Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
The Intel Play product line and jointly marketed by Intel and Mattel, was a product line of consumer "toy" electronic devices. The other toys were the Digital Movie Creator, the Computer Sound Morpher, the Me2Cam; the Intel Play product line was discontinued on March 29, 2002 when it was purchased by Tim Hall's holding company Prime Entertainment. Hall founded Digital Blue; the "Play" logo of Intel Play became a staple of 2K Play in 2007. The QX3 Computer Microscope was a product in the Intel Play product line and was continued in the Digital Blue product line; the upgraded QX5 model is available. The QX3 is a small electronic microscope, it has magnification levels of 10x, 60x, 200x. The microscope comes with software which allows a computer to access the microscope and use it to either take pictures or record movie; the specimen can be lit either from above by one of two incandescent bulbs. The specimen platform is adjustable to focus the image; the Vision CPiA is interfaced to a CIF CCD sensor, sampled at a resolution of 320x240 pixels.
The QX5 Computer Microscope is a Digital Blue product and upgraded the QX3 with multiple improvements, including a 640x480 image capture device and brighter light source. QX3 Support Page QX3 Download Finder: Drivers and Software Page QX3 Manual by Brian Ford QX3 Tutorials at Marly Cain's Amazing Micronautic Adventures QX3 Microscope Tutorials at Molecular Expressions QX3 Review by Microscopy UK DigiBlue Downloads Page Linux drivers and technical information
Slime was a toy product manufactured by Mattel, sold in a plastic trash can and introduced in February 1976. It consisted of a non-toxic viscous and oozy green or other color material made from guar gum. Different variations of Slime were released over the years, including Slime containing rubber insects and worms and Masters of the Universe Slime for Hordak's Slime Pit playset in the 1980s; the late 1970s introduced a Slime Monster board game. Other toy companies have produced their own slime such as the Ecto-Plazm play gel sold with selected figures in Kenner's Real Ghostbusters toyline. Playmates Toys' Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles figure line had Retro-Mutagen slime sold in containers and included with playsets. While the substance was harmless, a drawback was that it was difficult to remove from carpets; the main components are the polysaccharide guar sodium tetraborate. As an alternative to the polysaccharide, other alcohol-group containing polymers may be used to a similar result; these non-polysaccharide polymer products are more referred to as flubber.
Flubber, rubbery polymer called slime Gunge Nickelodeon compounds, various substances marketed to children as toys, some of which were similar to Slime Silly Putty, another jelly substance obtained from cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol chains with borate anions How to make rainbow slime
Spiegel is an American direct marketing and catalog company. It was founded in 1865 by Joseph Spiegel. Spiegel's main product is its namesake, the Spiegel catalog, which advertises various brands of apparel and footwear; the company distributes brands under the names of Newport News and Shape FX. Spiegel delivered its first mail order catalog to women across America in 1905. By 1925, the fashion and furniture retailer had 10 million customers. Spiegel sent buyers to Paris fashion shows; as of 2015, Spiegel sells women's style and fashion products, is owned by Lynn Tilton, through her company Patriarch Partners. For the first 100 years of its history, Spiegel was a family business; the company was founded in 1865 by Joseph Spiegel, the son of a German rabbi and younger brother of Union Army Colonel Marcus M. Spiegel. After spending the final few months of the Civil War in a Confederate prison camp, Joseph Spiegel settled in Chicago, where his brother-in-law, Henry Liebenstein, ran a furniture business.
With Liebenstein's assistance, Joseph Spiegel opened J. Spiegel and Company, a small home furnishings retail operation located on Wabash Avenue in Chicago's loop. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed most of the area's business district, including the Spiegel store. After the fire, Joseph Spiegel and a partner named Jacob Cahn rebuilt the business, by 1874 the company was prospering again under the leadership of the two men. Cahn retired from the business in 1879. In 1885 Spiegel began running regular advertisements in several Chicago newspapers, the following year the company moved to a larger building on State Street. Joseph Spiegel's two oldest sons, Modie Spiegel and Sidney Spiegel, were brought into the business during this time. Spiegel issued its first catalogs in 1888; the catalogs were made available to potential customers. Because a mail order system did not yet exist, the catalogs served instead to lure people into the downtown store. By 1892, the business had taken a turn for the worse, as many customers were slow to pay for their purchases.
With debts mounting, the company went bankrupt. At Modie Spiegel's urging, the company reinvented itself as Spiegel House Furnishings Company of Chicago in 1893; the principal difference was that the new company, like many others in the furniture business, sold on credit. The decision to offer installment plans, the timing of the decision, made possible Spiegel's expansion over the next several decades; the new Spiegel was more successful, in 1898 a branch store was opened on Chicago's South Side. Another South Side branch went into operation three years later; the company's slogan – "We Trust the People!" — reflected its emphasis on credit merchandising. In 1903 Joseph Spiegel's third son, entered the business with a plan to develop mail order operations for Spiegel. After a couple years of lobbying, Arthur convinced the company hierarchy to open a mail order department, in 1905 Spiegel became the first company to offer credit through the mail; the new service was reflected by the addition of a word to the company motto, which began to read: "We Trust the People--Everywhere!"
The response was phenomenal, soon a huge untapped base of customers was ordering from Spiegel's mail order catalog. Spiegel was the only company at that time, they continued this "no charge for credit" policy for another 50 years. In 1906 Spiegel's mail order sales were near $1 million. To handle the overwhelming success of the mail order operation, a new company — Spiegel, May and Company — was formed, allowing the Spiegel House Furnishings Company to devote its limited resources to conventional retailing, rather than assume the debts associated with building up the mail order segment. Arthur was named President of the new company. In 1909 Spiegel introduced the teddy bear to the American consumer, for the first time nationwide, by offering it in its mail order catalog; the Ideal Toy Company partnered with Spiegel to launch this successful toy venture, Spiegel continues to give its staff teddy bears to mark the company anniversary every year. Spiegel boldly began to diversify its line of products after 1910, offering apparel for the first time in 1912.
After a couple of unsuccessful partnerships with independent clothing manufacturers, May and Company began offering its own line of women's apparel. The "Martha Lane Adams" line—named after its fictional designer—was so successful that it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Spiegel, May and Company and earned its own catalog. Martha Lane Adams' sales grew to nearly $2 million by 1916; that same year, Arthur Spiegel died of pneumonia at the young age of 32. Spiegel's next marketing breakthrough came in 1926, when company executive Ed Swikard introduced a promotional idea involving Congoleum floor covering. Swikard engineered a mailing to more than nine million residences, offering a pre-cut Congoleum package at a low cost; the response was again overwhelming, company sales reached a record $16 million for the year, with a net profit of $4 million. In 1928 Spiegel, May and Company went public, although the Spiegel family retained a controlling interest, Spiegel stock prices hit $118 per share in 1928.
The Great Depression had a negative impact on Spiegel's business. In 1930, Spiegel's stock dropped to its lowest price of 7 cents; the following year, the Spiegels began liquidating their retail furniture business. By 1932 the last Spiegel furniture store in Chicago closed its doors. After experiencing considerable economic losses in the early years of the Depression, Spiegel entered a period of growth and profits beginning in 1933. During this time
Pixel Chix are interactive electronic games based on teenage girls, an associated franchise. They are similar to Tamagotchi in that they have an LCD screen and controlling buttons, although they are larger, they were first released in 2005 by Mattel. Based in a miniature house, in the house, there is a lounge and dining area, with steps leading upstairs. There are three different types of houses. There are three different pixel girls in each house. In the game, two or more houses can be connected; these characters can be controlled in ways similar to other hand-held games, such as Tamagotchi. They can be told to go for a walk, watch television, eat a variety of foods, such as popcorn and hamburgers, go to sleep; the more they are played with, the more options appear to the player. However. If ignored for too long, the game will "end" since the characters "leave". Although, they can come back by resetting the game using a mini screwdriver into a reset hole. In the two-story house, no matter how long they are neglected, they still remain happy in your house with your level skills kept the same.
The story is based and shown on the Internet of women living in an all-female college and fashionable poses, beginning with a house mate's connection and following with cars and babysitting. In 2009, Mattel discontinued the brand; the Pixel Chix are all voiced by Tara Strong, except "Miss Sporty", voiced by Katherine Von Till. A number of Pixel Chix accessories have been created including the "Road Trippin' Cars" where one can go to the mall, go to the beach, or do many other things; the cars come in multiple colors. Available is the Pixel Chix Love 2 Shop mall, where the Pixel Chix can work, play games, take breaks. There are two different malls, a boutique/food court, a pet shop/salon; each mall has an LCD flip screen, allowing the Pixel Chix girl to change stores. They are able to connect to the houses, the cars, other malls. Another available accessory is the Pixel Chix two-story house, it is the exact replica of the original Pixel Chix except that it has an upstairs bedroom. There, the Pixel Chix can put on makeup at the vanity, go to the bathroom, much more.
They come in dark and light pink and are connectable to the cars, the malls, other houses. In these houses, the Pixel Chix never leaves no matter. There is Pixel Pets where you can start becoming disco stars, the animal equivalent of Pixel Chix. Dogs and hamsters are available. Available is a babysitter house where the Pixel Chix looks after a baby girl; the red light flashes if something needs attention. There is the "Roomies" House with three floors with five different roommates - Diva Queen, DJ Hip Hop, Punk Rocker, Super Smarty and Miss Sporty - who are all sold separately, except for Miss Sporty, who comes with the Roomies house. There is a Pixel Chix TV, which comes with a remote control to switch channels and unlock channels; the last Pixel Chix product to be released was the "Fab Life City" where the Pixel Chix girl can go to the bank and the amusement park. There is a piggy bank which can hold coins. There are metallic Road Trippin' Cars and a glitter house that were only released in Europe.
McDonald's Happy Meal toys based on the line were released in 2008 in several countries like Portugal, France and New Zealand. The toys have an LCD screen display of various sizes, are powered by four AAA alkaline batteries, while the cars use only 3 AAA batteries. Since they were distributed in several countries, the voices of the characters were translated depending on where they were sold, being printed on the motherboard what language is programmed onto the ROM of the machine. There was an official website of Pixel Chix on Everythinggirl.com. There were games, such as "Monster Baby" and four mini games which could be unlocked, videos of TV commercials, T-shirt graphics, more. Secret codes and a movie maker like Zimmer Twins; the website closed in 2014 along with the My Scene website. "Review at PC world"
Matchbox is a popular toy brand, introduced by Lesney Products in 1953, is now owned by Mattel, Inc. The brand was given its name because the original die-cast Matchbox toys were sold in boxes similar in to those in which matches were sold; the brand grew to encompass a broad range of toys, including larger scale die-cast models, plastic model kits, action figures. During the 1980s, Matchbox began to switch to the more conventional plastic and cardboard "blister packs" that were used by other die-cast toy brands such as Hot Wheels; the box style packaging was re-introduced for the collectors' market in recent years with the release of the "35th Anniversary of Superfast" series in 2004. The Matchbox name originated in 1953 as a brand name of the British die-casting company Lesney Products, whose reputation was moulded by John W. "Jack" Odell, Leslie Charles Smith, Rodney Smith. The name Lesney was a portmanteau of Rodney Smith's first names, their first major sales success was the popular model of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation coach, which sold more than a million models.
Lesney co-owner Jack Odell created a toy that paved the way for the company's future success, designed for his daughter. Her school only allowed children to bring toys that could fit inside a matchbox, so Odell crafted a scaled-down version of the Lesney green and red road roller; this toy became the first of the 1-75 miniature range. A dump truck and a cement mixer completed the original three-model release that marked the starting point for the mass-market success of the Matchbox series; the company decided thus yielding the name of the series. Additional models continued to be added to the line throughout the decade, including cars such as an MG Midget TD, a Vauxhall Cresta, a Ford Zodiac, many others; as the collection grew, it gradually became more international, including models of Volkswagens, a Citroën, American makes. To make such miniatures, the designers took detailed photographs of the real models obtaining some original blueprints; this enabled them to make models with high levels of detail, despite the small scale.
The size of the models allowed Matchbox to occupy a market niche touched by the competition. In the earliest years of the regular, or 1-75 series — well before the series numbered 75 models — Lesney was marketed/distributed by Moko. Boxes in that era mentioned this, with the text "A Moko Lesney" appearing on each. Lesney gained its independence from Moko in the'50s by buying the company, leading to a period of growth, both in sales and in size. Early models did not feature windows or interiors, were made of metal, were about 2" in length. By 1968, Matchbox was the biggest-selling brand of small die-cast model cars worldwide. By this time, the average model in their collection featured plastic windows, interiors and occasional accessories; some featured steering, including the pressure-based AutoSteer system debuting in 1969. The line was diverse, including lorries, tractors and trailers as well as standard passenger cars; the three dominant brands in the world at the time, all British-made -, were successful.
Each had its own market niche and its own strong reputation, while innovations and advances by one were adopted by the others within a matter of a few years. Each expanded to some extent into the others' territory, though this never seemed to affect the sales of any brand's core series; as part of Lesney's expansion activities, four further die-cast model ranges were introduced during the 1950s and 60s. The Models of Yesteryear, introduced in 1956, were renditions of classic vehicles from the steam and early automotive eras; these were about 3½-4" in length. Accessories Packs were introduced in 1956 and included petrol pumps and the like. Major Packs, which were larger-scale models of construction vehicles, were added in 1957; the King Size series of larger-scale trucks and tractors was added in 1960 and was diversified from 1967 onwards to include passenger car models in a scale similar to that used by Corgi and Dinky. Major Packs had been absorbed into the King Size range by 1968. However, the main focus at Matchbox continued to be their smaller cars.
Other brands, including Husky/Corgi Junior and Cigar Box, attempted to compete with Matchbox, but none were successful until American toy giant Mattel introduced the revolutionary low-friction "racing" wheels on its Hot Wheels line of cars. These models, although less true to scale and featuring fantasy vehicles, were attractive, painted in bright metallic colours and fitted with racing-style "mag" wheels and slick tires, were marketed aggressively and with numerous accessory products, such as race track sets and the like; the Hot Wheels line featured models that were decidedly American. In 1969, a second competitor based in the US, Johnny Lightning, entered the market, the bottom fell out of Lesney's US sales. At the same time, the other major market was under attack by competitors. Lesney's response to this was quick — but not quick enough to avoid major financial worries — by creating the "Superfast" line; this was a transformation of the 1969 line to include low-friction wheels (at first narrow, since the company needed time to r
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration. Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle. Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company's largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined since 2014; the doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise. She had a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.
Starting in 1987, Barbie has expanded into a media franchise, including animated films, television specials, video games, music. Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, noticed that she enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most children's toy dolls were representations of infants. Realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company, he was unenthusiastic about the idea, as were Mattel's directors. During a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli; the adult-figured doll was what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them. She gave one to her daughter and took the others back to Mattel; the Lilli doll was based on a popular character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Bild. Lilli was a blonde bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it.
The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, although it was sold to adults, it became popular with children who enjoyed dressing her up in outfits that were available separately. Upon her return to the United States, Handler redesigned the doll and the doll was given a new name, after Handler's daughter Barbara; the doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959. This date is used as Barbie's official birthday; the first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, was available as either a blonde or brunette. The doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson; the first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production. Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March 1961. After licensing Lilli, they claimed that Mattel had “infringed on Greiner & Hausser's patent for Bild-Lilli’s hip joint, claimed that Barbie was "a direct take-off and copy" of Bild-Lilli.
The company additionally claimed that Mattel "falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design". Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in 1963. In 1964, Mattel bought Greiner & Hausser's copyright and patent rights for the Bild-Lilli doll for $21,600. Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts. Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in 1971 when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model. Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, copied by other toys, it is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over 150 countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second. The standard range of Barbie dolls and related accessories are manufactured to 1/6 scale, known as playscale.
The standard dolls are 11½ inches tall. Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel and video games. Barbie has had a media franchise starting in 1987, when she began appearing in a series of animated films. Barbie's direct-to-DVD animated films have sold over 110 million units worldwide, as of 2013. In addition, the brand has had two television specials and the Rockers: Out of This World and Barbie and the Sensations: Rockin' Back to Earth, as well as a hit song, "Barbie Girl" by Aqua, she is a supporting character in the Pixar films Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3. Barbie has become a cultural icon and has been given honors that are rare in the toy world. In 1974, a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris at the Louvre held a Barbie exhibit in 2016. The exhibit featured 700 Barbie dolls over two floors as well as works by contemporary artists and documents that contextualize Barbie.
In 1986, the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie. The painting sold at auction at Christie's, London for $1.1 million. In 2015, The Andy Warhol Foundation teamed up with Mattel to create an Andy Warhol Barbie. Outsider artist Al Carbee took