Aconitum known as aconite, wolf's bane, leopard's bane, women's bane, devil's helmet, queen of poisons, or blue rocket, is a genus of over 250 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. These herbaceous perennial plants are chiefly native to the mountainous parts of the Northern Hemisphere, growing in the moisture-retentive but well-draining soils of mountain meadows. Most species are poisonous and must be dealt with carefully; the name aconitum comes from the Greek ἀκόνιτον, which may derive from the Greek akon for dart or javelin, the tips of which were poisoned with the substance, or from akonae, because of the rocky ground on which the plant was thought to grow. The Greek name lycotonum, which translates to "wolf's bane", is thought to indicate the use of its juice to poison arrows or baits used to kill wolves; the English name monkshood refers to the cylindrical helmet, called the galea, distinguishing the flower. The dark green leaves of Aconitum species lack stipules.
They are palmate or palmately lobed with five to seven segments. Each segment again is trilobed with coarse sharp teeth; the leaves have a spiral arrangement. The lower leaves have long petioles; the tall, erect stem is crowned by racemes of large blue, white, yellow, or pink zygomorphic flowers with numerous stamens. They are distinguishable by having one of the five petaloid sepals, called the galea, in the form of a cylindrical helmet, hence the English name monkshood. Two to 10 petals are present; the two upper petals are large and are placed under the hood of the calyx and are supported on long stalks. They have a hollow spur at their apex; the other petals are scale-like or nonforming. The three to five carpels are fused at the base; the fruit is an aggregate of a follicle being a dry, many-seeded structure. Aconitum species have been recorded as food plant of the caterpillars of several moths; the yellow tiger moth Arctia flavia, the purple-shaded gem Euchalcia variabilis are at home on A. vulparia.
The engrailed Ectropis crepuscularia, yellow-tail Euproctis similis, mouse moth Amphipyra tragopoginis, pease blossom Periphanes delphinii, Mniotype bathensis, have been observed feeding on A. napellus. The purple-lined sallow Pyrrhia exprimens, Blepharita amica were found eating from A. septentrionale. The dot moth Melanchra persicariae occurs both on A. intermedium. The golden plusia Polychrysia moneta is hosted by A. vulparia, A. napellus, A. septentrionale, A. intermedium. Other moths associated with Aconitum species include the wormwood pug Eupithecia absinthiata, satyr pug E. satyrata, Aterpia charpentierana, A. corticana. It is the primary food source for the Old World bumblebee Bombus consobrinus. Aconitum flowers are evolved to be pollinated by long-tongued bumblebees. Bumblebees have the strength to open the flowers and reach the single nectary at the top of the flower on its inside; some short-tongued bees will bore holes into the tops of the flowers to steal nectar. However, alkaloids in the nectar function.
The effect is greater in certain species, such as Aconitum napellus, than in others, such as Aconitum lycoctonum. Unlike the species with blue-purple flowers such as A. napellus, A. lycoctonum — which has off-white to pale yellow flowers, has been found to be a nectar source for butterflies.. This is due to the nectary flowers of the latter being more reachable by the butterflies; the roots of A. ferox supply the Nepalese poison called bish, or nabee. It contains large quantities of the alkaloid pseudaconitine, a deadly poison; the root of A. luridum, of the Himalaya, is said to be as poisonous as that of A. ferox or A. napellus. Several species of Aconitum have been used as arrow poisons; the Minaro in Ladakh use A. napellus on their arrows to hunt ibex, while the Ainu in Japan used a species of Aconitum to hunt bear. The Chinese used Aconitum poisons both for hunting and for warfare. Aconitum poisons were used by the Aleuts of Alaska's Aleutian Islands for hunting whales. One man in a kayak armed with a poison-tipped lance would hunt the whale, paralyzing it with the poison and causing it to drown.
The more common species of Aconitum are those cultivated in gardens hybrids. They thrive in well-drained evenly moist garden soils like the related hellebores and delphiniums, can grow in the shade of trees, they can be propagated by seeds. All parts of the plant should be handled while wearing protective disposable gloves. Unlike Helleborus and Delphinium, there are no double-flowered hybrid forms. Aconitum plants are much longer-lived than the related delphinium plants, putting less energy into floral reproduction; as with hellebores and some others in the family, they do not like to be moved once established and seeds that are not planted soon after harvesting should be stored moist-packed in vermiculite to avoid dormancy and viability issues. In the UK, the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:- A. × cammarum'Bicolor'.'Bressingham Spire' ’Spark’s Variety"Stainless Steel' A medium to dark semi-saturated blue-purple is the typical flower color for Aconitum species.
Aconitum species tend to be variable enough in form and color in the wild to cause debate and confusion among experts when it comes to species classification boundaries. The overall color ra
Wolfsbane was the 1994 third album from British heavy metal band Wolfsbane. Not long after the album's release, vocalist Blaze Bayley took over Bruce Dickinson's position as the lead vocalist for Iron Maiden, it would end up becoming Wolfsbane's final studio album before their 16-year breakup from 1994 to 2010. All tracks written by Wolfsbane "Wings" "Lifestyles of the Broke and Obscure" "My Face" "Money Talks" "Seen How It's Done" "Beautiful Lies" "Protect and Survive" "Black Machine" "Violence" "Die Again" A limited edition bonus CD, entitled Everything Else, was included with the initial release. All tracks were written by Wolfsbane except for track 3 written by Anti-Nowhere League, track 6 written by Bruce Springsteen "Rope and Ride" "Want Me" "For You" "End of the Century" "Hollow Man" "Born to Run" Blaze Bayley: Vocals Jason Edwards: Guitar Jeff Hately: Bass Steve Ellet: Drums
Aconitum lycoctonum is a species of flowering plant in the genus Aconitum, of the family Ranunculaceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. Lycoctonum is a rendering in modern Latin of the traditional name "wolf's bane", it is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1 m tall. The leaves are palmately lobed with four to six cut lobes; the flowers are 18–25 mm long, dark violet pale yellow. Like all species in the genus, it is poisonous
Wolf's Bane is the nineteenth book in the Lone Wolf book series created by Joe Dever and now illustrated by Brian Williams. Lone Wolf books rely on a combination of luck. Certain statistics such as combat skill and endurance attributes are determined randomly before play; the player is allowed to choose Grandmaster Kai disciplines and a selection of Dessi and Crystal Star magics. This number depends directly on. With each additional book completed, the player chooses one additional discipline; the Grandmaster series is different from any in the previous series of books because it gives Lone Wolf spells to use which grow more numerous as his Grandmaster Rank increases. Lone Wolf learns that the evil god Naar has created an evil doppelganger of himself, the champion of the forces of good on Magnamund. A cat and mouse game between the two warriors ensues, which leads both across a world claimed by Naar. Gamebooks - Lone Wolf Gamebooks - Wolf's Bane Project Aon - Online editions of Lone Wolf books
Wolfsbane is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is associated with the X-Men. A Scottish mutant, Wolfsbane possesses the ability to transform into a wolf or into a transitional state somewhere between human and wolf, similar to a werewolf, she has honed her powers to shift between human and wolf characteristics but must keep her feral instincts at bay when she does. She was a member of the X-Men's 1980s junior team The New Mutants. On she joined the Pentagon-sponsored X-Factor and was associated with the British superhero team Excalibur, she appeared for a time as a teacher at Xavier's Academy in New X-Men. She served as a member of the X-Factor Investigations detective agency, until she joined the new incarnation of X-Force. Maisie Williams will portray Wolfsbane in the upcoming film The New Mutants. Created by writer Chris Claremont and artist Bob McLeod, Wolfsbane first appeared in The New Mutants, part of the line Marvel Graphic Novel.
She starred as a founding member of the New Mutants and features in nearly the entire run of The New Mutants volume 1, her last issue being #97 in which she decides to stay in Genosha at the end of the X-Tinction Agenda crossover. When the original five X-Men left X-Factor to rejoin the X-Men, Wolfsbane was recruited to join when it became a government operation, in issue #71, in which she featured as a team member through issue #111, when the title was interrupted by The Age of Apocalypse. Afterwards, Wolfsbane left X-Factor to visit her foster mother, Moira MacTaggart and joined Excalibur starting with issue #90 through the title's conclusion with issue #125, she was a supporting character in the short-lived Warlock comic featuring the Douglock entity, sporadically in The New Mutants volume 2 and New X-Men. With the relaunch of X-Factor, volume 3, Wolfsbane once again saw regular publication as a central team member between issues #1 and #28, after which she was transferred to the secret strike team X-Force, volume 3.
During this run, she became pregnant by the Asgardian Hrimhari, with X-Force volume 3 #25, this pregnancy caused her to return to X-Factor, starting with issue #207. With her return, much of the X-Factor volume 3 run was dedicated to her pregnancy and her son and her last significant appearance was X-Factor #258. Rahne is Scottish. Rahne was raised as an orphan by an abusive pastor named Reverend Craig who beat religion into her from an early age; when she was revealed as a mutant, Reverend Craig led an angry mob intending to burn her at the stake. Rahne was rescued and adopted by Moira MacTaggert; when she confronts Reverend Craig as an adult, she learned that Reverend Craig was her biological father and that her mother had been a prostitute. She is recruited by Professor X to become a student at his School for Gifted Youngsters, to join the original New Mutants. Rahne was one of the original New Mutants, who operated as adventurers when not in school. Although she was a shy repressed girl, Rahne managed to build a strong friendship with Danielle Moonstar and harbor a crush on Sam Guthrie.
Danielle discovered she was able to establish a psychic link with Rahne when the latter was in wolf or wolfoid form. Rahne's strict religious upbringing made her uncomfortable when dealing with mythological entities, her sorceress teammate Magik, or demons, as well as making her uncomfortable to the point of self-loathing with her superhuman power, which resembles the transformations of a werewolf; these feelings were at odds with the pure joy she found in using her powers, causing a deep emotional conflict. She was disturbed to find herself attracted to Hrimhari, a shapeshifting wolf prince, while in Asgard, although he became her first serious love, she decided to return to Earth. Rahne began a relationship with teammate Cypher, was devastated when he was killed by the Ani-Mator. On one of her two visits to Asgard, she met the demonic Garmr, a gigantic wolf who guards the entrance to the netherworld, she confesses to Rictor that Garm's face,'that devil's face', is what she sometimes perceives when looking into the mirror.
She begins an innocent romance with Rictor, but this proves to be short-lived. During the 1990 "X-Tinction Agenda" storyline Rahne is mentally bonded to Havok against her will by the scientists who genetically engineer mutant slaves in the nation of Genosha, she is subsequently manipulated by the Shadow King, into to her joining X-Factor as a United States government special operative. Her bond with Havok causes her to act irrationally, sometimes threatening teammates, sometimes by flirting with them, she stays in half-wolf forms for this time, because turning human causes her to revert to the slave identity that the Genoshans had created for her. She undergoes more than one attempt to undo the bonding, with varying results, her instability manifests in many odd dreams, in which her identity is merged into pop culture figures. The Genoshan damage is undone by Haven. Wolfsbane appears in its 1993 sequel, The Infinity Crusade. During the first storyline, she is part of the rear guard who stayed behind on Earth at the Fantastic Four headquarters.
Various evil doubles attack the assembled heroes. During Crusade, Wolfsbane's deep religious beliefs lead her to be approached by the main villain, the Goddess. Wolfsbane, along with many other religious heroes, is brainwashed as part of Goddess' army but Wolfsbane's identity is restored by the sto
Wolfbane is a science fiction novel by American writer Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth, published in 1959, it was serialized in Galaxy with illustrations by Wally Wood. In his review column for F&SF, Damon Knight selected the novel as one of the 10 best genre books of 1959; this science fiction novel takes place in the year 2203, if we take the age of 250 years given for a Korean War identity bracelet, dated 1953. A rogue planet, populated by strange machines known as Pyramids, has stolen the Earth from the Solar system, taking it off into interstellar space; the moon has been'ignited' by alien technology to serve as a miniature sun around which both planets orbit. This new sun is rekindled every 5 years, though as the book opens, the rekindling is nearly overdue and there is fear among the populace that it may never happen again; the global population has crashed to a hundred million, due to the radical climate changes that followed the arrival of the alien planet. Most of the surviving humans are'Citizens,' passive people living lives bound up with elaborate social rituals, various styles of meditation, prescribed selflessness.
This constraining lifestyle causes Citizens to succumb to mental breakdowns and run'amok,' attacking anyone within reach. Persons who commit this or any other crime face ritual execution. A small minority of the population who retain their aggressive natures are referred to as'Wolves.' They are considered to be a direct threat to the rest of society. These Wolves, however see themselves as superior humans and refer to the Citizens as'Sheep.' This labeling system is somewhat ironic, because the Wolves try to trick the Sheep into avoiding their settlements, while any Wolf, caught by the Sheep is murdered. The Pyramid aliens' motives are unknown, their only visible presence being a lone Pyramid perched atop a leveled-off Mount Everest and the transparent'Eyes' which form over individuals who have attained or approached a state of meditative perfection or'Nirvana.' Persons who reach this stage of meditation vanish from the world to an unknown destination. The story opens in the town of West Virginia.
We first see a banker and model Citizen. An Eye forms over him while he is meditating, he returns to a more Earthly concern - whether or not the'sun' will be regenerated, ending the current period of hunger and cold. Attention shifts to Glenn Tropile, who lives among the Citizens, but regards himself as one of the feared Wolves, he has managed to coach his wife, toward a more Wolfish outlook. Despite this rebellious attitude, he maintains a genuine interest in meditation. Glenn Tropile is exposed as a Wolf while stealing bread, he is collected by a community of Wolves living in the town of Princeton. They find he doesn't fit in there either, but hope he may get collected by an'Eye', giving them a chance to measure this process in detail; this happens and they find, as expected, that his disappearance was facilitated by the Pyramid on Everest. Glenn Tropile has been sent to the Pyramid's planet. We learn his fate. To the Pyramids, the human race is nothing more than a useful source of'Components' for a complex world-machine devoted to feeding these artificial and semi-organic beings.
Tropile is ` wired in' to the vast computer system. He is linked to seven other humans as a'Snowflake' - eight minds joined together to facilitate more complex tasks than a single human Component could manage. In this condition, Tropile wakes, manages to retain his sanity, wakes the other humans, they merge with one another to form a sophisticated collective mind. The freed Snowflake spies on the Pyramids, finding that they have been traveling for some two million years, have collected many species as Components, but seem locked in meaningless rituals surrounding an alien creature at the world's North Pole, they realize that this is the last survivor of the race that created the Pyramids. In the meantime, they have modified the collection process of human Components so that it selects persons known to at least one of the eight people composing the Snowflake; these humans are intended as'mice,' disrupters of the planet, as an army with which to fight the Pyramids. Roget Germyn is one of them. Facing a philosophical dead-end, the'Snowflake' decides to separate its component minds to study the problem.
Restored to individual identity, Glenn Tropile becomes horrified at. However, the majority of the others want to carry on. While they are arguing, one of their number is taken over by the mind of the alien at the North Pole, who warns them that the Pyramids have noticed them and plan to wipe out half the planet to get rid of them, they re-merge their personalities as the Snowflake and expedite their plans. Tropile decides he must physically disconnect himself from the Snowflake and leave to lead the humans, they manage to defeat the Pyramids, but not before the remainder of the Snowflake is destroyed. The humans ship them back to Earth. Tropile now does not fit the role, he sees that there is a need for someone to wire themselves back into the alien planet's surviving systems, to re-kindle the'sun' every five years and return the Earth to its original orbit. He doesn't want to do it alone. On
Arnica montana known as wolf's bane, leopard's bane, mountain tobacco and mountain arnica, is a moderately toxic ethnobotanical European flowering plant in the sunflower family. It is noted for its large yellow flower head; the names "wolf's bane" and "leopard's bane" are used for another plant, poisonous. Arnica montana is used as an herbal medicine for anti-inflammatory purposes. Clinical trials have produced mixed results. Arnica montana is a flowering plant about 18 -- perennial herb, its basal green ovate-cilitate leaves with rounded tips are bright level to the ground. In addition, they are somewhat downy on their upper surface and aggregated in rosettes. By contrast, the upper leaves are opposed, spear-shaped and smaller, an exception within the Asteraceae; the chromosome number is 2n=38. The flowering season is between August; the hairy flowers are composed of yellow disc florets in the center and orange-yellow ray florets at the external part. The achenes have a one-piece rough pappus. Arnica montana is a hemicryptophyte, which helps the plant to survive the extreme overwintering condition of its habitat.
In addition, Arnica forms rhizomes, which grow in a two-year cycle: the rosette part grows at its front while its tail is dying. The Latin specific epithet montana refers to coming from mountains. Arnica montana is widespread across most of Europe, it is absent from the British Isles and the Balkan peninsulas and Slovakia. In addition, it is considered extinct in Lithuania. Arnica montana grows in nutrient-poor siliceous meadows or clay soils, it grows on alpine meadows and up to nearly 3,000 m. In more upland regions, it may be found on nutrient-poor moors and heaths; however Arnica does not grow on lime soil, thus it is an reliable bioindicator for nutrient poor and acidic soils. It may be locally abundant, it is becoming rarer in the north of its distribution due to intensive agriculture and commercial wild-crafting. It is cultivated on a large scale in Estonia; the main constituents of Arnica montana are essential oils, fatty acids, pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpene lactones and flavanone glycosides.
Pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpenes constitute 0.2–0.8 % of the flower head of Arnica montana. They are their fatty esters. 2,5-Dimethoxy-p-cymene and thymol methyl ether are the primary components of essential oils from both the plant's roots and rhizomes. Although Amica montana's main pharmacologically active constituent is safe and beneficial in the small quantities used in herbal medicine, it is toxic and always fatal in larger doses. Using whole plant material can result in sudden death, only standardized preparations of the plant should be used for medicinal purposes. Many of the plant's trace-alkaloids are more toxic than helenalin by one or more orders of magnitude, acting as potent hepatotoxins, mutagens and neurotoxic central nervous system stimulants. Arnica montana is propagated from seed. 20% of seeds do not germinate. For large scale planting, it is recommended to raise plants first in a nursery and to transplant them in the field. Seeds sprout in 14–20 days but germination rate depends of the seed quality.
Planting density for Arnica montana is of 20 plants/m2 such that the maximum yield density will be achieved in the second flowering season. While Arnica montana has high exigencies of soil quality, analyses should be done before any fertilizer input; the flowers are harvested when developed and dried without their bract nor receptacles. The roots can be harvested in autumn and dried as well after being washed. Arnica montana is sometimes grown in herb gardens. Arnica montana has been used as an herbal medicine for centuries. Traditional uses for the plant are similar to those for willow bark, with it being employed for analgesic and anti-inflammatory purposes. Clinical trials of Arnica montana have yielded mixed results: When used topically in a gel at 50% concentration, A. montana was found to have the same effectiveness as a 5% ibuprofen gel for treating the symptoms of hand osteoarthritis. A 2014 systematic review found that the available evidence did not support its effectiveness of A. montana at concentrations of 10% or less for pain and bruises.
A. Montana has been the subject of studies of homeopathic preparations. A 1998 systematic review of homeopathic A. montana conducted at the University of Exeter found that there are no rigorous clinical trials that support the claim that it is efficacious beyond a placebo effect. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified Arnica montana as an unsafe herb because of its toxicity, it should not be applied to broken skin where absorption can occur. Arnica montana contains the toxin helenalin, which can be poisonous if large amounts of the plant are eaten or small amounts of concentrated Arnica are used. Consumption of A. montana can produce severe gastroenteritis, internal bleeding of the digestive tract, raised liver enzymes, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness