Manila is a census-designated place located adjacent to Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, California. It is located 3.25 miles north at an elevation of 13 feet. The ZIP Code is 95521; the population was 784 at the 2010 census. The town was founded at the end of World War II, named after Manila in the Philippines. Humboldt Coastal Nature Center of Friends of the Dunes on Stamps Lane includes the Stamps Dune House and surrounding dune landscape; the house was built in 1985 as a retirement home of a couple whose heirs sold a large part of their property and the house to Manila-based Friends of the Dunes to use as a nature center on the dunes in 2007. The 2010 United States Census reported that Manila had a population of 784; the population density was 1,113.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Manila was 686 White, 14 African American, 25 Native American, 5 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 12 from other races, 42 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 30 persons; the Census reported that 777 people lived in households, 7 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 368 households, out of which 86 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 94 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 40 had a female householder with no husband present, 25 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 34 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 4 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 150 households were made up of individuals and 28 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11. There were 159 families; the population was spread out with 152 people under the age of 18, 47 people aged 18 to 24, 259 people aged 25 to 44, 259 people aged 45 to 64, 67 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.5 males. There were 411 housing units at an average density of 583.9 per square mile, of which 368 were occupied, of which 160 were owner-occupied, 208 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.2%.
335 people lived in 442 people lived in rental housing units. In the state legislature, Manila is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, it is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. California portal
Trinidad Yurok: Chuerey is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is one of California's smallest incorporated cities by population. Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to both local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay; the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy, their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9, 1775.
On 11 June, Trinity Sunday, a formal act of possession was conducted. At the place where a wooden cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain. The area was named "la Santisima Trinidad". Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, renamed Warnersville in honor of R. V. Warner, one of the settlers; the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the original county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851, of Klamath County, one of California's original counties, from 1851 to 1854. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, with its county seat in Eureka. Klamath County was dissolved in 1874. During the American Civil War, from July to October 1863, California volunteers fighting the local Indians in the Bald Hills War were stationed in the town, in Trinidad Camp, to protect it and the coast road from Indian raids, until they were moved four miles north to Camp Gilmore.
Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a first sergeant with the 5th Marines in World War II. Part of the auto wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has an oceanic climate and is temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from 40 °F to 60 °F. Winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime. Spring and fall cold fronts form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast. In summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood. Protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinidad had a population of 367. The population density was 547.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Trinidad was 331 White, 2 African American, 15 Native American, 2 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 15 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11 persons; the Census reported that 366 people lived in households, 1 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 187 households, out of which 35 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 64 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 21 had a female householder with no husband present, 3 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 20 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 73 households were made up of individuals and 28 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96. There were 88 families; the population dispersal was 60 people under the age of 18, 25 people aged 18 to 24, 91 people aged 25 to 44, 120 people aged 45 to 64, 71 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. There were 252 housing units at an average density of 375.7 per square mile, of which 187 were occupied, of which 113 were owner-occupied, 74 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 212 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 154 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 311 people, 168 households, 73 families residing in the city; the population density was 643.0 people per square mile. There were 228 housing units at an average density of 471.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.86% White, 1.61% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There wer
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California; the news of gold brought 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, the sudden population increase allowed California to go to statehood, in the Compromise of 1850; the Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U. S. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856; the effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. Whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners". Outside of California, the first to arrive were from Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, Latin America in late 1848.
Of the 300,000 people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe and China. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written; the new constitution was adopted by referendum vote, the future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen. In September 1850, California became a state. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. Although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world.
New methods of transportation developed. By 1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than they had started with; the Mexican–American War ended on February 3, 1848, although California was a de facto American possession before that. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States; the California Gold Rush began near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, the two tested the metal.
After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if there were a mass search for gold. Rumors of the discovery of gold were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. Brannan hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies, walked through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!"On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, US President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress; as a result, individuals seeking to benefit from the gold rush--later called the "forty-niners"--began moving to the Gold Country of California or "Mother Lode" from other countries and from other parts of the United States. As Sutter had feared, his business plans were ruined after his workers left in search of gold, squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.
San Francisco had been a tiny settlement. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses, but boomed as merchants and new people arrived; the population of San Francisco increased from about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 full-time residents by 1850. Miners lived in wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships. In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy way to get to California. At first, most Argonauts, as they were known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take four to five months, cover 18,000 nautical miles. An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. There was a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz; the companies providing such transportation created vast wealth among their owners and included the U.
S. Mail Steamship Company, the federally subsidized Pacific Mail Steamship Company, the Accessory Tra
Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 132,646; the county seat is Eureka. Humboldt County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located on the far North Coast, about 270 miles north of San Francisco. Its primary population centers of Eureka, the site of College of the Redwoods main campus, the smaller college town of Arcata, site of Humboldt State University, are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay, California's second largest natural bay. Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture. Humboldt County is a densely forested mountainous and rural county with about 110 miles of coastline, situated along the Pacific coast in Northern California's rugged Coast Ranges. With nearly 1,500,000 acres of combined public and private forest in production, Humboldt County alone produces twenty percent of total volume and thirty percent of the total value of all forest products produced in California.
The county contains over forty percent of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests, the vast majority of, protected or conserved within dozens of national and local forests and parks, totaling 680,000 acres. The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Hupa, Chilula and the Eel River Athapaskan peoples, including the Wailaki and Nongatl. Andrés de Urdaneta found the coast near Cape Mendocino followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565. Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County; the first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775 in Trinidad. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company; the hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, some Aleut hunters.
The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg's party visited. In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Alexander von Humboldt, the name was applied to the county as a whole; the area around Humboldt Bay was once inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, was located on Indian Island in Humboldt Bay. Founded around 900 BC, it contains a shell midden 6 acres in size and 14 feet deep, it was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people, recorded by Bret Harte living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men and children were murdered that night. Tolowot is now a National Historic Landmark. State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Arcata and Mad River Railroad, California's First Drilled Oil Wells in Petrolia, Camp Curtis, Centerville Beach Cross, the City of Eureka, the town of Ferndale, Fort Humboldt, Humboldt Harbor Historical District, the Jacoby Building, The Old Arrow Tree, Old Indian Village of Tsurai, the Town of Trinidad, Trinidad Head.
On February 5 and 6, 1885, Eureka's entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs resulted in the wounding of a 12-year-old boy and the death of 56-year-old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eureka residents met and informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were shipped to San Francisco. No one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after objections to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s; the coastal zone of the county experiences wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers.
In the winter, temperatures range from highs of 40–59 °F to lows of 32–49 °F. Coastal summers are cool to mild, with average highs of 60 -- frequent fogs. Coastal summer temperatures range from highs of 64–70 °F to lows of 46–55 °F. In the populated areas and cities near the coast, the highest temperatures tend to occur at locations just a few miles inland from Eureka and Arcata, in towns like Fortuna, Rio Dell, smaller unincorporated communities located somewhat further away from Humboldt Bay. In these locations summer highs are 70–75 °F; the coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Coastal winters are wet. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with averages from 30 inches to 100 inches a year varying with elevation. Inland areas of the county experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft throughout the winter months, is deep enough at higher elevations to have inspired the opening of a small ski lift operation on Horse Mountain, near Willow Creek, for several decades in the late 1900s.
Summer displays the sharpest difference between the inland climates. Inland regions of Humboldt County experience highs of 80–99 °F depending on
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Loleta is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California which derives its name from lalōekā, the Wiyot name for the trail on the top of Table Bluff. Loleta is located 5.5 miles south of Fields Landing, 15 miles south of Eureka at an elevation of 46 feet. The population was 783 at the 2010 census. Residents live in rural outskirts. There are two separate Native American reservations on the rural outskirts of Table Bluff, California; the ZIP Code is 95551, the community is inside area code 707. European settlement began in the early 1850s although Wiyot people had inhabited the area for generations. Potato farming was the biggest agricultural use of land until the 1870s, when depleted soil and declining prices caused a turn to dairying; the town was known as Swauger or Swauger's Station, for local landowner Samuel A. Swauger; the town was renamed Loleta in 1897. The name was reported to mean "pleasant place at the end of the tide water" in the language of the original Wiyot native inhabitants, although this is contradicted linguistically as well as by a hearsay account from the 1950s, made notorious by a National Geographic blog post.
However, a 1918 list of place names collected by Kroeber and Waterman two years after Kroeber's 1916 publication shows that the trail from Table Bluff along the peak of that feature was named "lalōekā". The Eel River and Eureka Railroad reached Swauger's Station from Humboldt Bay in 1883; the Swauger post office opened in 1888, changed its name to Loleta in 1898. The Humboldt Creamery plant opened in the town proper in 1893, dairying continues to be a major economic influence; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reorganized Loleta's railroad as the San Francisco and Northwestern Railway in 1903 and completed the Northwestern Pacific Railroad to San Francisco in 1914. Located 1 mile from the Eel River, which drains 10 percent of the total California watershed, four miles from the Pacific Ocean and Humboldt Bay, fishing has been a significant economic factor in the local economy. In the early years of the 20th century, fish buyers from San Francisco congregated in Loleta every fall to bid on the salmon catch, which averaged $50,000.
There are two Humboldt County parks located near Loleta to the west toward the Pacific Ocean: Crab County Park and Table Bluff County Park as well as several beach and wetlands Public Land Areas. The Aleutian Cackling Goose has in recent years extended its spring staging area to Loleta. Flocks of over 400 individual birds may be seen in March; the 2010 United States Census reported that Loleta had a population of 783. The population density was 368.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Loleta was 643 White, 12 African American, 16 Native American, 5 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 65 from other races, 42 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 114 persons; the Census reported that 783 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 314 households, out of which 96 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 135 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 34 had a female householder with no husband present, 12 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 40 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 4 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 97 households were made up of individuals and 21 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 181 families; the population was spread out with 186 people under the age of 18, 81 people aged 18 to 24, 207 people aged 25 to 44, 241 people aged 45 to 64, 68 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 160.5 per square mile, of which 314 were occupied, of which 178 were owner-occupied, 136 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.7%. 460 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 323 people lived in rental housing units. Native Americans represent about 2% of Loleta's population, according to the 2010 US census. Whites make up 82.1 percent of the population of 783.
Loleta is the seat of the Loleta Union School District, home of the Loleta Elementary School, a public K-8 school. Although agriculture and dairy have been salient factors in Loleta's economy, most residents work outside the community in neighboring cities. Downtown Loleta has a cheese factory and store, a grocery store, a meat market, a bakery, a realty office, a post office; the Loleta Elementary school, two churches and the firefighter's pavilion, managed by local volunteer firefighters are closer to U. S. 101. The Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria is headquartered in Loleta, where they operate the Bear River Casino. Loleta and Eureka were locations for filming the 1982 horror movie, Halloween III: Season of the Witch.
Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria
The Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria is a federally recognized tribe of Mattole, Bear River and Wiyot people in Humboldt County, California. The Bear River Band is headquartered in Loleta, California.. Tribal enrollment is based on residency on the Rohnerville Rancheria from 1910 to 1960 or being a lineal descent of those residents; the Rohnerville Rancheria is a federally recognized ranchería located in two separate parts. One is at the eastern edge of Fortuna, the other to the southeast of Loleta, both in Humboldt County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 38. The tribe's traditional territory was along the Bear Rivers near Cape Mendocino. Wiyot people lived along the Little River down to the Bear River and 25 miles eastward; the Mattole villages of Tcalko', Selsche'ech, Tlanko and Sehtla were located along Bear River. The Bear River Band owns and operates several entities including Bear River Casino Resort, River's Edge Restaurant, the Thirsty Bear Lounge, Bear River Recreation Center, Bear River Tobacco Traders all located in Loleta, California.
Coming soon in 2019, construction will be completed on the new Bear River Family Entertainment Center that will include a 10 lane bowling alley and laser tag that will be open to the public and located next to the Bear River Recreation Center. Mattole people differ from neighboring tribes because men traditionally tattooed their faces, instead of just women. Mattole spoke the Mattole language, an Athapaskan language, while Wiyots spoke the Wiyot language, an Algonquian language. Subsistence practices that continue today for ceremonial purposes include salmon fishing and gathering salt and shells by hand. Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, official website Wiyot Tribe Mattole, Four Directions Institute Wiyot, Four Directions Institute