Soyuz Molodyozhi was an artistic group and an art magazine of Russian avant-garde organized in 1910. There were more than 30 members of the group and most of other Russian avant-garde participated in their exhibitions; the Chairman of the society was a patron of the arts Levky Zheverzheyev. The Manifesto of the group was written by Olga Rozanova. Among notable members of the society were: Varvara Bubnova, Mikhail Matyushin, David Burliuk, Wladimir Burliuk, Yuri Annenkov, Kazimir Malevich, Pavel Filonov, Vladimir Tatlin, Ivan Kliun, Ivan Puni, Nadezhda Lermontova, Aleksandra Ekster, Valentin Bystrenin, Marc Chagall, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Svyatoslav Voinov, Pyotr Miturich, Nikolay Tyrsa, Alexey Grischenko, Lev Bruni, Nathan Altman. In 1913 the group Soyuz Molodyozhi merged with group Giley that included Vladimir Mayakovsky, Velimir Khlebnikov and Elena Guro. Besides organizing artistic exhibition, the group organized theatrical performances; the most famous of, the Victory over the Sun. The classical period of the group was 1910–1914 years ended with the World War I.
In 1917 the group resumed its work organizing the great First Free Exhibit of Artists of All Trends at the Hermitage. In 1921 the group became. Howard, Jeremy; the Union of Youth: an artists' society of the Russian avant-garde. Manchester University Press ND, 1992. ISBN 071903731X
Nathan Isaevich Altman was a Russian and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator. He was born in Vinnytsia, in the Podolia Governorate of the Russian Empire to a family of Jewish merchants. From 1902 to 1907, he studied sculpture at the Art College in Odessa. In 1906, he had his first exhibition in Odessa. In 1910, he went to Paris, he studied at the Free Russian Academy in Paris, working in the studio of Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, had contact with Marc Chagall, Alexander Archipenko, David Shterenberg. In 1910, he became a member of the group Soyuz Molodyozhi. In 1912, Altman moved to Saint Petersburg, his famous Portrait of Anna Akhmatova, conceived in Cubist style, was painted in 1914. From 1915 to 1917, Nathan Altman was the teacher at Mikhail Bernstein's private art school. After 1916 he started to work as a stage designer. In 1918, he was the member of the Board for Artistic Matters within the Department of Fine Arts of the People's Commissariat of Enlightenment together with Malevich, Baranoff-Rossine and Shevchenko.
In the same year he had an exhibition with the group Jewish Society for the Furthering of the Arts in Moscow, together with Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, El Lissitzky and the others. In this same year, he installed a temporary work of architectural sculpture in Palace Square to commemorate the 1st anniversary of the October Revolution; the canvas was subsequently used for soldiers' foot bindings. In 1920, he became a member of the Institute for Artistic Culture, together with Kasimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin and the others. In the same year, he participated in the exhibition From Impressionism to Cubism in the Museum of Painterly Culture in Petrograd.. In 1921, he moved to Moscow. From 1921 to 1922 he was director of the Museum of Painterly Culture in Petrograd. From 1920 to 1928, he worked on stage designs for the Habimah Theatre and the Jewish State Theatre in Moscow. In 1923 a volume of his Jewish graphic art, Evrejskaja grafika Natana Al'tmana: Tekst Maksa Osborna, was published in Berlin. In 1925, he participated in Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris together with Aleksandra Ekster, Vadim Meller, Rudolf Frentz, Sonia Delaunay-Terk and David Shterenberg.
His first solo exhibition in Leningrad was in 1926. Altman moved to Paris in 1928. In 1936, he returned to Leningrad, he worked for the theatre, as a book illustrator and an author of essays about art. Nathan Altman died in Leningrad aged 81. Lady with a Dog. Portrait of Esther Schwartzmann. 1911. Oil on canvas mounted on cardboard. 67.5 x 47.5 cm. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Jug and Tomatoes. 1912. Oil on canvas. 69.5 x 49.5 cm. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Portrait of Anna Akhmatova. 1914. Oil on canvas. 123.5 x 103.2 cm. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia Portrait of a Young Jew. 1916. Plaster of Paris, wood; the Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Still Life. Colored Planes. 1918. Oil and plaster on canvas. 59.5 x 43.5 cm. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Material Painting. Still Life with a White Jug. 1919. Oil and enamel on canvas. 84.5 x 62 cm. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Composition with Material Objects. 1920. Oil, glue and sawdust on canvas. 83 x 65.5.
The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Self-Portrait. 1926. Lead pencil on paper. 44.6 x 35.9 cm. The Tretyakov Gallery, Russia. Square in a Provincial Town. 1926. Italian and lead pencil on paper. 51.2 x 36.6 cm. The Tretyakov Gallery, Russia. Still Life. Mixed technique on paper. 62.5 x 47 cm. The Museum of Russian Art. Erevan, Armenia. Fine Art of Leningrad Nathan Altman at the Museum of Modern Art Example of Nathan Altman's work Ivanov, Sergei; the Leningrad School of painting. Historical outline Biography Works
Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov was an avant-garde Russian painter. Larionov was the lifelong partner of fellow Russian avant-garde artist Natalia Goncharova, he was a founding member of the Jack of Diamonds, Moscow's first radical independent exhibiting group, the more radical Donkey's Tail, with Goncharova he invented Rayonism. He was a member of the German-based art movement known as Der Blaue Reiter. Born in Russia, he and Goncharova lived there until his death. Larionov was born in the Kherson Governorate of the Russian Empire. In 1898 he entered the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture under Isaac Levitan and Valentin Serov, he was suspended three times for his radical outlook. In 1900 he met fellow avant-garde artist Natalia Goncharova and formed a lifelong relationship with her. From 1902 his style was Impressionism. After a visit to Paris in 1906 he moved into Post-Impressionism and a Neo-primitive style which derived from Russian sign painting. In 1908 he staged the Golden Fleece exhibition in Moscow, which included paintings by international avant-garde artists such as Matisse, Braque and Van Gogh.
Other group shows promoted by him included Tatlin and Malevich. Larionov was a founding member of two important Russian artistic groups Jack of Diamonds and the more radical Donkey's Tail, he gave names to both groups. His first solo show was for one day in Moscow in 1911. Larionov was influenced by the Georgian artist Niko Pirosmani. In 1913, with Natalia Goncharova, he invented Rayonism, the first creation of near-abstract art in Russia, he had a one-man show at the Omega Workshops. In 1915 he left Russia and worked with the ballet owner Sergei Diaghilev in Paris on the productions of the Ballets Russes, he obtained French citizenship. He died, aged 82, in the Paris suburb of Fontenay-aux-Roses. In 2001, the Central Bank of Transnistria minted a silver coin honoring this native of today's Transnistria, as part of a series of memorable coins called The Outstanding People of Pridnestrovie; the highest price paid for a Larionov painting at auction is 2,200,000 British pounds. He is in the highest category "1A – a world famous artist" in "United Artists Rating".
List of Russian artists Works by or about Mikhail Larionov at Internet Archive Online gallery of Larionov paintings Marevna, "Smokers" showing Ballet owner Serge de Diaghilev with Jean Cocteau, Natalya Goncharova and her husband Mikhail Larionov. Mikhail Larionov at the McNay Art Museum Yevgenia Ilyukhina. "Living in the territory of art”. NEW PERSPECTIVES ON MIKHAIL LARIONOV; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #4 2018 Andrei Sarabyanov. Larionov’s Swiss Impressions; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #4 2018
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
M.T. Abraham Foundation
The M. T. Abraham Foundation is a non-profit art institution, its headquarters are in Paris and its collections are stored in Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded by the descendants of Mansur Tamir Abraham after his death in 1999, its stated intent is promoting public appreciation for Russian and European Modernism and Modern Art by collecting pieces that can be loaned "for the sole purpose of display and study by public institutions."The core of the collection focusing on European and Russian Modernism of the late 19th and 20th centuries. Among the artists are Avigdor Arikha, Salvador Dalí, Menashe Kadishman, Mikhail Larionov, Henri Rousseau, David Shterenberg, Vladimir Tatlin, Roberto Matta, Alexander Bogomazov, Maria Gaken and El Lissitzky; the Foundation owns a complete collection of sculptures by Edgar Degas, which it has loaned to institutions such as the National Art Gallery in Sofia, Bulgaria the Tel Aviv Art Museum, the Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno, In early 2012 the Degas collection was exhibited at the Klovićevi dvori museum in Zagreb, at the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg for a posthumous bronze exhibition linked with an international colloquium "Posthumous Bronze in Law and Art History".
Through MTA Publishing, the foundation promotes and facilitates investigation related to its permanent collection. It supports debates on the "artistic phenomena" that shape the plastic arts from the 19th to the 21st centuries by publishing different editorial possibilities. In 2013 MTA Publishing released Selling Russia’s Treasures, a publication detailing of the sale of Russian art confiscated from the Tsarist royal family, the church, private individuals and museums in the Soviet Union. In 2013, the Foundation published the book White City - Bauhaus Architecture in Tel Aviv, which presents Tel Aviv's Bauhaus architectural heritage at the State Hermitage Museum; the publication Lissitzky - Kabakov and Reality at the Hermitage Museum followed. In 2013, as part of a cultural event led by the Israeli General Consulate in St. Petersburg and the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the foundation helped organize the exhibition "White City - Bauhaus Architecture in Tel Aviv," which portrays the city's urban and architectural heritage at the State Hermitage Museum.
In December 2013, the State Hermitage Museum presented an exhibition “Edgar Degas - Figures in Motion”, to highlight the importance of the bronze sculptures of Edgar Degas and place them in the proper historical context of modern masterpieces. The entire collection of 74 bronze sculptures are on loan to the museum for two years, courtesy of the M. T. Abraham Foundation; the organization was first founded in 2004 by the family of Mansur Tamir Abraham. M. T. Abraham was a native of Yemen when it was occupied by the British, he became a legal authority on Asian rule of law. Abraham was a meticulous and avid art collector, focusing on Russian and Western European works of art. Many of the pieces he collected were at the time considered unimportant. Abraham died on January 9, 1999 at the age of 86. In 2004 his children and grandchildren formed his collections into the M. T. Abraham Foundation, a non-profit organization; the current president is Amir Gross Kabiri. It is based in Geneva, with head offices in Paris, France.
The foundation's stated mission is promoting public appreciation for Russian and European Modernism and Modern Art by collecting pieces "for the sole purpose of display and study by public institutions." It has a loan program through which it makes works available for public exhibition at accredited institutions, including museums that ordinarily wouldn't have the means to organize such exhibits. Its educational mission is fostering "exhibitions that will encourage an appreciation and understanding of art, its history and meaning." Exhibitions sponsored by the center are accompanied by educational programs for children and young adults, which are held by artists and other art professionals. The foundation provides support for young artists and students in Judaic studies; the foundation supports promising young artists and students in all fields of art history and Judaic studies. Through MTA Publishing, the foundation invests maximum efforts to promote and facilitate investigation related to its permanent collection.
It supports debates on the artistic phenomena that shape the plastic arts from the 19th to the 21st centuries by publishing different editorial possibilities. In 2013 the foundation’s publishing department published “selling Russia’s treasures”, the story of the sale of Russian national art treasures confiscated from the tsarist royal family, the church, private individuals and museums in the Soviet Union. In 2013, the Foundation published the book White City - Bauhaus Architecture in Tel Aviv, which presents Tel Aviv's Bauhaus architectural heritage at the State Hermitage Museum. At the same year the Foundation published the book Lissitzky - Kabakov and Reality at the Hermitage Museum. In 2013, as part of "Tel Aviv days in St. Petersburg", a cultural event lead by the Israeli General Consulate in St. Petersburg and the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the foundation supported the events and helped organize an international exhibition titled "White City - Bauhaus Architecture in Tel Aviv," which portrays the city's urban and architectural heritage at the State Hermitage Museum.
In early 2013, Prof. Mikhail B. Piotrovsky, Director of the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, agreed to Kabiri heading the Hermitage Museum Foundation Israel, whose main objective is supporting The State Hermitage Museum in its artistic, scientific and educational act
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It