Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Vatican City Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty, it is distinct from yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares, a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population; the Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the pope who is, religiously speaking, the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Since the return of the popes from Avignon in 1377, they have resided at the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere; the Holy See dates back to early Christianity, is the primate episcopal see of the Catholic Church, with 1.3 billion Catholics around the world distributed in the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches.
The independent Vatican City-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 11 February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States, which had encompassed much of central Italy. Within the Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums, they feature some of sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and souvenirs, fees for admission to museums, sales of publications; the name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state. The name is taken from the geographic location of the state. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory". The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, meaning "Vatican City State".
Although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ; the name "Vatican" was in use in the time of the Roman Republic for a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD 40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers, completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis called the Circus of Nero. Before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this uninhabited part of Rome had long been considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby; the low quality of Vatican water after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial.
Tacitus wrote, that in AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Vitellius to power arrived in Rome, "a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery. The Vatican Obelisk was taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant; this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds. Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941.
The Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery. From on, the area became more populated in connection with activity at the basilica. A palace was constructed nearby as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus. Popes came to have a secular role as governors of regions near Rome, they ruled the Papal States, which covered a large portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when all the territory belonging to the papacy was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time the popes did not live at the Vatican; the Lateran Palace, on the opposite side
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum
The Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum or Collegium Germanicum is a German-speaking seminary for Roman Catholic priests in Rome, founded in 1552. Since 1580 its full name has been Pontificium Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum de Urbe; the Collegium Germanicum was established on 31 August 1552 by Pope Julius III with the bull Dum sollicita. Cardinal Giovanni Morone and Saint Ignatius Loyola were instrumental in its establishment, Saint Ignatius formally opened it on 28 October; the direction of the college was given to the Jesuits. After the Almo Collegio Capranica, this is the oldest college in Rome; the initiative towards its foundation was taken by Cardinal Giovanni Ignatius Loyola. Pope Julius III approved of the idea and promised his aid, but for a long time the college had to struggle against financial difficulties; the first students were received in November 1552. The administration was confided to a committee of six Cardinal Protectors, who decided that the collegians should wear a red cassock, in consequence of which they have since been popularly known as the gamberi cotti.
During the first year the higher courses were given in the college itself. He drew up the first rules for the college, which served as models for similar institutions. During the pontificate of Pope Paul IV the financial conditions became such that the students had to be distributed among the various colleges of the Society in Italy. To place the institution on a firmer basis it was decided to admit paying boarders regardless their nationality, without the obligation of embracing the ecclesiastical state. In a short time 200 boarding students, all belonging to the flower of European nobility, were received; this state of affairs lasted till 1573. Under Pope Pius V, who had placed 20 of his nephews in the college, there was some idea of suppressing the camerata of the poveri tedeschi. Pope Gregory XIII, may be considered the real founder of the college, he transferred the secular department to the Seminario Romano, endowed the college with the Abbey of S. Saba all' Aventino and all its possessions, both on the Via Portuense and on Lake Bracciano.
The new rector P. Lauretano, drew up another set of regulations; the college had changed its location five times. In 1574 Pope Gregory XIII assigned it the Palazzi di S. Apollinare, in 1575 gave it charge of the services in the adjoining church; the splendour and majesty of the functions as well as the music executed by the students under the Spaniard Tomás Luis de Victoria, his successor Annibale Stabile and other celebrated masters drew large crowds to the church. Too much attention indeed was given to music under P. Lauretano, so that regulations had to be made at various times to prevent the academic work of the students from suffering; the courses were still given in the Collegio Roman. As a special mark of his favour, Gregory XIII ordered that each year on the Feast of All Saints a student of the college should deliver a panegyric in presence of the pope. Meanwhile, in 1578 the Collegio Ungherese had been founded through the efforts of another Jesuit, Stephan Szántó, who obtained for it the church and convent of S. Stefano Rotondo on the Caelian Hill, of S. Stefanino behind St. Peter's Basilica, the former belonging to the Hungarian Pauline monks, the latter to the Hungarian pilgrims' hospice.
In 1580 Pope Gregory XIII merged it with the Collegium Hungaricum, founded in 1578, since when it has been called the Pontificium Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum de Urbe, or the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum for short. The students numbered about 100, however, there were but 54, at other times as many as 150. During the seventeenth century several changes occurred, in particular the new form of oath exacted from all the students of foreign colleges. Mention must be made of the work of P. Galeno, the business manager who succeeded in consolidating the finances of the college so as to raise the revenue to 25,000 scudi per annum. A country residence was acquired at Parioli. In the eighteenth century the college became more aristocratic. Pope Benedict XIV performed the ceremony of laying the cornerstone of the new church of S. Apollinare in 1742, on the completion of which a new Palace of S. Apollinare was erected. At the suppression of the Society the direction was entrusted to secular priests.
Discipline and studies declined rapidly. Moreover, Emperor Joseph II sequestrated the property situated in Lombardy and forbade his subjects to attend the college; the buildings, were increased by the addition of the palace opposite to S. Agostino. After Emperor Joseph II in 1781 forbade all students of his realm to study in Rome, the city was shortly afterwards occupied by French troops, the college was obliged to close in 1798, it was reopened under Pope Pius VII in 1818, reorganised by Pope Leo XII, who strengthened its connection to the Jesuits and gave it the form which it still has today. On the proclam
The Quirinal Palace is a historic building in Rome, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosebery in Naples and Tenuta di Castelporziano in Rome. It is located on the Quirinal Hill, the highest of the seven hills of Rome in an area colloquially called Monte Cavallo, it has housed four Kings of Italy and twelve presidents of the Italian Republic. The Quirinal Palace was selected by Napoleon to be his residence par exellence as Emperor; however his permanence never took place because of the French defeat in 1814 and the subsequent European Restoration. The palace extends for an area of 110,500 square metres and is the ninth-largest palace in the world in terms of area; the current site of the palace has been in use since Roman times, as excavations in the gardens testify. On this hill, the Romans built temples to several deities, from Flora to Quirinus, after whom the hill was named. During the reign of Constantine the last complex of Roman baths was built here, as the statues of the twins Castor and Pollux taming the horses decorating the fountain in the square testify.
The Quirinal, being the highest hill in Rome, was sought after and became a popular spot for the Roman patricians, who built their luxurious villas. An example of those are the remains of a villa in the Quirinal gardens, where a mosaic, part of the old floor has been found; the palace, located on the Via del Quirinale and facing onto the Piazza del Quirinale, was built in 1583 by Pope Gregory XIII as a papal summer residence. The pope, who wanted to find a location, far away from the humidity and stench coming from the river Tiber and the unhealthy conditions of the Lateran Palace, chose the Quirinal hill as it was one of the most suitable places in Rome. On the site, there was a small villa owned by the Carafa family and rented to Luigi d'Este; the pope commissioned the architect Ottaviano Mascherino to build a palace with porticoed parallel wings and an internal court. The project was not completed due to the death of the pope in 1585 but it is still recognisable in the north part of the court in the double loggia facade, topped by the panoramic Torre dei venti or Torrino.
To the latter, a bell tower was added according to a project by Carlo Maderno and Francesco Borromini. Pope Paul V commissioned the completion of the work on the main building of the palace; the Palace was used as the location for papal conclaves in 1823, 1829, 1831, 1846. It served as a papal residence and housed the central offices responsible for the civil government of the Papal States until 1870. In September 1870, what was left of the Papal States was overthrown. About five months in 1871, Rome became the capital of the new Kingdom of Italy; the palace became the official royal residence of the Kings of Italy, though some monarchs, notably King Victor Emmanuel III lived in a private residence elsewhere, the Quirinale being used as an office and for state functions. The monarchy was abolished in 1946 and the Palace became the official residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic. Still, some declined the Colle residence and kept their usual Roman residence: for example, Sandro Pertini preferred his old flat near the Trevi Fountain.
The façade was designed by Domenico Fontana. Its Great Chapel was designed by Carlo Maderno, it contains frescos by Guido Reni, but the most famous fresco is the Blessing Christ by Melozzo da Forlì, placed over the stairs. Its grounds include a famous set of gardens laid out in the 17th century; the palace is composed of the main building, built around the majestic courtyard, with the most beautiful halls of the complex environments that serve as representative of the Presidency of the Republic, while the offices and apartments of the head of state are housed in buildings at the bottom of the Manica Lunga, on the long side via del Quirinale, the top of which lie the opulent imperial apartments, which were specially arranged and furnished for two visits of Kaiser Wilhelm II and which now houses the monarchs or foreign heads of state visiting the President of the Republic. The palace, in its totality, has 1,200 rooms; the rooms of the palace housed in the main building are: The Courtyard of Honour The Staircase of Honour The Great Hall of the Cuirassiers The Pauline Chapel The First State Room Room of the Virtues The Room of the Flood The Room of the Loggias The Doorkeepers Room Balcony Room St John Parlour Yellow Hall Augustus Hall Hall of the Ambassadors Hercules Room Hall of the Cabinets The Mascarino Staircase Loggia of Honour Room of the Bees The Hall of the Zodiac The Hall of Paul V's Building Projects The Hall of the Tapestries The Chapel of the Annunciation The Hall of the Mirrors The Grand Ballroom The Quirinal Gardens, famous for their privileged position that makes of them an "island" elevated on Rome, were over the centuries changed depending on the tastes and needs of the papal court.
The current arrangement complements the garden "formal" seventeenth century facing the original core of the building with the garden "romantic" in the second half of the eighteenth century, preserving at that time the elegant Coffee House built by Ferdinando Fuga as reception room of Benedict XIV Lambertini, decorated by beautiful paintings of Girolamo Batoni Pompeo and Giovanni Paolo Pannini. Within the Quirinal's gardens lies the famous water organ built between 1997 and 1999 by Barthélemy Formentelli based on the characteristics of the previous nineteenth century organ; the organ is fed by a waterfall with a jump of 18 meters and has a single keyboard of 41 notes with a first
Sankt Pölten abbreviated to the official name St. Pölten, is the capital and largest city of the State of Lower Austria in northeast Austria, with 52,716 inhabitants as of 1 January 2015. St Pölten is a city with its own statute and therefore it is both a municipality and a district in the Mostviertel; the city lies on the Traisen river and is located north of the Alps and south of the Wachau. It is part of the Mostviertel, the southwest region of Lower Austria; the city's main railway station, St. Pölten Hauptbahnhof, is located directly on the West railway of the ÖBB and is the terminus of the Leobersdorfer Railway, the Mariazellerbahn, the regional railway to Tulln and the regional railway to Krems, it is at the intersection of the Western Motorway A1 and the Kremser Speedway S33, is traversed by the Vienna Road B1. St Pölten is a junction of the Wieselbus bus lines, which provides radial connections between the capital and the different regions of Lower Austria. Between 1911 and 1976, a tramline operated in St Pölten.
Today, a network of eleven bus lines operates at regular intervals within the city. Every summer, a free tourist train in the city centre connects the ancient parts of the city with the government district. St Pölten is divided into the following subdistricts: Altmannsdorf, Dörfl at Ochsenburg, Ganzendorf, Harland, Kreisberg, Matzersdorf, Mühlgang, Oberradlberg, Oberzwischenbrunn, Pengersdorf, Pummersdorf, Ratzersdorf at the Traisen, Schwadorf, Spratzern, St Georgen on the Steinfelde, St Pölten, Steinfeld, Unterradlberg, Unterzwischenbrunn, Viehofen, Völtendorf, Wasserburg, Wetzersdorf, Witzendorf, Wolfenberg, Wörth and Zwerndorf; the oldest part of the city is built on the site of the ancient Roman city of Aelium Cetium that existed between the 2nd and the 4th century. In the year 799, it was called Treisma. St Pölten did not become a town until 1050 and became a city in 1159; until 1494 St Pölten was part of the diocese of Passau, became the property of the state. A Benedictine monastery was founded in 771.
In 1081 it hosted the Augustinian Chorherren and in 1784 their Kollegiatsstift closed. Since 1785, this building has hosted the cathedral of St Pölten; the city replaced Vienna as the capital of Lower Austria with a resolution by the Lower Austrian parliament on 10 July 1986. The Lower Austrian government has been hosted in St Pölten since 1997; the name St Pölten is derived from Hippolytus of Rome. The city was renamed to Sankt Hippolyt St Polyt and St Pölten; the municipal council consists of 42 members and since the municipal elections in 2016 it consists of the following parties: 26 Social Democratic Party of Austria – the mayor and the first vice mayor 9 Austrian People's Party – the second vice mayor 6 FPÖ 1 The Greens – The Green Alternative The city's senate consists of 11 members: SPÖ: Martin Fuhs, Mag. Renate Gamsjäger, Engineer Franz Gunacker, Robert Laimer, Wolfgang Nowak, Mag. Johann Rankl, Mag. Ingrid Heihs ÖVP: Alfred Neuhauser, Josef Fraberger FPÖ Greens: Silvia Buschenreiter On 9 July 2004 the municipal council elected the former senator for culture Mag.
Matthias Stadler as the new mayor of St Pölten. The first vice mayor is Susanne Kysela; the arms' blazon is silver and azure. The colours of the city are red and yellow; the seal of the city contains its coat of arms surrounded by the text Landeshauptstadt St. Pölten; the administration's seal of the magistrate contains the city's coat of arms with the text Magistrat der Stadt St. Pölten; as of 15 May 2001, 40,041 people worked in 2,711 companies in the city. 23 of those companies are large-scale enterprises with more than 200 employees each. Several media companies are based in St Pölten; these are "@cetera", a literary-cultural magazine. The largest companies based in St Pölten are the furniture producer Leiner, the paper manufacturer Salzer, the family owned engineering conglomerate Voith. Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium St. Pölten Public educational facility for kindergarten pedagogy and social pedagogy Public economics school and economics academy Bundesreal- and Bundesoberstufenrealgymnasium Schulring St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences Public higher educational facility for professions in economics and school for social professions Public higher technical educational facility and laboratory with university of applied sciences for machine construction New Design University Lower Austrian state academy Philosophical-theological university Folk high school Lower Austrian institute for promotion of economy development Swimming is available at Aquacity, the St. Pölten outdoor swimming pool and Ratzersdorf Lake (a bathing pond where a nudist beach, beach volle
In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament; the Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination. Denominations have varied conceptions of holy orders. In the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites; the extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, been a matter of some internal dispute. Baptists are among the denominations that do not consider ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of "holy orders" as such.
The word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Other positions, such as pope, cardinal, archbishop, archpriest, hieromonk and archdeacon, are not sacramental orders but specialized ministries; the Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination to be a Sacred Mystery. Although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together. Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy, it was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity. In the Early Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously as episcopos or presbyteros; these successors of the Apostles were ordained to their office by the laying on of hands, according to Orthodox theology formed a living, organic link with the Apostles, through them with Jesus Christ himself.
This link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops and presbyters or priests came to be distinguished. In Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of priests; the Eastern Orthodox Church has ordination to minor orders, performed outside of the Divine Liturgy by a bishop, although certain archimandrites of stavropegial monasteries may bestow cheirothesia on members of their communities. A bishop is the collector of the money of the diocese and the living Vessel of Grace through whom the energeia of the Holy Spirit flows into the rest of the church. A bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops; the consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist ordain priests and deacons. Before the commencement of the Holy Liturgy, the bishop-elect professes, in the middle of the church before the seated bishops who will consecrate him, in detail the doctrines of the Orthodox Christian Faith and pledges to observe the canons of the Apostles and Councils, the Typikon and customs of the Orthodox Church and to obey ecclesiastical authority.
After the Little Entrance, the arch-priest and arch-deacon conduct the bishop-elect before the Royal Gates where he is met by the bishops and kneels before the altar on both knees. The Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops lay their hands upon the Gospel Book, while the prayers of ordination are read by the eldest bishop. After this, the newly consecrated bishop ascends the synthranon for the first time. Customarily, the newly consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. A priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop. A bishop bestows faculties giving a priest an antimins; the ordination of a priest occurs before the Anaphora in order that he may on the same day take part in the celebration of the Eucharist: During the Great Entrance, the candidate for ordination carries the Aër over his head as a symbol of giving up his diaconate, comes last in the procession and stands at the end of the pair of lines of the priests.
After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, a chair is brought for the bishop to sit on by the northeast corner of the Holy Table. Two deacons go to priest-elect who, at that point, had been standing alone in the middle of the church, bow him down to the west and to the east, asking their consent by saying “Command ye!” and lead him through the holy doors of the altar where the archdeacon asks the bishop’s co