Softalk was an American magazine of the early 1980s that focused on the Apple II computer. Published from September 1980 through August 1984, it featured articles about hardware and software associated with the Apple II platform and the people and companies who made them; the name was used on a newsletter of Apple Software pioneer company, who in 1980 changed its name to Artsci Inc. The startup capital for Softalk came from Margot Comstock, who had won on the television game show Password, along with a generous contribution after a few months from John Haller and from Comstock and Al Tommervik's second mortgage on their house. Partners William V R Smith III, William Depew contributed early office space in their Softape storeroom and arrived unexpectedly with office desks when Softalk moved into its own location. Unlike other computer magazines that focused on a specific, narrow subject matter or market segment, Softalk gave broad coverage to all parts of the Apple world of the time, from programming tips to game playing, from business to home use, including computing as an industry, a hobby, a tool, a toy, a culture.
On occasion it ran fiction. Another characteristic of the magazine was a insider-like voice; the experts in those early days chatted in their own relaxed language about the techniques and elements of their world. Bert Kersey, Beagle Bros, was one columnist. A regular feature was a monthly chart of the most popular software in various categories, the Apple community's equivalent of the Billboard charts for pop music. Unlike most such bestseller lists, which report shipment from warehouses, not sales, Softalk's bestseller numbers were drawn from polling retail sales in computer stores throughout the world. There were contests encouraging the participation of readers. Softalk was sent free to all registered Apple owners, but it required paid subscription after one free year. Softalk underwent rapid expansion in its early history, with issues getting thick, but an industry slump in 1984 caught Softalk with too much unrealized revenues against heavy printing costs, which overtaxed its undercapitalized status.
Rather than take the desperate path of erratic publication, the Softalk board chose to cease publication. In its 48 influential months, the original Softalk readership grew from 30,000 names loaned by Apple Computer Inc. to 250,000 readers. In its third and fourth years, Softalk achieved a place on the Folio 400 list of the nation's largest magazines; when the IBM PC came on the market, Softalk Publishing started "'Softalk for the IBM PC."' And with the advent of the Macintosh, Softalk Publishing launched Softalk Mac, written as ST. Mac. For a few years Softalk Publishing published a magazine begun by On-Line Systems: Softline, renamed to ST. Game for its final issue; the disk magazine Softdisk was partly owned by Softalk, survived on its own. Softalk at the Internet Archive
Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds
Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds is the second game in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was published in 1982 by Sir-Tech; the game begins with the city of Llylgamyn under siege. Llylgamyn's rulers have been killed, the city's only hope is for the recovery of the staff of Gnilda, only obtainable from trading the mystic "Knight of Diamonds" armor from the legendary Knight of Diamonds to fend off the invaders; the game functions identically to the first scenario, Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord, with the player guiding a party of up to six adventurers into a 6 level dungeon. The original version required players to import characters from the first game, whilst versions include a pregenerated party and the ability to create new characters; as the game is intended to be played by those who have completed the first game, the difficulty level is intended for characters of at least level 13, no training area means that lower level characters will go through a "baptism by fire".
Mechanical differences include the ability to save the game in the dungeon rather than forcing the characters to exit the dungeon and return to the training grounds, some of the spells increasing in power. Unlike the first scenario, where half of the levels had no purpose plot-wise and could be skipped if the player wished, exploration all of the levels in Knight of Diamonds is necessary to complete the game; each of the six levels has a piece of the Knight's armor somewhere in the level, all of the pieces must be collected in order to finish the game. Furthermore, unlike in the first scenario, there are no elevators that can be used to skip levels, teleportation spells will fail if the party attempts to use them to teleport to a level that has not yet been reached via stairs. Softline in 1982 praised Knight of Diamonds' variety of monsters and liked that each level of the dungeon had quests; the magazine concluded, "One can only wonder what this amazing duo of Greenberg and Woodhead will do for the next scenario".
Computer Gaming World in 1991 and 1993 called Wizardry II a "disappointingly weak follow-up", criticizing its small size and noting that the first game was necessary to play. The magazine concluded that it was "best for the hard-core fan only". Knight of Diamonds was named "Best Adventure Game for Home Computer" at the 1983 Origins Game Fair, defeating Ultima II among other nominees, it received a Certificate of Merit in the category of "1984 Best Computer Adventure" at the 5th annual Arkie Awards. Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds at MobyGames Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds can be played for free in the browser at the Internet Archive
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord is the first game in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was developed by Robert Woodhead. In 1980, Norman Sirotek formed Sir-Tech Software, Inc. and launched a Beta version of the product at the 1980 Boston Computer Convention. The final version of the game was released in 1981; the game was one of the first Dungeons & Dragons-style role-playing games to be written for computer play, the first such game to offer color graphics. It was the first true party-based role-playing video game; the game ended up as the first of a trilogy that included Wizardry II: The Knight of Diamonds and Wizardry III: Legacy of Llylgamyn. Proving Grounds needs to be completed in order to create a party that could play in the remainder of the trilogy. Starting in the town, represented only as a text-based menu, the player creates a party of up to six characters from an assortment of five possible races, three alignments, four basic classes, with four elite classes unlocked once the characters have progressed sufficiently.
Good and evil characters cannot be assigned to the same party. After characters are equipped with basic armor and weaponry, the party descends into the dungeon below Trebor's castle; this consists of a maze of ten levels. Classes have multiple spells, each with seven levels; the style of play employed in this game has come to be termed a dungeon crawl. The goal, as in most subsequent role-playing video games, is to find treasure including more potent items, gain levels of experience by killing monsters face the evil arch-wizard Werdna on the bottom level and retrieve a powerful amulet; the goal of most levels is to find the elevator or stairs going down to the next level without being killed in the process. The graphics of the original game are simple by today's standards. By the standards of the day, the graphics improved on the text-only games, far more common; when monsters are encountered, the dungeon maze disappears, replaced by a picture of one of the monsters. Combat is against from 1 to 4 groups of monsters.
The game's lack of an automap feature, which had not been invented at the time of its release forces the player to draw the map for each level on graph paper as they walk through the 20x20 dungeon maze, step by step – failing to do this results in becoming permanently lost, as there are many locations in the maze that have a permanent "Darkness" spell upon the square or a "Teleport" spell sending the player to a new location. A magic spell can be used to determine the current location of the party, at higher levels there is a teleport spell that can be used to transition between the maze levels. Care is necessary when teleporting as the player must enter both the level and coordinates to teleport to and it is possible to land in a trap or solid stone, ending the game; the original releases of Wizardry do not announce that the player has teleported and play resumes as if one step forward was taken. The game has unforgiving difficulty. In the event of a total party kill, play cannot be resumed.
Wizardry games made it easier by restarting at the point in the dungeon where the characters died. It can take hundreds of hours to finish the game. Wizardry saves the player's game progress onto a scenario disk. After booting, a new one may be created with an existing one used. Completion of Proving Ground of the Mad Overlord is necessary to play the sequels Wizardry II and III since they require the characters from the first game to be imported from a scenario disk. A series of exploits that involves the identification ability of Bishops allows characters to gain massive experience points and gold. According to co-author Robert Woodhead, these cheats were a bug caused by the game's lack of bounds-checking, disabled to fit within 48K of RAM; when the IBM PC version of the game was released, the bug was declared to be a feature and deliberately included. Andrew Greenberg a Cornell University student, began the project's development in 1978, the game was in an early playable state by fall 1979, when it became popular among fellow students.
Wizardry drew influences from earlier games from the PLATO system, most notably the 1977 role-playing game Oubliette. It was coded in Applesoft BASIC, but Greenberg and Woodhead rewrote it in UCSD Pascal after BASIC proved too slow to be playable, they had to not available until early 1981, before publishing it. The game took two and a half man-years to complete, but the delay benefited Wizardry by permitting one year of playtesting and game balancing before release, distinguishing it from others such as Ultima I. Frederick Sirotek, Norman's businessman father and the company's financier, insisted that the packaging and documentation be professional distinguishing the game from others sold in Ziploc bags; the Commodore 64/128 versions of Wizardry 1-3 share a common code base wi
Apple II series
The Apple II series is a family of home computers, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer, launched in 1977 with the original Apple II. In terms of ease of use and expandability, the Apple II was a major advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited-production bare circuit board computer for electronics hobbyists. Through 1988, a number of models were introduced, with the most popular, the Apple IIe, remaining changed little into the 1990s. A 16-bit model with much more advanced graphics and sound, the Apple IIGS, was added in 1986. While compatible with earlier Apple II systems, the IIGS was in closer competition with the Atari ST and Amiga; the Apple II was first sold on June 10, 1977. By the end of production in 1993, somewhere between five and six million Apple II series computers had been produced; the Apple II was one of the longest running mass-produced home computer series, with models in production for just under 17 years.
The Apple II became one of several recognizable and successful computers during the 1980s and early 1990s, although this was limited to the USA. It was aggressively marketed through volume discounts and manufacturing arrangements to educational institutions, which made it the first computer in widespread use in American secondary schools, displacing the early leader Commodore PET; the effort to develop educational and business software for the Apple II, including the 1979 release of the popular VisiCalc spreadsheet, made the computer popular with business users and families. The original Apple II operating system was in ROM along with Integer BASIC. Programs were entered saved and loaded on cassette tape; when the Disk II was implemented in 1978 by Steve Wozniak, a Disk Operating System or DOS was commissioned from the company Shepardson Microsystems where its development was done by Paul Laughton. The final and most popular version of this software was Apple DOS 3.3. Some commercial Apple II software did not use standard DOS formats.
This discouraged the modifying of the software on the disks and improved loading speed. Apple DOS was superseded by ProDOS, which supported a hierarchical filesystem and larger storage devices. With an optional third-party Z80-based expansion card, the Apple II could boot into the CP/M operating system and run WordStar, dBase II, other CP/M software. With the release of MousePaint in 1984 and the Apple IIGS in 1986, the platform took on the look of the Macintosh user interface, including a mouse. Despite the introduction of the Motorola 68000-based Macintosh in 1984, the Apple II series still accounted for 85% of the company's hardware sales in the first quarter of fiscal 1985. Apple continued to sell Apple II systems alongside the Macintosh until terminating the IIGS in December 1992 and the IIe in November 1993; the last II-series Apple in production, the IIe card for Macintoshes, was discontinued on October 15, 1993. The total Apple II sales of all of its models during its 16-year production run were about 6 million units, with the peak occurring in 1983 when 1 million were sold.
The Apple II was designed to look more like a home appliance than a piece of electronic equipment. The lid popped off the beige plastic case without the use of tools, allowing access to the computer's internals, including the motherboard with eight expansion slots, an array of random access memory sockets that could hold up to 48 kilobytes worth of memory chips; the Apple II had color and high-resolution graphics modes, sound capabilities and one of two built-in BASIC programming languages. The Apple II was targeted for the masses rather than just engineers. Unlike preceding home microcomputers, it was sold as a finished consumer appliance rather than as a kit. VanLOVEs Apple Handbook and The Apple Educators Guide by Gerald VanDiver and Rolland Love reviewed more than 1,500 software programs that the Apple II series could use; the Apple dealer network used this book to emphasize the growing software developer base in education and personal use. The Apple II series had a keyboard built into the motherboard shell, with the exception of the Apple IIGS which featured an external keyboard.
The Apple II case was durable enough, according to a 1981 Apple ad, to protect an Apple II from a fire started when a cat belonging to one early user knocked over a lamp. Early II-series models were designated "Apple ]["; the first Apple II computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displayed 40 columns by 24 lines of monochrome, upper-case-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was US$1298 and US$2638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing was represented using rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998; the earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas.
The PC-9800 series shortened to PC-98 or 98, is a lineup of Japanese 16-bit and 32-bit personal computers manufactured by NEC from 1982 through 2000. The platform established NEC's dominance in the Japanese personal computer market, by 1999, more than 18 million PC-98 units had been sold. NEC's Electronic Device Sales division launched the PC-8001 in 1979, it dominated 40% of the Japanese personal computer market in 1981; the vice president of NEC, Atsuyoshi Ōuchi thought "It is sure that we cannot deny contributions of Electronic Devices group as a parent of the personal computer. However, if personal computers are considered computers, Information Processing group should handle them in NEC. If personal computers are considered home electronics, we cannot deny a proposal from New Nippon Electric.". In April 1981, NEC decided to expand personal computer lines into three groups, New Nippon Electric did 8-bit home computers, Information Processing group did 16-bit business personal computers, Electronic Devices group did other personal computers.
In the Information Processing Small Systems division, Shunzō Hamada directed the project, Noboru Ozawa did the product planning. The development team planned the new personal computer as a small version of the business computer line which originated from the NEAC System 100 of 1973. Kazuya Watanabe, who directed the development of PC-8001, criticized that the personal computer must have Microsoft BASIC, provided peripheral devices compatible with previous NEC PCs, disclosed specifications of its expansion slot. In September 1981, Hamada requested Ascii's Kazuhiko Nishi to rewrite the N88-BASIC for the Intel 8086 processor. Nishi responded. Three months Nishi rejected his request because Microsoft was busy for developing GW-BASIC. Hamada wavered between two choices. While they were visiting software companies to collect and research applications for PC-8001 and PC-8801, they discovered that the consumer market wanted a 16-bit machine compatible with both PCs. Hamada decided to adopt two plans for different markets.
In April 1982, the small business personal computer became the NEC System 20 model 15 which used a proprietary 16-bit microprocessor. The machine was introduced as a new model of traditional business computers, so it wasn't notable. In February 1982, the software development team started the reverse engineering of N88-BASIC and the design of N88-BASIC. After the schedule estimation finished in the end of March 1982, the development of PC-9801, named N-10 Project, had started; the prototype of PC-9801 was completed in the end of July 1982. The code of N88-BASIC was written from scratch, but Nishi pointed the bytecode matched Microsoft's, it was unclear. Nishi proposed to Hamada that NEC must have purchased the same amount of Microsoft's product corresponded to the license fee, N88-BASIC must show copyright notification of both Microsoft and NEC. Hamada approved it; the team considered third-part developers were important for spreading the market. They provided technical information for independent companies without a fee.
In the Information Processing group, the Terminal Units division launched a personal computer series N5200 in 1981, branded as the personal terminal. It used a µPD7220 display controller, its architecture was similar to PC-98, but it ran a proprietary operating system named PTOS. The series was considered as an intelligent terminal or a workstation, it was distinguished with personal computer lines. For this market, Fujitsu released the FACOM 9450 in 1981, IBM Japan released the Multistation 5550 in 1983; the first model, the PC-9801, was launched in October 1982, employed an 8086 CPU. It ran at a clock speed of 5 MHz, with two µPD7220 display controllers, shipped with 128 KB of RAM, expandable to 640 KB, its 8-color display had a maximum resolution of 640×400 pixels. When the PC-9801 was launched in 1982, it was priced at 298,000 yen; this model required an expensive 8-inch floppy disk drive or smaller capacity of 320 KB 5¼-inch floppy drive. The basic system only had the ability to display JIS X 0201 characters including numbers, English alphabets, half-width kana, so most users added an optional Kanji ROM board for using Japanese word processor.
Its successor, the PC-9801F employed an 8086-2 CPU, which could selectively run at a speed of either 5 or 8 MHz. The F2 model contained two 640 KB 5¼-inch 2DD floppy drives, JIS level 1 kanji font ROM, was priced at 398,000 yen, it received a positive reception from businesses. Fujitsu released the FM-16β in December 1984, it had an a 1.2 MB 5 1/4 - inch 2HD floppy drive. The FM-16β failed because it bundled the CP/M-86, not MS-DOS, was marketed by Fujitsu's Electronic Devices department instead of the Computers department, they modified their policies in mid-1985. In another opinion, Fujitsu bundled a business software package with the FM-11, it discouraged users from purchasing third-part softwares, forced a specific purpose of use; as a result, Fujitsu failed to expand their platform. Against the release of FM-16β, NEC introduced the PC-9801M2; this model couldn't read a 2DD floppy disk
The Commodore 64 known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. With support for multicolor sprites and a custom chip for waveform generation, the C64 could create superior visuals and audio compared to systems without such custom hardware; the C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. For a substantial period, the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling IBM PC compatibles, Apple computers, the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Sam Tramiel, a Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview, "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a month for a couple of years."
In the UK market, the C64 faced competition from the BBC Micro and the ZX Spectrum, but the C64 was still one of the two most popular computers in the UK. Part of the Commodore 64's success was its sale in regular retail stores instead of only electronics or computer hobbyist specialty stores. Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control costs, including custom integrated circuit chips from MOS Technology, it has been compared to the Ford Model T automobile for its role in bringing a new technology to middle-class households via creative and affordable mass-production. 10,000 commercial software titles have been made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office productivity applications, video games. C64 emulators allow anyone with a modern computer, or a compatible video game console, to run these programs today; the C64 is credited with popularizing the computer demoscene and is still used today by some computer hobbyists. In 2011, 17 years after it was taken off the market, research showed that brand recognition for the model was still at 87%.
In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc. Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console. Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II and MOS Technology SID, was completed in November 1981. Commodore began a game console project that would use the new chips—called the Ultimax or the Commodore MAX Machine, engineered by Yash Terakura from Commodore Japan; this project was cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market. At the same time, Robert "Bob" Russell and Robert "Bob" Yannes were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, a continuation of the Commodore PET line aimed at business users. With the support of Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble, they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated. Although 64-Kbit dynamic random-access memory chips cost over US$100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, would drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached.
The team was able to design the computer because, unlike most other home-computer companies, Commodore had its own semiconductor fab to produce test chips. The chips were complete by November, by which time Charpentier and Tramiel had decided to proceed with the new computer; the product was code named the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Yash Terakura, Shiraz Shivji, Bob Russell, Bob Yannes and David A. Ziembicki; the design and some sample software were finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends. The machine used the same case, same-sized motherboard, same Commodore BASIC 2.0 in ROM as the VIC-20. BASIC served as the user interface shell and was available on startup at the READY prompt; when the product was to be presented, the VIC-40 product was renamed C64. The C64 made an impressive debut at the January 1982 Consumer Electronics Show, as recalled by Production Engineer David A. Ziembicki: "All we saw at our booth were Atari people with their mouths dropping open, saying,'How can you do that for $595?'"
The answer was vertical integration. Commodore had a reputation for announcing products that never appeared, so sought to ship the C64. Production began in spring 1982 and volume shipments began in August; the C64 faced a wide range of competing home computers, but with a lower price and more flexible hardware, it outsold many of its competitors. In the United States the greatest competitors were the Atari 8-bit 400, the Atari 800, the Apple II; the Atari 400 and 800 had been designed to accommodate stringent FCC emissions requirements and so were expensive to
Nintendo Entertainment System
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer platform in Japan known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983; the NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix, known as Hyundai Electronics; the best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the North American video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.
It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he believed that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools; because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
The code name for the project was "GameCom", but Masayuki Uemura's wife proposed the name "Famicom", arguing that "In Japan,'pasokon' is used to mean a personal computer, but it is neither a home or personal computer. We could say it is a family computer." Meanwhile, Hiroshi Yamauchi decided that the console should use a red and white theme after seeing a billboard for DX Antenna which used those colors. During the creation of the Famicom, the ColecoVision, a video game console made by Coleco to compete against Atari's Atari 2600 Game system in The United States, was a huge influence. Takao Sawano, chief manager of the project, brought a ColecoVision home to his family, who were impressed by the system's capability to produce smooth graphics at the time, which contrasted with the flickering and slowdown seen on Atari 2600 games. Uemura, head of Famicom development, stated that the ColecoVision set the bar that influenced how he would approach the creation of the Famicom. Original plans called for the Famicom's cartridges to be the size of a cassette tape, but they ended up being twice as big.
Careful design attention was paid to the cartridge connectors since loose and faulty connections plagued arcade machines. As it necessitated taking 60 connection lines for the memory and expansion, Nintendo decided to produce their own connectors in-house rather than use ones from an outside supplier; the controllers were hard-wired to the console with no connectors for cost reasons. The game pad controllers were more-or-less copied directly from the Game & Watch machines, although the Famicom design team wanted to use arcade-style joysticks taking apart ones from American game consoles to see how they worked. There were concerns regarding the durability of the joystick design and that children might step on joysticks left on the floor. Katsuyah Nakawaka attached a Game & Watch D-pad to the Famicom prototype and found that it was easy to use and caused no discomfort. Though, they installed a 15-pin expansion port on the front of the console so that an optional arcade-style joystick could be used.
Uemura added an eject lever to the cartridge slot, not necessary, but he believed that children could be entertained by pressing it. He added a microphone to the second controller with the idea that it could be used to make players' voices sound through the TV speaker; the console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom's popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari's name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System; the deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game.
This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, Nintendo decided to market its sys