Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the cities of Wollongong, the town of Kiama, the region consists of a coastal plain, narrow in the north and wider in the south, bounded by the Tasman Sea on the east and the mountainous, almost impassable Illawarra escarpment to the west. In the middle of the region is Lake Illawarra, a lake formed when sediment built up at the entrance to a bay. North of Wollongong the plain narrows to a strip of land between the coast and the escarpment. At Coalcliff and Stanwell Park small valleys are formed allowing further settlement, to the south it widens, and becomes increasingly hillier before reaching Stockyard Mountain, a long divide between the main plain and the Jamberoo Valley, which stretches until it reaches Kiama. South of Kiama is Saddleback Mountain and south of that the Shoalhaven plains, the main industries in the area have traditionally been farming, coal mining and steel making.
Australias largest steel-works, BlueScope Steel, operates at Port Kembla, the Illawarra region is linked to Sydney by several passes and a motorway and electric railway, to the west by the Illawarra Highway and Picton Road, and to the south by the Princes Highway. At Albion Park Rail the Illawarra Regional Airport serves the region, the word illawarra is derived from the Aboriginal Tharawal word allowrie, sometimes spelled as elouera or eloura. According to A. W. Reed, the word is translated as pleasant place near the sea or high place near the sea. The prefix of illa is known to white clay, with the suffix warra, sometimes spelled as wurra. George Bass and Matthew Flinders were the first Europeans to visit the area, for the period around 1806, the region was called Five Islands, referring to the group of five islands off Red Point. In 1817 Governor Macquarie, referring to region, part of the coast known generally by the name of the Five Islands, but called by the natives Illawarra. For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the Municipality of Kiama is south of Shellharbour City, and ranges from the Minnamurra River, west to Bald Hill, and south to about 4 kilometres south of Gerroa.
The City of Shoalhaven is south of Kiama Municipality, and covers the southernmost reaches of the Illawarra to Ulladulla, the Wingecarribee Shire covers the western most reaches of the Illawarrra, and further on becomes part of the Southern Highlands region. Illawarra cattle were bred in Illawarra and are now Australias 3rd largest breed in population. They are large Dark red cows sometimes with white patches and they produce large amounts of high butter fat and high protein milk and are really durable and suited to the Australian climate. Coal mining has been a key part to the Illawarras economy for over 200 years, the Illawarra Steelers still field teams in the lower rugby league divisions
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
In Australian Aboriginal mythology Baiame was the Creator God and Sky Father in the dreaming of several language groups, of Indigenous Australians of south-east Australia. The Baiame myth tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers, mountains and he gave the people their laws of life, traditions and culture. He created the first initiation site and this is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood. When he had finished, he returned to the sky, and he is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is often identified as an emu, and with whom he has a son Daramulum. In other stories Daramulum is said to be brother to Baiame and it was forbidden to mention or talk about the name of Baiame publicly. Women were not allowed to see drawings of Baiame nor approach Baiame sites—which are often male initiation sites, in rock paintings Baiame is often depicted as a human figure with a large head-dress or hairstyle, with lines of footsteps nearby. He is always painted in front view, Daramulum is drawn in profile, Baiame is often shown with internal decorations such as waistbands, vertical lines running down the body and dots.
The missionary William Ridley adopted the name of Baiame for the Christian God when translating into Gamilaraay and it is sometimes suggested that Baiame was a construct of early Christian missionaries. Doubt is cast on this by a reference to Baiame apparently dating back to 1830-1840 by K Langloh Parker. In the area surrounding Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, he was believed to have created all of the mountains, rivers, after he finished creating, he jumped back up to the spirit world from Mount Yengo, which he flattened. Its flat top can still be seen to this day, near Wollombi Valley, a cave near Milbrodale contains many wonnarua Aboriginal paintings, including a large figure of a man who may be Baiame. It is popularly known as the Baiame Cave and is part of a series of shelters on an area of 80 hectares. The site is listed on the Register of the National Estate and it depicts him with enormous, long and large staring eyes. Aboriginal mythology Aboriginal sites of New South Wales Media related to Hunter Valley at Wikimedia Commons
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840