Some criminal gang members are jumped in or have to prove their loyalty by committing acts such as theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster or a thug, in early usage, the word gang referred to a group of workmen. In the United Kingdom, the word is often used in this sense. In current usage, it denotes a criminal organization or else a criminal affiliation. The word gang often carries a connotation, within a gang which defines itself in opposition to mainstream norms. The word gang derives from the past participle of Old English gan and it is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning journey. In discussing banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr, according to some estimates the Thuggee gangs in India murdered 1 million people between 1740 and 1840. The 17th century saw London terrorized by a series of organized gangs, some of known as the Mims, Bugles. These gangs often came into conflict with each other, the members dressed with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions.
Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s, Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution, the emergence of the gangs was largely attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were approximately 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, approximately 230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, The Gang Book 2012, traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007, about 900,000 gang members lived within local communities across the country, and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009.
By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%. A December 13,2009 The New York Times article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 25,000 and 50,000 gang members in Central Americas El Salvador, more than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011
Los Zetas is a Mexican criminal syndicate. The origins of Los Zetas date back to the late 1990s when commandos of the Mexican Army deserted their ranks, in February 2010, Los Zetas broke away from their former employer and formed their own criminal organization. Their brutal tactics, which include beheadings to terrorize their rivals and intimidate them, Los Zetas are Mexicos largest drug cartel in terms of geographical presence, overtaking their rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel. Los Zetas operate through protection rackets, extortion, the organization is based in Nuevo Laredo, directly across the border from Laredo, Texas. As of December 2016 Los Zetas Group & Zetas Vieja Escuela formed an alliance with the Gulf cartel to fight against Cartel Del Noroeste. The groups name Los Zetas is given after its first commander, Arturo Guzmán Decena, whose Federal Judicial Police radio code was Z1, after Osiel Cárdenas Guillén took full control of the Gulf Cartel in 1999, he found himself in a violent turf war.
These Army deserters were enticed with salaries much higher than those of the Mexican Army, Cárdenas goal was to protect himself from rival drug cartels and from the Mexican military. Once Osiel Cárdenas Guillen consolidated his position and supremacy, he expanded the responsibilities of Los Zetas, the Zetas began to organize kidnappings, protection rackets, securing cocaine supply and trafficking routes known as plazas and executing its foes, often with barbaric savagery. Guzmán Decena was killed by members of the Mexican military on November 2002 in a restaurant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, in response to the rising power of the Gulf Cartel, the rival Sinaloa Cartel established a heavily armed, well-trained enforcer group known as Los Negros. The group operated similarly to Los Zetas, but with less complexity, in 2010, Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel broke apart. Their membership ranges from corrupt federal and local officers, and former US Army personnel, to ex-Kaibiles. It is unclear which of the two – the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas – started the conflict led to their break up.
It is clear, that after the capture and extradition of Cárdenas, Los Zetas had become so powerful that they outnumbered and outclassed the Gulf Cartel in revenue and influence. Some sources reveal that as a result of the supremacy of Los Zetas, the cartel felt threatened by its own enforcers and decided to curtail their influence, in addition, Los Zetas charged that the cartel kills innocent civilians, and blames the Zetas for their atrocities. Other reports mention, that the divide occurred due to a disagreement on who would take on the leadership of the cartel after the extradition of Cárdenas. The candidates from the cartel were Antonio Cárdenas Guillén and Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez, while Los Zetas wanted the leadership of their head, Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano. Some sources mention that the cartel began looking to form a truce with their Sinaloa Cartel rivals, other sources suggest that Los Zetas separated from the Gulf Cartel to form an alliance with Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, which led to conflict with the Gulf Cartel.
Soon after Mendozas death, Los Zetas demanded that the Gulf Cartel hand over the killer, they refused, when the hostilities began, the Gulf Cartel joined forces with its former rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacana, aiming to take out Los Zetas
The American Mafia, referred to as the Italian Mafia or the Italian-American Mafia, is a highly organized Italian-American criminal society. The organization is referred to by members as Cosa Nostra or La Cosa Nostra. The Mafia in the United States emerged in impoverished Italian immigrant neighborhoods in New Yorks East Harlem, Lower East Side and it has its roots in the Sicilian Mafia but is a separate organization in the United States. Today, the American Mafia cooperates in various activities with Italian organized crime groups, such as the Sicilian Mafia, Camorra in Naples. The most important unit of the American Mafia is that of a family, despite the name of family to describe the various units, they are not familial groupings. The Mafia is currently most active in the Northeastern U. S. especially in New York City, New Jersey, and New England while being active in Chicago and Florida. At the Mafias peak, there were at least 26 cities around the United States with Cosa Nostra families, with many more offshoots and associates in other cities.
There are five main New York City Mafia families, known as the Five Families, the Gambino, Genovese, Bonanno, at its peak, the Mafia dominated organized crime in the U. S. Each crime family has its own territory and operates independently, while nationwide coordination is overseen by the Commission, the term Mafia was originally used in Italy by the media and law enforcement to describe criminal groups in Sicily. The origins of the term are debatable though most agree the term is derived from the word Maafir a term rooted in Arabic, like the Sicilian Mafia, the American Mafia did not use the term Mafia to describe itself. Neither group has a name and instead used the term cosa nostra when referring to themselves. Mafia properly refers to either the Sicilian or Italian-American Mafia, kennedys political team, referred to as the Irish Mafia. The press coined the name National Crime Syndicate to refer to the network of U. S. organized crime, which includes the Jewish Mafia elements. The first published account of what became the Mafia in the United States dates to the spring of 1869, emigration from southern Italy to the Americas was primarily to Brazil and Argentina, and New Orleans had a heavy volume of port traffic to and from both locales.
The Black Hand was a given to an extortion method used in Italian neighborhoods at the turn of the 20th century. It has been mistaken for the Mafia itself, which it is not. The Black Hand was a society, but there were many small Black Hand gangs. Black Hand extortion was often viewed as the activity of a single organization because Black Hand criminals in Italian communities throughout the United States used the methods of extortion
Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called protection, gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate, European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter, for example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organised crime and war sometimes complement each other. The term Oligarchy has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families, in the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as he unlawful activities of a highly organized, disciplined association.
Criminal activity as a process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups, bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010, the term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang, ” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, a sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. Zones of transition are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations, in such areas, conflict between groups, turf wars, and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later, klein like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions.
More interventions actually lead to greater participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock on Parker’s analysis, strain theory applies, labeling theory, control theory and these may be defined by age or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups form their own identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure, members saw themselves as organized criminals, gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income, padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals
Zwi Migdal was an organized crime group involved in the trafficking of Jewish women from the shtetls of Eastern Europe for sexual slavery and forced prostitution. Mainly based in Argentina, the group operated from the 1860s to 1939, the associations name was chosen to honor Luis Zvi Migdal, one of its founders. The Zwi Migdal organization operated from the 1860s to 1939, after the First World War, it had four hundred members in Argentina. Its annual turnover was fifty dollars at the turn of the century. The organizations success stemmed from the fact that its members were bound by rules that were based on order, the network was well-organized and members cooperated closely to protect their interests. The organization lured girls and young women from Europe in several ways, for instance, a well-mannered and elegant-looking man would appear in a poor Jewish village in Poland or Russia. He would advertise his search for women to work in the homes of wealthy Jews in Argentina by posting an ad in the local synagogue.
Fearful of pogroms and often in desperate circumstances, the parents would send their daughters away with these men. Another popular ruse was to pretty girls and marry them. The girls bade their families farewell and boarded ships to Argentina believing that they were on their way toward a better future and their period of training as sex slaves often started on the ship. Some of them were married off to local men so that they could obtain entry visas, prostitutes who failed to satisfy their clients were beaten, fined or sent to work in provincial houses. The rufianes held a market in which newly arrived girls were paraded naked in front of traders in places such as Hotel Palestina. These activities went on undisturbed because the brothels were frequented by government officials, City officials and police officers were bribed. The pimps had powerful connections everywhere, the largest brothels in Buenos Aires housed as many as 60 to 80 sex slaves. Although there were all over Argentina, most were in Buenos Aires.
The organization had arms in several countries, and was a presence in South Americas Jewish community. It was a supporter of Yiddish theatre in Brazil, but was attacked by Jews in Rio de Janeiro for presenting Torah scrolls, a great number of Jews who had come to Brazil did so as families, and viewed prostitution as immoral and impure influences. Zwi Migdals attempt to relocate to Rio, after events in Buenos Aires, in Argentina, the groups activities were at times used to bolster antisemitism, a use that occurred in Brazil, where the Jewish community often opposed the organization
Gangs in the United States
Gangs in the United States include several types of groups, including national street gangs, local street gangs, prison gangs, motorcycle gangs, and ethnic and organized crime gangs. Approximately 1.4 million people were part of gangs as of 2011, many American gangs began, and still exist, in urban areas. Louis, Memphis, New Orleans, Orlando, Detroit, major urban areas and their suburban surroundings experience the majority of gang activity, particularly gang-related violent crime. Gangs can be categorized based on their affiliation, their structure. Among the gang types defined by the National Gang Intelligence Center are the street gang, the prison gang, the motorcycle gang. Other subtypes of gangs include organized crime gangs, youth or juvenile gangs, American prison gangs, like most street gangs, are formed for protection against other gangs. The goal of many gang members is to gain the respect. Prison gangs use street gangs members as their base for which they recruit new members. For many members, reaching prison gang status shows the ultimate commitment to the gang, some prison gangs are transplanted from the street, and in some occasions, prison gangs outgrow the penitentiary and engage in criminal activities on the outside.
Many prison gangs are racially oriented, Gang umbrella organizations like the Folk Nation and People Nation have originated in prisons. One notable American prison gang is the Aryan Brotherhood, a known for its violence. Established in the mid-1960s, the gang was affiliated with the Aryan Nations and engages in violent crime, drug trafficking, on July 28,2006, after a six-year federal investigation, four leaders of the gang were convicted of racketeering and conspiracy charges. Another significant American prison gang is the Aryan League, which was formed by an alliance between the Aryan Brotherhood and Public Enemy No.1, working collaboratively, the gangs engage in drug trafficking, identity theft, and other white collar crime using contacts in the banking system. The gang has used its connections in the system to target law enforcement agencies. There has been a long running tension between black and Hispanic prison gangs, as well as significant prison riots in which gangs have targeted each other.
The United States has a significant population of motorcycle gangs, which are groups that use motorcycle clubs as organizational structures for conducting criminal activity, some motorcycle clubs are exclusively motorcycle gangs, while others are only partially compromised by criminal activity. The ATF estimates that approximately 300 exclusively gang-oriented motorcycle clubs exist in the United States, organized criminal groups are a subtype of gang with a hierarchical leadership structure and in which individuals commit crime for personal gain. For most organized criminal group members, criminal activities constitute their occupation, the complexity and seriousness of the crimes committed by global crime groups pose a threat not only to law enforcement but to democracy and legitimate economic development as well
Jalisco New Generation Cartel
The Jalisco New Generation Cartel is Mexican criminal group based in Jalisco and headed by Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes, one of Mexicos most-wanted drug lords. The CJNG are currently fighting the Knights Templar Cartel and Los Zetas for control of the cities of Guadalajara, the CJNG operates in the states of Nayarit and Guanajuato. While this cartel is best known for its fights against the Zetas, it has been battling La Resistencia for control of Jalisco and its surrounding territories. Jalisco New Generation Cartel expanded its network from coast to coast in only six months. Such claims have stoked fears that Mexico, just like Colombia a generation before, with With the capture of Oscar Valencia Nava and the death Ignacio Coronel Villarreal, of the Sinaloa Cartel, a power vacuum emerged and the Milenio broke into smaller factions. Some members of the Milenio Cartel, a Sinaloa Cartel branch, with this split, a turf war against La Resistencia, headed by Ramiro Pozos, and Los Zetas for the control of the region started.
First appearance In June 2009, inside a truck in a residential neighborhood in Cancún, Quintana Roo. A number of videos online confirmed the existence of the Jalisco New Generation Cartel,2011 Veracruz massacres In spring 2011, the Jalisco New Generation Cartel declared war on all other Mexican cartels and stated its intention to take control of the city of Guadalajara. However, by midsummer, the group appeared to have reunited with its former partners in the Sinaloa Cartel. In addition to maintaining its anti-Zetas alliance with the Gulf Cartel, to counter Los Zetas in the state of Jalisco, the Sinaloa Cartel affiliated itself with the Jalisco New Generation Cartel. On 20 September 2011, two trucks containing 35 dead bodies were found at an underpass near a mall in Boca del Río. Some of the victims had their hands tied and showed signs of having been tortured, according to El Universal, at around 17,00 an undetermined number of vehicles blocked a major avenue in Boca del Río. Once the traffic stopped, armed men abandoned two trucks in the middle of the highway and they opened the doors of the trucks and pulled out the thirty-five corpses, leaving a written message behind.
Other gunmen pointed their weapons at the frightened drivers, the gunmen fled the scene. Consequently, the stunned motorists began to grab their cellphones and post messages on Twitter warning other drivers to avoid the area, nonetheless, on 27 September 2011, the CJNG released a video claiming they had carried out these attacks. They apologized for the massacres in Veracruz but reiterated their efforts to fight off Los Zetas, in the CJNG video, five men wearing balacavas and completely black clothing are shown sitting behind a table. Then the man with the states that the Matazetas are warriors without a face, but proudly Mexicans. They claim in the video that they respect the Mexican Armed Forces, in fact, the men in the video state that they understand and respect the governments decision of refusing to negotiate with the cartels
It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the base for the modern Chinese state. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria, in the late sixteenth century, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Banners, military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Jurchen clans into an entity, which he renamed as the Manchus. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, in 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia, the early rulers maintained their Manchu ways, and while their title was Emperor, they used khan to the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus.
They adapted the ideals of the system in dealing with neighboring territories. The Qianlong reign saw the apogee and initial decline in prosperity. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War, European powers imposed unequal treaties, free trade, the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea, New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a conservative leader.
Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformist monarchists such as Kang Youwei, after the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. The Wuchang Uprising on October 11,1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution, General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on February 12,1912. Nurhaci declared himself the Bright Khan of the Later Jin state in both of the 12–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan. His son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636, there are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng. The character Qīng is composed of water and azure, both associated with the water element and this association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water
The Gulf Cartel is a criminal syndicate and drug trafficking organization in Mexico, and perhaps one of the oldest organized crime groups in the country. It is currently based in Matamoros, directly across the border from Brownsville and their network is international, and are believed to have dealings with crime groups in Europe, West Africa, Central America, South America, and the United States. Besides drug trafficking, the Gulf Cartel operates through protection rackets, extortions, the members of the Gulf Cartel are known for intimidating the population and for being particularly violent. As of December 2016 Los Zetas Group (Groupo Bravo & Zetas Vieja Escuela made an Alliance with the Gulf cartel to fight against Cartel Del Noroeste. Nonetheless, it was not until 1984 when his nephew Juan García Ábrego founded the Gulf Cartel and this renegotiation, forced Garcia Ábrego to guarantee the product’s arrival from Colombia to its destination. Instead, he created warehouses along the Mexican’s northern border to preserve hundreds of tons of cocaine, in addition to trafficking drugs, García Ábrego would ship cash to be laundered, in the millions.
Around 1994, it was estimated that the Gulf Cartel handled as much as one-third of all cocaine shipments into the United States from the Cali Cartel suppliers. During the 1990s, the PGR, the Mexican attorney generals office, García Ábregos ties extended beyond the Mexican government corruption and into the United States. The buses made great transportation, as Antonio Ortiz noted, since they were never stopped at the border, in 1989 Claude was removed from the case for unknown reasons, retiring a year later. García Ábrego bribed the agent in an attempt to more information on U. S. law enforcement operations. Juan García Ábregos business had grown to such length that the FBI placed him on the Top Ten Most Wanted in 1995 and he was the first drug trafficker to be on that list. On 14 January 1996, García Ábrego was arrested outside a ranch in Monterrey and he was quickly extradited to the United States where he stood trial eight months after his arrest. García Ábrego was convicted for 22 counts of money laundering, drug possession, jurors ordered the seizure of $350 million of García Ábrego’s assets — $75 million more than what was previously planned.
Juan García Ábrego is currently serving 11 life terms in a security prison in Colorado. In 1996, it was disclosed that García Ábregos organization paid millions of dollars in bribes to politicians and it was proven after his arrest that the deputy attorney general in charge of Mexicos federal Judicial Police had accumulated more than $9 million US dollars for protecting García Ábrego. García Ábregos arrest was subject to allegations of corruption. It is believed the Mexican government knew all García Ábregos whereabouts all along and had refused to arrest him due to information he possessed about the extent of corruption within the government. The arresting officer, a FJP commander, is believed to have received a bullet-proof Mercury Grand Marquis, García Ábrego was apprehended on January 14,1996, and Mexico shortly after received certification on March 1