, which resulted in the majority of The Lake to be drained in the 17th Century. Levees are built by piling earth on a cleared, level surface. Broad at the base, they taper to a level top, where temporary sandbags can be placed; because flood discharge intensity increases in levees on both river banks, because silt deposits raise the level of riverbeds and auxiliary measures are vital. Sections are set back from the river to form a wider channel, flood valley basins are divided by multiple levees to prevent a single breach from flooding a large area. A levee made from stones laid in horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them is known as a spetchel. Artificial levees require substantial engineering, their surface must be protected from erosion, so they are planted
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.