Hat Head National Park
Hat Head is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 461.7 kilometres via M1 and Pacific Highway/A1, northeast of Sydney. It lies within the Hastings-Macleay Important Bird Area. Hat Head National Park is located on the mid-north coast of New South Wales near South West Rocks and Kempsey; the Park consists of beaches, sand dunes, rocky headlands and wetlands. For the Dunghutti people some parts of the park remain a significant place as of their traditional land; the different areas of the park and the sea provided a rich source of food like shellfish. The park is culturally important to Aboriginal people as it contains ceremonial grounds, burial sites, shell middens and campsites. Hat Head National Park is rich with birdlife such as kookaburra, black swans, herons and honeyeaters. Hawks, falcons or eagles like white-bellied sea eagle soaring above the cliffs. Wildlife at Hat Head includes black sheoak, grass trees, glossy black cockatoo, red-necked and swamp wallabies as well as western grey kangaroos, sugar gliders, grey-headed flying fox and short-beaked echidna.
The regent skipper is only found in Limeburners Creek National Park. Several walking tracks and whale watching can be done or just relax at the rocky headlands. Birdwatchers can look for black swans and spoonbills in the park’s wetlands and eagles soaring above beach cliffs and shorebirds like curlews and plovers around the beach. Protected areas of New South Wales Smoky Cape, within the park Description National Park
Barrington Tops National Park
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley 200 kilometres north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76,512-hectare park is situated between Scone, Dungog and East Gresford; the park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. It is part of the Barrington Tops and Gloucester Tops Important Bird Area. Barrington Tops is part of a spur of the Great Dividing Range. Barrington Tops is a plateau between two of the large peaks in the range, The park is believed to be an extinct volcano and the mountain ranges are made up of a mixture of sedimentary rocks with a granite top. Erosion has weathered the granite and rounded granite boulders can be seen in some areas of the park. Estimates put the age of the rock at 300 to 400 million years, well before Australia separated from Gondwana; the climate varies from temperate on the lower altitudes to subalpine at highest elevations.
A record low of −17 °C has been registered at 1,500 m above mean sea level. Rainfalls fluctuate between 750 millimetres in the northwest to more than 2,000 mm in the southeast; the ecology of the national park varies from subtropical rainforests in the gullies to subalpine and alpine regions on the mountain peaks. Snow falls on the mountain peaks every year and snows enough to close roads. Rainfall can exceed 1,500 mm per annum. A large variety of plants and animals reside in the park and the steepness of the terrain ensures that they are not disturbed by humans. Plant life includes a large variety of eucalypt trees including Snow Gums and temperate rainforest trees like Antarctic beech, tree ferns, a large variety of mosses and ferns and a wide range of edible plants such as the native raspberry, the native cherry and the lilli pilli; the remoteness and inaccessibility of a large part of the park has allowed some of the more sensitive animals to remain undisturbed. A large number of fauna have been catalogued in the park including some that were thought to be extinct.
Some of the more common animals include: barking and sooty owls, eastern grey kangaroos, pademelons, rosellas, kookaburras and echidnas. It supports a globally important population of rufous scrub-birds, as well as flame robins, pale-yellow robins, paradise riflebirds, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds and Australian logrunners. Animals such as quolls, native rats and platypus may be seen. Not all of the animals in the park are desirable; the traditional owners of the area are the indigenous people of Australia, known as Australian Aborigines, include the Gringai clan, the Wonnarua people, the Worimi people and Birpai. In 1969 the area between Mount Barrington, Mount Royal and the Gloucester Tops was declared the Barrington Tops National Park. In 1986 it was listed as a World Heritage Area and subsequently a Wilderness Area; some of the rivers flowing through the Barrington range have been classed as wild rivers meaning they are exceptionally pure and unpolluted. The highest peak is Brumlow Top.
A number of aircraft have crashed in and around the Barrington Tops, Aeroplane Hill being named after one of the crashes. The altitude, frequent fog & cloud and cold weather make this area hazardous to aircraft. One article refers to the "Devil's Triangle". 16 April 1945 - De Havilland Mosquito A52-70. Wreckage found January 1946 in the national park; the propellor and machine gun were on display at the Barrington Tops Guest House. 2 September 1948 - Australian National Airlines Douglas DC-3 VH-ANK. 13 killed. 14 September 1969 - Lockheed Hudson VH-SML crashed in the foothills. 3 killed. 25 September 1969 - RAAF Mirage III-O. Crew ejected safely. 9 August 1981 - Cessna 210 VH-MDX. 5 killed, multiple searches have not found wreckage or bodies. 3 August 1987 - Aermacchi MB-326H A7-079. Crew ejected. Wreckage located by bushwalkers 28 April 1995. Photo of crew being rescued from a tree; the Barrington Guest House was built from 1925 on the upper Williams River near Barrington Tops by Norman T. McLeod, licensee of the Royal Hotel in Dungog, using timber cut and milled from the property.
It stood on land consisting of 10.5 hectares of forest surrounded by National and State Parks and was opened in 1930 by Dr Sir Earle Page MHR Leader of the Country Party and former Treasurer of Australia and Prime Minister of Australia. The guest house was a popular venue for people to stay in the park, until it burned down in a fire at 11pm on 24 September 2006 due to an electrical fault, it was undergoing modernisation under new ownership at the time of the fire. There are plans to rebuild. Barrington Tops is a popular weekend destination from Newcastle. Numerous walking trails and camping grounds are scattered throughout the park; the park contains well marked and well-maintained gravel roads as well as specific 4WD tracks into less travelled areas. General sightseeing can be accomplished in a non-offroad vehicle; as well as camping facilities, the nearby towns of Gloucester and Dungog have many places to stay. The park is maintained by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and rangers patrol the park daily.
Barrington Tops State Conservation Area Careys Peak List of mountains in New South Wales Mount Royal Range Protected areas of New South Wales "Manning River catc
Mount Kaputar National Park
The Mount Kaputar National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, surrounding the proximities of Mount Kaputar, a volcano active between 17 and 21 million years ago. It is located 50 km east of 570 km northwest of Sydney. Millions of years of erosion have since carved the volcanic region into the lava terraces, volcanic plugs, dykes of Nandewar Range; the central feature of the region is Mount Kaputar, the park's namesake, which rises to an altitude of 1,510 m. The 360 degree view from the summit of the mountain encompasses one-tenth of New South Wales' area or 80,000 square kilometres; the park protects a wide range of biomes, including semi-arid woodland, subalpine heath, eucalypt forests, provides a habitat for a range of animals, including bats, wallabies and the unique red triangle slug, known to appear after rainfall. Before it was a national park, the area was used as grazing land for domestic animals; the conditions in the park are harsh, but several pioneering families lived there, remnants of their occupation remain.
Sheep and cattle continued to graze on the plateau until around the 1950s. It was an isolated place, the stockmen in charge of the cattle would not see another human for months at a time. In 1925 some 775 ha of land around Mount Kaputar were declared a "Reserve for Public Recreation". Two years a trust, known as the Mount Kaputar Trust, was formed to give guidance on managing the park; the area was expanded to 14,244 ha and proclaimed a full national park in 1959. Eight years in 1967, the Fund relinquished the duties of controlling the park to the newly established National Parks and Wildlife Service, the park is still administered by a regional advisory board. In 1965, two cabins were constructed at Dawsons Spring, providing accommodations including a permanent water supply for showers and toilets, a picnic facility. Today there are 3 cabins, including the one facilitated from Bark Hut; the park is popular with rockclimbers, there are 11 walks in the park, as well as a camping ground. However, the most popular site in the park is Scutts Hut, located upward of Kurrawonga Falls.
The hut is the former home of a pioneer family living in the vicinity of the park. It is accessible via a fire trail from the Bark Hut camping grounds; the hut has been restored with an earthen floor and an open fireplace. The hut is built on the banks of Horsearm Creek. Protected areas of New South Wales
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Bindarri National Park
Bindarri National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 431 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales Official Site
Coolah Tops National Park
Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales