Wolfram Mathematica is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, data science and others. The system is used in many technical, engineering and computing fields, it is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, Illinois. The Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica. Wolfram Mathematica is split into the kernel and the front end; the kernel interprets returns result expressions. The front end, designed by Theodore Gray in 1988, provides a GUI, which allows the creation and editing of Notebook documents containing program code with Syntax highlighting, formatted text together with results including typeset mathematics, graphics, GUI components and sounds. All content and formatting can be edited interactively. Standard word processing capabilities are supported, including real-time multi-lingual spell-checking. Documents can be structured using a hierarchy of cells, which allow for outlining and sectioning of a document and support automatic numbering index creation.
Documents can be presented in a slideshow environment for presentations. Notebooks and their contents are represented as Mathematica expressions that can be created, modified or analyzed by Mathematica programs or converted to other formats. Presenter tools support the creation of slide-show style presentations that support interactive elements and code execution during the presentation. Among the alternative front ends is the Wolfram Workbench, an Eclipse based integrated development environment, introduced in 2006, it provides project-based code development tools for Mathematica, including revision management, debugging and testing. There is a plugin for IntelliJ IDEA based IDEs to work with Wolfram Language code which in addition to syntax highlighting can analyse and auto-complete local variables and defined functions; the Mathematica Kernel includes a command line front end. Other interfaces include JMath, based on GNU readline and WolframScript which runs self-contained Mathematica programs from the UNIX command line.
Capabilities for high-performance computing were extended with the introduction of packed arrays in version 4 and sparse matrices, by adopting the GNU Multi-Precision Library to evaluate high-precision arithmetic. Version 5.2 added automatic multi-threading. This release included CPU specific optimized libraries. In addition Mathematica is supported by third party specialist acceleration hardware such as ClearSpeed. In 2002, gridMathematica was introduced to allow user level parallel programming on heterogeneous clusters and multiprocessor systems and in 2008 parallel computing technology was included in all Mathematica licenses including support for grid technology such as Windows HPC Server 2008, Microsoft Compute Cluster Server and Sun Grid. Support for CUDA and OpenCL GPU hardware was added in 2010. Since version 8 it can generate C code, automatically compiled by a system C compiler, such as GCC or Microsoft Visual Studio. In 2019 support was added for compiling Wolfram Language code to LLVM.
There are several ways to deploy applications written in Wolfram Mathematica: Mathematica Player Pro is a runtime version of Mathematica that will run any Mathematica application but does not allow editing or creation of the code. A free-of-charge version, Wolfram CDF Player, is provided for running Mathematica programs that have been saved in the Computable Document Format, it can view standard Mathematica files, but not run them. It includes plugins for common web browsers on Macintosh. WebMathematica allows a web browser to act as a front end to a remote Mathematica server, it is designed to allow a user-written application to be remotely accessed via a browser on any platform. It may not be used to give full access to Mathematica. Due to bandwidth limitations interactive 3D graphics is not supported within a web browser. Wolfram Language code can be converted to C code or to an automatically generated DLL. Wolfram Language code can be run on a Wolfram cloud service as a web-app or as an API either on Wolfram-hosted servers or in a private installation of the Wolfram Enterprise Private Cloud.
Communication with other applications occurs through a protocol called Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol. It allows communication between the Wolfram Mathematica kernel and front-end, provides a general interface between the kernel and other applications. Wolfram Research distributes a developer kit for linking applications written in the programming language C to the Mathematica kernel through WSTP. Using J/Link. A Java program can ask Mathematica to perform computations. Similar functionality is achieved with. NET / with. NET programs instead of Java programs. Other languages that connect to Mathematica include Haskell, AppleScript, Visual Basic and Clojure. Mathematica supports the generation and execution of Modelica models for Systems modeling and connects with Wolfram System Modeler. Links are available to many third party software packages including OpenOffice.org Calc, Microsoft Excel, MATLAB, R, SageMath, Wolfram SystemModeler, Origin. It links to the Unity game engine and the OpenAI Gym.
Eduardo Alejandro Lago Correa is a Uruguayan footballer. A central defender, he plays for Progreso in the Uruguayan Segunda División, he has earned league championships with both Peñarol and Rosenborg, he was part of the Uruguay squad that came on third place in Copa América 2004. Lago has played for the Uruguay national football team and won the Uruguayan league title with his club Peñarol in 2003. Lago was bought by Rosenborg alongside countryman Sebastián Eguren; the stay was not a success for the two players, in January 2006 they were both loaned out to SK Brann. However, on 8 February it was announced that the transfer of both Lago and Eguren was cancelled due to "psychological reasons". February 2006, Lago was on loan to C. A. Bella Vista, he went back to Scandinavia, was on loan to the Swedish club IFK Göteborg, from 1 July to 31 December 2006. The Swedish club announced that they did not want to sign Lago on a permanent basis, so he returned to Rosenborg in January 2007. After his return to Rosenborg he became more successful with 18 appearances in the 2008 season and 23 in the 2009 season.
Tony Squires is an Australian media personality of radio and television and published author He is best known as the presenter of the comic sport news show The Fat, which ran on ABC television from 2000 to 2003. In 2000, Squires began hosting the sports show The Fat, he remained on the show during its entire run. In 2004, he joined the Seven Network to host a revamped, retitled, sport show 110% Tony Squires, which only lasted one season. In 2008, he joined Network Ten to host Big Mouth, a panel show based around reality television show Big Brother; the show lasted one season, as Big Brother was axed after the 2008 series. In April 2010, Squires replaced Alex Cullen as weekday sports presenter on Seven News in Sydney. In August 2012, Squires was replaced by Jim Wilson. Squires is a fill in presenter for Andrew O'Keefe on Weekend Sunrise as well as Larry Emdur on The Morning Show In August 2012 he became a reporter on Sunday Night on Seven meaning that he no longer presents the sport on Seven News Sydney, making him the second sports presenter from the Sydney bulletin to become a Sunday Night reporter, after Alex Cullen.
In 2013 he started hosting Back Page Live on Fox Sports, as he continues to do alongside journalist Kelli Underwood. Squires early work in radio involved writing news bulletins for the Sydney radio station 2SM, SBS Radio station 2EA. In 2005, Squires and long-time colleague Rebecca Wilson were hired by new radio station Vega 95.3 Sydney to co-host the drive-time program. In 2007, Squires and Wilson were joined by Mikey Robins, but Wilson's retirement in September 2009 prompted Vega to stand down Squires and Robins a month later. In 2010, Tony joined Triple M hosting'The Grapple' Sunday mornings from 8 am alongside Andrew Johns and Mark Geyer. In 2011, Squires was appointed presenter of a new rugby program on Triple M called'The Ruck' on Sunday mornings from 9 am alongside Tim Horan and Matt Burke, he is a fill in presenter on The Grill Team. Squires released his book Cracking The Footy Codes: A beginner's guide to AFL, league and football in 2009. Squires grew up in Caves Beach, a suburb of Newcastle, New South Wales, where he worked as a journalist for the Newcastle Morning Herald in the early 1980s.
In the 1990s he wrote a regular television review column in The Sydney Morning Herald. Tony married his girlfriend of two years, public relations executive Kate Pascoe, on 28 November 2008, he had separated from his previous wife of twenty years, with whom he had two daughters, in 2006. Tony is a fan of the Sydney Swans. Tony Squires official website
Sudan competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany. Men Track & road eventsAlternate members: Mashinkok Izielia Alier Mohamed Mahagoub Said Taha Kamal Eldin Mohamed MenAlternate member: Ibrahim Abdalhamid Awad Mohame Hashim Ahmed Mustafa Awad Abbasher Obang Fitter Obang Okalo Tomsah Milwal Roster - Morgan Abdelgadir Mohmed, Ahmed Abdo Mustafa, Musa Awad Nasr, Sanad Bushara Abdelnadief, Ahmed Bushra Wahba, Addelfadiel Elfadil Osman, Elnur Elnur Abdelgadir, Mohamed Elsir Abdalla, Suliman Gaafar Mohmed, Ali Hasabelrasoul Omer, Mohmed Izzeldin Adam, Ahmed Izzeldin Osman, Salim Mahmoud Said, Mohmed Mohmed Abdelfatah, Ahmed Mohmed Elbashir, Attaelmanan Mohsin, Hassan Nagmeldin, Gaksa Nasreldin Abas, Mohmed Sharafeldin Ahmed MenAlternate member: Dein Farouk Ahmed Mostafa Mohamed Abdelwahab Ramadan Mohamed Elmansour Official Olympic Reports sports-reference
Clinical metagenomic next-generation sequencing is the comprehensive analysis of microbial and host genetic material in samples from patients. It allows for identification and genomic characterization of bacteria, fungi and viruses without the need for a priori knowledge of a specific pathogen directly from clinical specimens; the capacity to detect all the potential pathogens in a sample makes metagenomic next generation sequencing a potent tool in the diagnosis of infectious disease when other more directed assays such as PCR fail. Anyway some limitations are still present and need to be challenged, such as clinical utility, laboratory validity and sensitivity, cost and regulatory considerations. A typical mNGS workflow consists of the following steps: Sample acquisition: the most used samples for metagenomic sequencing are blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, or nasopharyngeal swabs. Among these, blood and CSF are the cleanest, having less background noise, while the others are expected to have a great amount of commensals and/or opportunistic infections and thus have more background noise.
Samples should be collected with much caution as surgical specimens could be contaminated during handling of the biopsy. RNA/DNA extraction: the DNA and the RNA of the sample is extracted by using an extraction kit. If there is a strong previous supicion of the pathogen genome composition and since the amount of pathogen nucleic acid in more noise samples is overwhelmed by the RNA/DNA of other organisms, selecting an extraction kit of only RNA or DNA would be a more specific and convenient approach; some commerciable available kits are for example RNeasy PowerSoil Total RNA kit, RNeasy Minikit, MagMAX Viral Isolation kit, Viral RNA Minikit. Optimization strategies for library preparation: because of high levels of background noise in metagenomic sequencing, several target enrichment procedures have been developed that aim to increase the probability of capturing pathogen-derived transcripts and/or genomes. There are two main approaches that can be used to increase the amount of pathogen signal in a sample: negative selection and positive enrichment.
Negative selection targets and eliminates the host and microbiome genomic background, while aiming to preserve the nucleic acid derived from the pathogens of interest. Degradation of genomic background can be performed through broad-spectrum digestion with nucleases, such as DNase I for DNA background, or by removing abundant RNA species using sequence-specific RNA depletion kits. CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches can be performed to target and deplete human mitochrondrial RNA for example. However, subtraction approaches lead to a certain degree of loss of the targeted pathogen genome, as poor recovery may occur during the cleanup. Positive enrichment is used to increase pathogen signal rather than reducing background noise; this is done through hybridization-based target capture by probes, which are used to pull out nucleic acid of interest for downstream amplification and sequencing. Panviral probes have been shown to identify diverse types of pathogens in different clinical fluid and respiratory samples, have been used for sequencing and characterization of novel viruses.
However, the probe approach includes extra hybridization and cleanup steps, requiring higher sample input, increasing the risk of losing the target, increasing the cost and hands-on time. High-throughput sequencing: all the nucleic acids fragments of the library are sequenced; the sequencing platform to be used is chosen depending on different factors such as laboratory's research objectives, personal experience and skill levels. So far, the Illumina MiSeq system has proven to be the most used platform for infectious disease research, pathogen surveillance, pathogen discovery in research and public health; the instrument is compact enough to fit on a laboratory bench, has a fast runtime as compared to other similar platforms, has a strong user support community. However, with further improvements of this technology and with additional error reduction and software stabilization, the MinION may be an excellent addition to the arsenal of current sequencing technologies for routine surveillance in smaller laboratories with limited resources.
For instance, the MinION was used in the ZiBRA project for real-time Zika virus surveillance of mosquitoes and humans in Brazil, in Guinea to perform real-time surveillance during the ongoing Ebola outbreak. In general, for limited resources IlluminaMiSeq, iSeq, Ion Torrent PGM, Oxford Nanopore, MinION are used. While for substantial resources Illumina NextSeq, NovaSeq, PacBio Sequel, Oxford Nanopore and PromethION are preferred. Moreover, for pathogen sequencing the use of controls is of fundamental importance ensuring mNGS assay quality and stability over time. Bioinformatic analysis: Whereas the sequencing itself has been made accessible and more user friendly, the data analysis and interpretation that follows still requires specialized bioinformatics expertise and appropriate computational resources; the raw data from a sequencing platform is cleaned and filtered to remove low-quality and duplicate reads. Removal of the host genome/transcriptome reads is performed to decrease background noise and increase the frequency of pat
Ravanayan is a ten-part comic series based on the Hindu epic Ramayana released by Holy Cow Entertainment in July 2011 with Ravana as the chief protagonist. Its creators are Mumbai-based writer Vijayendra Mohanty. Ravanayan is divided into twelve chapters spread over ten issues, it is an imaginative take on the life of the antagonist of Ramayana. Ravanayan is an independent 10- chapter comic book series project being undertaken by Vijayendra Mohanty and Vivek Goel. Apart from Ravana being the chief protagonist instead of Rama, Ravanayan departs from Ramayana in other ways; the creators of Ravanayan address Ravana with the honorific title of'Lord' because, as they reason out, his kingdom had flourished under his able rule. Physical appearance of most characters has been re-imagined. Ravana has been depicted as "handsome, muscular man with flowing locks of white hair... He is clean-shaven, without the'clichéd, ugly moustache'", traditionally used to depict any asura. Most prominently, Ravana, as is the case with popular depictions, has not been shown with ten heads, but instead, the ten qualities that each of the heads stood for have been incorporated in his personality.
Again in contrast with the original Ramayana, creators have focused less on characters related to Rama and more on those related to Ravana. They have made an attempt in the second chapter to explain how a small incident gave glimpses of future personality of the three brothers – Kumbhakarna and Ravana; the creators had consulted Valmiki's original Ramayana, apart from that Arshia Sattar, Devdutt Pattanaik, Penguin Books' Guide to Ramayana. The creators have used their imagination to re-interpret the characters. Ramayana Ravana Rama Ravanayan on Flipkart Ravanayan at the official home page of Holy Cow Entertainment