A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
Colorado City, Arizona
Colorado City is a town in Mohave County, United States, is located in a region known as the Arizona Strip. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town was 4,821. At least three Mormon fundamentalist sects are said to have been based there. Colorado City known as Short Creek, was founded in 1913 by members of the Council of Friends, a breakaway group from the Salt Lake City-based The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the Council of Friends membership desired a remote location where they could practice plural marriage, publicly abandoned by the LDS Church in 1890. On July 26, 1953, Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle sent troops into the settlement to stop polygamy in what became known as the Short Creek raid; the two-year legal battle that followed became a public relations disaster that damaged Pyle's political career and set a hands-off tone toward the town in Arizona for the next 50 years. After the death of Joseph W. Musser, the community split into two groups: the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints stayed in Short Creek, while the Apostolic United Brethren relocated to Bluffdale, Utah.
The FLDS changed the name of the community to Colorado City and Hildale to eliminate any ties to the Short Creek raids. In January 2004, local FLDS fundamentalist leader, Warren Jeffs, expelled a group of 20 men, including the mayor, gave their wives and children to other men. Jeffs, now a convicted sexual predator, stated he was acting on the orders of God, while the men expelled claimed they were penalized for disagreeing with Jeffs. Observers stated that this was the most severe split to date within the community other than the split between Colorado City and Centennial Park. According to the Utah attorney general's office, this was not the first time Jeffs was accused of expelling men from the community. Most were removed for dating women without his permission. Many of these expelled men and boys were naïve and sheltered wound up homeless in nearby towns such as Hurricane, Utah and St. George, Utah. Jeffs was placed on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list and arrested on August 28, 2006. Most of the property in the town was owned by the United Effort Plan, a real estate trust of the FLDS.
In 2007 the state authorities began dismantling church ownership of Colorado City lands. The FLDS church retaliated and indoctrinated their followers against the state, believing they were being targeted because of their beliefs; the FLDS followers became further secluded as a result. Most of the remaining FLDS view Warren Jeffs, as a martyr. On April 6, 2010, law enforcement officials in Mohave County and Washington County, served five search warrants seeking records from town officers; the warrants were served on government officials and departments, including the Town Manager, David Darger, as well as Colorado City's fire chief Jacob Barlow. As a result of the initial warrants, the Hildale-Colorado City Department of Public Safety was shut down, emergency responders were prohibited from responding to calls without the approval of county officials. Firefighter Glen Jeffs indicated that the warrants referenced "misuse of funds."In response to a civil rights lawsuit by the United States Justice Department alleging that the Colorado City government, including law enforcement, was taking orders from the FLDS Church, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced in July 2012 that he was allocating funding to allow the Mohave County Sheriff's Department to provide daily patrols in the town.
On March 20, 2014, a jury hearing the case of Cooke et al v. Colorado City, Town of et al ruled that the towns of Colorado City and Hildale had discriminated against Ronald and Jinjer Cooke because they were not members of the FLDS Church; the Cookes were awarded $5.2 million for "religious discrimination". The Cooke family moved to the Short Creek area in 2008 but were refused access to utilities by the towns of Colorado City and Hildale; as a result of the ruling, Arizona's Attorney General Tom Horne issued a press release stating that he "wants to eradicate discrimination in two polygamous towns" and believes that the court ruling will give him the tools to do it. Colorado City is located at 36°59′22″N 112°58′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.5 square miles, of which 10.5 square miles is land and 0.100% is water. Colorado City has the typical cool semi-arid climate of the interior Mountain West, with warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters, typified by large diurnal temperature ranges throughout most of the year.
The hottest day on record has been July 5, 1985 with 108 °F. Rainfall is lowest from April to June, but is never high on average, though during strong extratropical low pressure systems, as much as 5 inches may fall during a month; the wettest year has been 1998 with 26.36 inches, though only 2005 has otherwise received over 20 inches, whilst the driest year since 1963 has been 2009 with 6.45 inches. Snowfall is light; the highest daily snow depth was however on February 1979 with 13 inches. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,334 people, 444 households, 417 families residing in the town; the population density was 317.3 people per square mile. There were 457 housing units at an average density o
Fort Mohave, Arizona
Fort Mohave is a CDP in Mohave County, Arizona. It is named for a nearby fort, used during the Mohave War; as of the census of 2010, the population of Fort Mohave was 14,364. This was up from 8,919 in 2000, it is a micro-suburb of Bullhead City. Its recent growth has made it the most populous unincorporated community in Mohave County; the largest single employer in Fort Mohave is Valley View Medical Center. In 2013, Fort Mohave became the home of a 200+ acre photovoltaic solar generating plant; the plant was built east of Vanderslice Road between Lipan Boulevard. The first known European to visit the area was Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz, he documented his travels in Northwestern Mohave County in 1540. He accounts of meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the Spanish name Mojave, passed into English, where it is spelled Mohave; when most people refer to Fort Mohave, they use the spelling "Mohave", while the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave".
During the Mohave War the fort was established as a base of U. S. Army military operations against the native Mohave people, living in the area for centuries prior. In April 1861, during the early part of the American Civil War, the fort was abandoned, its garrison sent to secure Southern California from possible secession, sent to the east, it was subsequently garrisoned by Company B and Company I, 4th California Infantry Regiment, in May 1863. Company B remained for six months but Company I remained until March 1865, when it was relieved by Company C, 7th California Infantry Regiment until 1866 when Camp Mohave was again garrisoned by regular United States Army troops; the U. S. Army remained until September 29, 1890 when the War Department turned it over to the Indian Service by order of President Benjamin Harrison, it is now part of the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation. It is home to the largest stadium within 90 miles, serving all Mohave County for large indoor events, The Mojave Crossing Event Center.
It has a seating capacity of 5,000 arena style. Many neighborhoods in Fort Mohave are built on man-made lakes, golf courses, mesas with majestic mountain views; the newest golf course, Los Lagos Golf Club, is a Ted Robinson, Sr. Signature Golf Course. Fort Mohave is geographically between, demographically connected to, Bullhead City and Mohave Valley, Arizona; as of the census of 2010, the population of Fort Mojave was 14,364. This was up from 8,919 with 4,049 housing units. Fort Mohave has three large grocery stores, Smith's Food and Drug, a completed Wal-Mart Supercenter, it has a CVS Pharmacy and an ACE Hardware Store. Restaurants include Red Dragon Chinese Cuisine, Bonanza Cafe, Casa Serrano Mexican Food, an ice cream parlor, several fast food franchises. Residents of Fort Mohave do the majority of their shopping and dining in Bullhead City, considered the shopping hub of the tri-state area. Fort Mohave has two public elementary schools, Fort Mojave Elementary School and Camp Mohave Elementary School, both of which are a part of the Mohave Valley Elementary School District.
There is a public charter school, Young Scholar's Academy, All Beauty College, the Academy of Building Industries. Fort Mohave is the location of the Valley View Medical Center, which opened in 2005, it is a 102,000-square-foot facility with state-of-the-art technology. The hospital features 38 medical/surgical beds, 10 rehabilitation beds, a six-bed labor and delivery unit, a six-bed intensive care unit, four major operating rooms and two procedure rooms. In 2010, Valley View announced a 1.2 million Emergency Room expansion. Fort Mohave is served by the Fort Mojave-Mesa Fire Department. Bullhead City, Arizona Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport Laughlin, Nevada Mohave people Mohave City Mohave Valley, Arizona Needles, California Oatman, Arizona Andrew Edward Masich, The Civil War in Arizona: the story of the California Volunteers, 1861-1865, University of Oklahoma Press, 2006 ISBN 0-8061-3747-9 ISBN 978-0-8061-3747-6
Mohave Valley, Arizona
Mohave Valley is a census-designated place in Mohave County, United States. The population was 13,694 at the 2000 census, it is geographically connected to Needles, Fort Mohave and Bullhead City, Arizona. The first recorded European to come through Mohave Valley was Melchor Díaz, he documented his travels in northwestern Mohave County in 1540. He recounts meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave". While Mohave Valley and Mohave County use the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee". Mohave Valley is located at 34°57′25″N 114°35′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 45.4 square miles, of which, 45.3 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,694 people, 5,217 households, 3,850 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 302.6 people per square mile. There were 6,672 housing units at an average density of 147.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.79% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 2.34% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.26% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races. 11.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,217 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.94. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,321, the median income for a family was $38,897. Males had a median income of $29,719 versus $21,271 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,287. About 7.9% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture constitutes a major portion of Mohave Valley's economy. Main crops are alfalfa. Children from Mohave Valley attend Mohave Valley Elementary School District. High school students attend River Valley High School in the Colorado River Union High School District and have the option to attend the Academy of Building Industries Public Charter High School located in Fort Mohave, Arizona, or the Aha Macav High School on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation. Bullhead City, Arizona Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport Laughlin, Nevada Mohave people Fort Mohave, Arizona Needles, California Oatman, Arizona
Kingman is a city in and the county seat of Mohave County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 28,068; the nearby communities of Butler, Golden Valley bring the Kingman area total population to over 45,000. Kingman is located about 105 miles southeast of Las Vegas and about 165 miles northwest of the state capital, Phoenix. Lt. Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a U. S. Navy officer in the service of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, was ordered by the U. S. War Department to build a federal wagon road across the 35th Parallel, his secondary orders were to test the feasibility of the use of camels as pack animals in the southwestern desert. Beale traveled through the present day Kingman in 1857 surveying the road and in 1859 to build the road. Beale's Wagon Road became part of Highway 66 and Interstate Highway 40. Remnants of the wagon road can still be seen in White Cliffs Canyon in Kingman. Kingman, was founded in 1882, when Arizona was still Arizona Territory.
Situated in the Hualapai Valley between the Cerbat and Hualapai mountain ranges, Kingman is known for its modest beginnings as a simple railroad siding near Beale’s Springs in the Middleton Section along the newly constructed route of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The city of Kingman was named for Lewis Kingman, who surveyed along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad's right-of-way between Needles, Calif. and Albuquerque, N. M. Lewis Kingman supervised the building of the railroad from Winslow, Ariz. to Beale's Springs, near the present location of the town of Kingman. The Mohave County seat was located in Mohave City from 1864 to 1867; the portion of Arizona Territory west of the Colorado River was transferred to Nevada in 1865 after Nevada's statehood, became part of Lincoln County, Nevada Clark County, Nevada. The remaining territory of Pah-Ute County became part of Mohave County, its seat was moved to Hardyville in 1867. The county seat transferred to the mining town of Cerbat in 1873 to Mineral Park near Chloride in 1877.
In 1887, the county seat was moved to Kingman after some period of time without a permanent county seat, the instruments and records of Mohave County government were taken clandestinely from Chloride and moved to Kingman in the middle of the night during this final transfer of the county seat. During World War II, Kingman was the site of a U. S. Army Air Force airfield; the Kingman Army Airfield was founded at the beginning of WW II as an aerial gunnery training base. It became airmen; the airfield and Kingman played a significant role in this important era of America's history. Following the war, the Kingman Airfield served as one of the largest and best-known reclamation sites for obsolete military aircraft. Postwar, Kingman experienced growth as several major employers moved into the vicinity. In 1953 Kingman was used to detain those men accused of practicing polygamy in the Short Creek raid, at the time one of the largest arrests in American history. In 1955, Ford Motor Company established a proving ground in nearby Yucca, Arizona at the former Yucca Army Airfield.
Several major new neighborhoods in Kingman were developed to house the skilled workers and professionals employed at the proving ground, as Kingman was the only sizable, developed town within a convenient distance. The development of the Duval copper mine near adjacent Chloride and construction of the Mohave Generating Station in nearby Laughlin, Nevada, in 1971 contributed to Kingman's population growth; the location of a General Cable plant at what was to become the Kingman Airport Industrial Park provided a steady employment base as well. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.0 square miles, all of it land. Kingman sits on the eastern edge of the Mojave Desert, but is located in a cold semi-arid climate due the plateau location; the BSk climate type receives more precipitation than the BWh hot desert climate found to the south and west, the wintertime low temperatures are colder. Kingman's higher elevation and location between the Colorado Plateau and the Lower Colorado River Valley keeps summer high temperatures away from the extremes experienced by Phoenix and the Colorado River Valley.
The higher elevation contributes to winter cold and occasional snowfall. Summer daytime highs reach above 90 °F but exceed 107 °F. Summertime lows remain between 60 to 70 °F. Winter highs are mild, ranging from around 50 to 65 °F, but winter nighttime lows fall to freezing, with lower temperatures possible. Kingman receives a dusting of snow in the winter, though it remains on the ground for longer than the mid-to-late morning; the record low temperature in Kingman was set on January 9, 1937 at 6 °F, the record high temperature occurred on June 20, 2017, at 113 °F. The wettest year was 1919 with 21.22 inches and the driest year was 1947 with 3.58 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 9.85 inches in September 1939. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 6.03 inches on November 28, 1919. The snowiest year was 1949 with 18.2 inches. The most snowfall in one month was 14.0 inches in December 1932. On December 31, 2014 and January 1, 2015, Kingman received 6.5 inches of snow. The storm was so significant that it was a contributing factor for closing Interstate 40 at the US 93 Junction for 24 hours
Bullhead City, Arizona
Bullhead City is a city located on the Colorado River in Mohave County, United States 90 mi south of Las Vegas and directly across the Colorado River from Laughlin, whose casinos and ancillary services supply much of the employment for Bullhead City. Bullhead City is located on the southern border of Lake Mohave. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 39,540; the nearby communities of Laughlin, California, Fort Mohave and Mohave Valley bring the Bullhead area's total population to about 100,000, making it the largest micropolitan area in Mohave County. With over 59 square miles, Bullhead City is the largest city in Mohave County in terms of total land area. In 2011, the Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport was named Airport of the Year by the Arizona Department of Transportation; the latest figures indicate that "...more than 115,000 people flew into Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport on casino-sponsored charters in 2010." In the 1980s the airport was home to the helicopters of the TV show Airwolf.
The earliest inhabitants of the Colorado River Valley were the Mojave people. The rich soil and plentiful water provided the valley's natives with the necessities to create a prosperous farming community. According to Mojave legend, life began on Spirit Mountain, the highest peak visible from the Bullhead City area; the first account of European contact was with Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz. He documented his travels in Northwestern Mohave County in 1540, he accounts of meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave". While Mohave County uses the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee". Father Francisco Garces crossed the Colorado River in the Bullhead City area in 1774. In March 1864 the current site of Bullhead City was the location of a settlement called Hardyville, it was named for William Harrison Hardy.
A New York native and an entrepreneur, Hardy established, with the support of George Alonzo Johnson's steamboat company, a ferry service and a steamboat landing where the Mojave Road crossed the Colorado River. He built and owned the Hardyville - Prescott Road, a toll road from Hardyville to the new Arizona territorial capital of Prescott and raised Angora goats, he was a somewhat controversial figure. He was the town's first postmaster from January 17, 1865, is credited with the invention of the riveted mail sack, he was a Mohave County supervisor and a member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. In 1864 his personal worth was over $40,000. From 1864 to 1883, steamboats made regular trips up the Colorado River from Port Isabel, Sonora and, after the arrival of the railroad from Yuma, stopping at Hardyville to deliver supplies to the mines of the surrounding mining districts and those to the east in the interior of Arizona and carry out their ore for processing and sale; these stern-wheeler riverboats played an important part in the early development of the areas bordering the Colorado River and Hardyville was considered the low water limit of navigation for the steamboats.
Steamboat travel above that point to places in like El Dorado Canyon and Rioville was possible only during the few months of the late spring to early summer flood caused by snow melt in the upper Colorado River watershed. Hardyville was the starting point for wagon roads and pack trails to the mines and other settlements in the upper region of the river, it was the port for flatboats that ascended the river as far as Callville in the extreme low water time of the year. In April 1866, Brevet Brigadier General James Fowler Rusling visited the settlement and described it: Hardyville received a boost in 1867, when it became the county seat of Mohave County and the mills at Eldorado Canyon began operating stimulating trade up river again. Hardyville had a population of 20 in 1870; the 1870s saw a population boom in Hardyville. With the end of hostilities with the Native Americans in Mohave County, mines in the interior boomed again and the small town grew with the addition of the construction of a general store, a saloon, a blacksmith shop, a billiard hall, a respectable public hall.
However, in 1873, the county seat was moved to the mining boomtown of Cerbat. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived at Yuma, it bought out Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, by 1878 had built rails into Maricopaville resulting in wagon traffic moving to that railhead, closer to the mines in the northern interior than Hardyville. Traffic on the road to the interior mines of the east from Hardyville waned except for that to Cerbat, Mineral Park, Chloride. In May 1881, Issac Polhamus, captain of one of the Southern Pacific-owned Colorado Steam Navigation Company steamboats, went into competition with Hardy for the trade to those mines establishing Polhamus Landing, a rival landing five miles up river, closer to the mines, taking away most of its river trade. Worse yet, the construction of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad to its bridge crossing on the Colorado River near Needles, in May 1883, saw the remaining interior mining trade move away from the Colorado River and Hardyville.
The Hardyville post office was discontinued in favor of the one in Mohave City on February 19, 1883. As the silver price declined in the late 1880s and early 1890s, the Hardyville mill, its only remaining economic resource, became idle and the remaining population of the town left, leaving it to become a gho
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88