Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)
The Archbishop of Dublin is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the Archdiocese of Dublin. The Church of Ireland has a similar role, heading the United Dioceses of Glendalough. In both cases, the Archbishop is Primate of Ireland; the Archbishop has his seat at Saint Mary's Pro-Cathedral, though formally Dublin's cathedral is still Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin. The Dublin area was Christian long before Dublin had a distinct diocese, the remains and memory of monasteries famous before that time, at Finglas, Glendalough, Rathmichael, Tallaght, among others, are witness to the faith of earlier generations, to a flourishing Church life in their time. Several of these functioned as "head churches" and the most powerful of all was Glendalough. In the early church in Ireland, the church had a monastic basis, with greatest power vested in the Abbots of the major communities. There were bishops but not organised dioceses in the modern sense, the offices of abbot and bishop were comprised in one person.
Some early "Bishops of Dublin", back to 633, are mentioned in Ware's Antiquities of Ireland but the Diocese of Dublin is not considered to have begun until 1038, when Ireland began to see organised dioceses, all of the current Diocese of Dublin, more, was comprised in the Diocese of Glendalough. Following a reverted conversion by one Norse King of Dublin, his son Godfrey became Christian in 943, the Kingdom of Dublin first sought to have a bishop of their own in the 11th century, under Sitric MacAulaf, on pilgrimage to Rome, he sent his chosen candidate, Donat to be consecrated at Canterbury, England, in 1038, the new prelate set up the Diocese of Dublin as a small territory within the walled city, over which he presided until 1074. Sitric provided for the building of Christ Church Cathedral in 1038 "with the lands of Baldoyle and Portrane for its maintenance."The Bishop of Dublin answered to the Archbishop of Canterbury and did not attend councils of the Irish Church. The Diocese of Dublin continued to acknowledge the jurisdiction of Canterbury until 1096, was not included in the list of Irish dioceses at the Synod of Rathbreasail.
The Synod of Rathbreasail was convened in 1111 on papal authority. It fixed the number of dioceses in Ireland at twenty-four. Dublin was not included, the city being described as lying in the Diocese of Glendalough, it was incorporated into the system of Irish dioceses from 1152. The second Bishop of Dublin was Patrick or Gilla Pátraic, consecrated at St. Paul's, followed by Donngus Ua hAingliu, 1085–1095, consecrated at Canterbury, in turn succeeded by his nephew, Samuel Ua hAingliu, consecrated by St. Anselm at Winchester. From 1121, the fifth and last Bishop of Dublin was one Gréne, consecrated at Lambeth by Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1151, Pope Eugene III commissioned Cardinal Paparo to go to Ireland and establish four metropolitans, at a general synod at Kells in 1152, Dublin and Tuam, were created archiepiscopal sees. In a document drawn up by the Archbishop of Tuam in 1214, the cardinal is described as finding both a bishop based in Dublin, who at the time exercised his episcopal office within the city walls only, "He found in the same Diocese another church in the mountains, which had the name of a city and had a certain chorepiscopus.
But he delivered the pallium to Dublin, the best city and appointed that the diocese in which both these cities were should be divided, that one part thereof should fall to the metropolitan." The part of North County Dublin known as Fingall was taken from Glendalough Diocese and attached to Dublin City. The new Archdiocese had 40 parishes, in deaneries based on the old senior monasteries. All dependence upon English churches such as Canterbury was ended. Gregory, the existing Bishop of Dublin, was elevated as the first Archbishop, with the Bishops of Kildare, Leighlin and Glendalough reporting to him; the second Archbishop was Lorcán Ua Tuathail Abbot of Glendalough, elected as Bishop of Glendalough but had declined that office. During his time in office, religious orders from the continent came to Ireland, as part of this trend, Laurence installed a community of canons to minister according to the Aroasian Rule in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity known as Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. Not only was the Irish Church transformed in that 12th century by new organisation and new arrivals from abroad, but Ireland's political scene was changed permanently by the coming of the Normans and the influence of the English Crown from 1171.
Saint Laurence's successor was a Norman, from onward to the time of the Reformation, Dublin's Archbishops were all either Norman or English. High offices in the Church were never free of political influence, in fact many of Dublin's Archbishops exercised civil authority for the English crown. Archbishop Henry of London's name appears in the text of the Magna Carta along with the names of English Bishops as witnesses. In 1185, the Pope had granted a petition to combine the Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough, to take effect on the death of the Bishop of Glendalough; the union took effect in 1216, with the approval of Innocent III, the dioceses have remained merged since. Archbishop de Leche of Dublin received a Papal Bull from Clement V in 1311, authorising him to establish the Medieval University of Dublin, this process was completed in 1320, when the university
Walter de Thornbury
Walter de Thornbury was an English-born statesman and cleric in 14th century Ireland who held the office of Lord Chancellor of Ireland. His efforts to secure confirmation of his election as Archbishop of Dublin were cut short by his death in a shipwreck. Walter de Thornbury was born in Herefordshire, where he was granted the manor of Wolferlow by the Mortimer family, with whom he was always associated, he was an executor of the will of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer, was appointed guardian to his son Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Given Roger's role as the usurper, the killer of King Edward II, it is ironic that Walter owed his rise to his friendship with the King's favourite Piers Gaveston, Roger's co-guardian, he was much at King Edward's Court in the years 1305-6. He was sent to Ireland as Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland in 1308 and became Lord Chancellor of Ireland the following year, on Piers Gaveston's recommendation, he was deputy Treasurer of Ireland in 1311, Treasurer and Chanter of St. Patrick's Cathedral.
He accompanied Gaveston on his successful campaign to restore the Crown's authority in Leinster in 1309, in which he defeated the O'Byrne clan of County Wicklow and restored order in the neighbourhood of Glendalough. The downfall and execution of his patron Piers Gaveston in June 1312 does not seem to have injured Thornbury's career. In 1313 he was one of two candidates for the Archbishopric of Dublin, the other being Alexander de Bicknor. Thornbury, quicker off the mark than his rival, set out for Avignon to secure Papal confirmation of his election; the ship sank in a storm with the loss of all lives on board: the dead were reported to have numbered more than 150. History of Ireland #Norman decline
Bromyard is a market town in Herefordshire, situated in the valley of the River Frome. The latest census gives a population in 2011 of 4,500, it lies near to the county border with Worcestershire on the A44 between Worcester. Bromyard has a number of traditional half-timbered buildings, including some of the pubs, the parish church dates back to Norman times. For centuries there was a thriving livestock market; the town is twinned with Normandy. Bromyard is mentioned in Bishop Cuthwulf's charter of c.840. Cudwulf established a monasterium at Bromgeard behind a'thorny enclosure' with the permission of King Behrtwulf, King of the Mercians. Ealdorman Aelfstan, the local magnate, was granted between 500–600 acres of land for a villa beside the River Frome; the settlement in the Plegelgate Hundred was allocated 30 hides for'the gap where the deer play.' The shire court meeting-place was on Flaggoners Green, now a hill in the modern borough and it is where the cricket club is situated, sorry Bromyard.
42 villani, 9 bordars, 8 slaves were recorded in the Domesday entry, one of the largest communities in Herefordshire. The first mention of the spelling "Bromyard" was in Edward I's Taxatio Ecclesiasticus on the occasion of a perambulation of the forest boundaries to set up a model for Parlements in 1291, it began to appear in the church and court records of the 14th century. Like Leominster and Ross-on-Wye, the town and fair at the manor of Bromyard was founded in c1125 during the episcopate of Richard de Capella; as with those other three towns, the bishops of Hereford had had a manor and minster there since Anglo-Saxon times. As at Ledbury the church was collegiate, with an establishment of clergy known as "portioners", but without a master and common seal. Surveys for the bishop made c. 1285 and 1575-80 give valuable information about the town's first few centuries. Bromyard contained 255 burgage and landowner tenancies in the 1280s which paid a total rent of £23 10s 7 1/2d to the bishop. A Toll Shop at Schallenge House was where summary jurisdiction dealt out.
After the Reformation there were 800 communicants making Bromyard "a markett toune...greately Replenyshed with People", the third town in the county with a population of about 1200 souls. By 1664 Bromyard had fallen behind Leominster and Ross in population. Besides the central town area, the large parish used to consist of the three townships of Winslow and Norton. During the civil wars, Prince Rupert's troops in March 1645 "brought all their on Bromyard and Ledbury side, fell on, plundered every parish and house, poor as well as others, leaving neither clothes nor provision, killed all the young lambs in the country, though not above a week old. Charles I stayed the night in Bromyard at Mrs Baynham's house on 3 September 1645 on his way to Hereford In 1648 Parliament ordered the sale of the cathedral's property in Bromyard Forrens for £594 9s 2d. Bromyard Grammar School was re-founded in 1566 after the original chantry endowments had been nationalized. In 1656 the City of London Alderman John Perrin, who came from Bromyard, left the school £20 a year, to be paid through the Goldsmiths Company.
The company improved the school buildings in 1835. The building still stands in Church Street, but the school became part of the first comprehensive school in Herefordshire in 1969, now known as Queen Elizabeth's. A Congregational Chapel was built in 1701. For centuries market day was always held on a Monday at Bromyard; the market town was a centre for agriculture with a fair for selling produce grown locally. Some farms remained in the church's hands until the late 20th century; the carrier system operated in Bromyard, within a given radius of the Teme to the north, Frome Hill to the east, Lugg to the south. The dealers brought supplies to the many outlets, inns, traders and by the 19th century the shops. In 1751 Bromyard obtained a Turnpike Trust that established a toll road as far as Canon Frome, with some minor roads turnpiked to prevent tax evasion. By 1830 town's fortunes had flagged down to only fifth in the county from second 300 years before; this reflected its place in the industrial revolution which came late to Bromyard because it took so long to connect the town to the railway system.
A sandstone quarry was opened at Linton, just east of the town, in the 1870s, but the hopes for extensive sales of good quality building stone were disappointed and by 1879 it was producing bricks and tiles from the Old Red Sandstone marls. This business continued until the 1970s; the town's water supply and sanitation was poor until late in the 19th century. Babbage was horrified by the unsanitary conditions in the town, reported to the General Board of Health into the town's water supply and lack of a sewerage system, he said that he had "met with considerable opposition to the application of the Public Health Act to this town, from a large number of the inhabitants, upon the ground of the supposed expense of carrying out the sanitary reforms which I found to be so much needed." No action was taken by the town vestry for over twenty years. The town belatedly acquired a piped water supply in 1900. During World War I, Bromyard was the site of an internment camp, where the Irish n
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council. It borders Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, the Welsh counties of Monmouthshire and Powys to the west. Hereford is the county town. Situated in the historic Welsh Marches, Herefordshire is one of the most rural and sparsely populated counties in England, with a population density of 82/km², a 2017 population of 191,000 - the fourth-smallest of any ceremonial county in England; the land use is agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, the Hereford cattle breed. From 1974 to 1998, Herefordshire was part of the former non-metropolitan county of Hereford and Worcester. Herefordshire was reconstituted both as a new district and as a new county by Statutory Instrument as defined in The Hereford and Worcester Order 1996; this Order established Herefordshire as a unitary authority on 1 April 1998, combining county and district functions into a single council.
Herefordshire is commonly called a unitary district, but this is not official nomenclature. Herefordshire is known as a unitary authority for local government purposes, it is governed by Herefordshire Council, created in 1998 with the new unitary district that absorbed the previous administrative areas of Leominster District Council, South Herefordshire District Council, Hereford City Council, parts of Hereford-Worcester County Council, parts of Malvern Hills District Council. The Lieutenancies Act 1997 made Herefordshire a ceremonial county, covering the exact area of the unitary district. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region; the River Wye, which at 135 miles is the fifth-longest in the United Kingdom, enters the county after being its border with Powys. It flows through both Ross-on-Wye before returning to Wales. Leominster is situated on a tributary of the Wye. There are two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the county.
The Wye Valley is located in the river's valleys south of Hereford, while the Malvern Hills are in the east of the county, along its border with Worcestershire. Herefordshire is one of the 39 historic counties of England. In 1974 it was merged with neighbouring Worcestershire to form the Hereford and Worcester administrative county. Within this, Herefordshire was covered by the local government districts of South Herefordshire and part of Malvern Hills and Leominster districts. However, the county was dissolved in 1998, resulting in the return of Herefordshire and Worcestershire as counties; the current ceremonial county and unitary district have broadly the same borders as the pre-1974 historic county. Herefordshire's growth rate has in recent decades been higher than the national average, with the population increasing by 14.4% between 1991 and 2011 – the population of England as a whole increased by only 10.0%. However this has been from a lower base, with only Northumberland and Cumbria having lower population densities than Herefordshire.
The population is White 98.2%, Asian 0.8%, Mixed 0.7%, Black 0.2%, Other 0.1%. Gypsies and Travellers have been Herefordshire's largest minority ethnic group, they are made up of three main groups: Romanichal or Romany "Gypsies" Irish Travellers New Travellers or New Age TravellersRomany Gypsies and Irish Travellers fall within the definition of a minority ethnic group under the Race Relations Amendment Act. They have contributed to the development of the county, for example through seasonal working in orchards. There were 400 people within this minority group in the county at the 2011 Census; the major settlements in the county include Hereford, the county town and Herefordshire's only city, as well as the towns of Leominster, Ross-on-Wye and Bromyard. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Herefordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding Many well-known cider producers are based in Herefordshire.
These include Weston's cider of Much Marcle, Bulmer's cider, from Hereford, which produces the UK market leader Strongbow. Most employment in Herefordshire is in agriculture and services. According to Herefordshire Council's online document "worklessness", 10% of people are unemployed in Herefordshire including out-of-work, homeless and disabled and their carers. Cargill Meats and H. P. Bulmers are two of the largest private sector employers, with the Council and NHS being the largest public sector employers. There are two parliamentary constituencies in Herefordshire; as of January 2017, Bill Wiggin represents North Herefordshire and Jesse Norman represents Hereford and South Herefordshire. Both politicians are members of the Conservative Party; the Council is Conservative controlled. The Chairman is Councillor Brian Wilcox and the Leader of the Council is Councillor Jonathan Lester; the Cabinet Leader is appointed yearly by the full council of 53 councillors. The Cabinet Leader picks their deputy and up to 8 other councillors to form the executive cabinet.