Wolverine is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. He is a mutant who possesses animal-keen senses, enhanced physical capabilities, powerful regenerative ability known as a healing factor, three retractable claws in each hand. Wolverine has been depicted variously as a member of the X-Men, Alpha Flight, the Avengers; the character appeared in the last panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 before having a larger role in #181. He was created by Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, writer Len Wein, Marvel art director John Romita Sr. Romita designed the character, although it was first drawn for publication by Herb Trimpe. Wolverine joined a revamped version of the superhero team the X-Men, where writer Chris Claremont and artist-writer John Byrne would play significant roles in the character's development. Artist Frank Miller collaborated with Claremont and helped revise the character with a four-part eponymous limited series from September to December 1982, which debuted Wolverine's catchphrase, "I'm the best there is at what I do, but what I do best isn't nice."
Wolverine is typical of the many tough antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War. As a result, the character became a fan favorite of the popular X-Men franchise, has been featured in his own solo comic book series since 1988, he has appeared in most X-Men adaptations, including animated television series, video games, the live-action 20th Century Fox X-Men film series, in which he is played by Hugh Jackman. Troye Sivan portrayed a younger version in the 2009 film X-Men Origins: Wolverine; the character is rated in many comics best-of lists, ranked #1 in Wizard magazine's 2008 Top 200 Comic Book Characters. Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas asked writer Len Wein to devise a character named Wolverine, Canadian and of small stature and with a wolverine's fierce temper. John Romita Sr. designed the first Wolverine costume, believes he introduced the retractable claws, saying, "When I make a design, I want it to be practical and functional. I thought,'If a man has claws like that, how does he scratch his nose or tie his shoelaces?'"
Wolverine first appeared in the final "teaser" panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 written by Wein and penciled by Herb Trimpe. The character appeared in a number of advertisements in various Marvel Comics publications before making his first major appearance in The Incredible Hulk #181 again by the Wein–Trimpe team. In 2009, Trimpe said he "distinctly remembers" Romita's sketch and that, "The way I see it, sewed the monster together and I shocked it to life!... It was just one of those secondary or tertiary characters that we were using in that particular book with no particular notion of it going anywhere. We did characters in The Hulk all the time that were in issues and, the end of them." Though credited as co-creator, Trimpe denied having had any role in Wolverine's creation. The character's introduction was ambiguous, revealing little beyond his being a superhuman agent of the Canadian government. In these appearances, he does not retract his claws, although Wein stated they had always been envisioned as retractable.
He appears in the finale to this story in The Incredible Hulk #182. Wolverine's next appearance was in 1975's Giant-Size X-Men #1, written by Wein and penciled by Dave Cockrum, in which Wolverine is recruited for a new squad. Gil Kane incorrectly drew Wolverine's mask with larger headpieces. Dave Cockrum liked Kane's accidental alteration and incorporated it into his own artwork for the actual story. Cockrum was the first artist to draw Wolverine without his mask, the distinctive hairstyle became a trademark of the character. A revival of X-Men followed, beginning with X-Men #94, drawn by Cockrum and written by Chris Claremont. In X-Men and Uncanny X-Men, Wolverine is overshadowed by the other characters, although he does create tension in the team as he is attracted to Cyclops' girlfriend, Jean Grey; as the series progressed and Cockrum considered dropping Wolverine from the series. Byrne modeled his rendition of Wolverine on actor Paul D’Amato, who played Dr. Hook in the 1977 sports film Slap Shot.
Byrne created Alpha Flight, a group of Canadian superheroes who try to recapture Wolverine due to the expense their government incurred training him. Stories establish Wolverine's murky past and unstable nature, which he battles to keep in check. Byrne designed a new brown-and-tan costume for Wolverine, but retained the distinctive Cockrum cowl. Cockrum had introduced a new costume for Wolverine in the final issue of his run, but it was dropped one issue into Byrne's run because he and Cockrum alike found it painfully difficult to draw. Following Byrne's departure, Wolverine remained in X-Men; the character's growing popularity led to a solo, four-issue, Wolverine, by Claremont and Frank Miller, followed by the six-issue Kitty Pryde and Wolverine by Claremont and Al Milgrom
Dallas Woodburn is an author, writing teacher, freelance journalist, motivational speaker, literacy advocate. She is the author of two self-published books: There's a Huge Pimple on My Nose and 3 a.m. and the forthcoming short story collection Woman, Running Late, in a Dress. She is the founder of Write On! Books, an organization dedicated to encouraging young people to read and write, through which she edits and publishes the series of books by young writers called Dancing with The Pen, her nonfiction has been published in numerous national publications, her short fiction has been nominated for a Pushcart Prize, her plays have been produced in Los Angeles and New York City. Woodburn's first book There's a Huge Pimple on My Nose was self-published when she was 10 years old in 5th grade, it sold thousands of copies. It is a collection of short stories with black-and-white illustrations; the forty pages of this book include the stories There's A Huge Pimple On My Nose, The Magic Eye, D. A. R. E. To Say "No", The Cat And The Panda.
The poems include Peanut Butter Surprise, The Shot For Glory, The Perfect Place, Yosemite Falls, Fantastic Fall, A Friend, Ocean Kings, Masterpiece and "My Monday Guy." The book was reviewed by The Ventura County Star and Girls' Life Magazine. Years some of the poems were adapted into a song-cycle by composer Alex Marthaler at Carnegie Mellon University, her second book 3 a.m. came out in June 2005. It is a collection of self-published short stories available on Amazon.com. The cover was designed by her brother; the stories included are The 74-Year-Old Rookie and Found, The Hitchhiker, Just Friends, How I Became a Coffee Addict, Wishing on Upside-Down Stars and A Real Beauty. The book is 123 pages long; the book was given praise by many other authors including Laurie Stolarz, Catherine Clark, Randy Powell. It was featured on the nationally syndicated PBS book talk show "Between the Lines," making Woodburn the youngest guest in the show's history; as a freelance journalist, Dallas has published many articles and essays in magazines and books including: Family Circle Writer's Digest The Writer The Los Angeles Times The Literati Quarterly GradtoGreat.com TweenParent.com CO-ED Women's Online Magazine Justine Listen Encounter Writing Motherwords ParentingPink.com Ventura County Star Inkbyte iMediaConnection Writers On The Rise Health & Home So, You Wanna Be a Writer?
Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul IV Chicken Soup for the Girl's Soul Chicken Soup for the Soul: Teens Talk Getting Into College The Real Deal on Friendship The Real Deal on School The Ultimate Dog Lover A Cup of Comfort for Dog Lovers Good Friends Come Along Once in a Lifetime Everyday Grace, Everyday Miracle Cicada Monkeybicycle The Newport Review Eclectic Flash Page Forty-Seven SubtleTea Eve's Harvest Palaver flashquake Long Story Short The Hudson Valley Literary Magazine Valparaiso Fiction Review 2018 Cypress & Pine Short Fiction Award, Yellow Flag Press John Steinbeck Fellowship in Creative Writing, San Jose State University, 2013-2014 Finalist, Iowa Sweet Corn Fiction Prize, Flyway Journal, 2017 Finalist, 2012 Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction Ninth Glass Woman Prize Recipient Finalist, Samuel French Off-Off Broadway Short Play Festival Pushcart Prize nominee Jim Murray Memorial Foundation Scholar award Silver medal for short story writing in the Scholastic Art and Writing Awards First place in Byline Magazine's Short Story Contest First place in Let's Write Literary Contest Jackie Kennedy-Onassis/Jefferson Award Gold Congressional Award Two time first place youth winner of the Ventura Poetry Festival CosmoGIRL! magazine's "Girl of the Month" Santa Barbara Book Fair held a "Dallas Woodburn Day" in her honor In 2001, Woodburn founded the non-profit organization Write On!
For Literacy. This organization is dedicated to encouraging kids to discover confidence, joy and self-expression through reading and writing; the organization's website is www.writeonbooks.com. Woodburn puts on writing contests for kids and teens, publishes book reviews, holds a Summer Writing Camp in her hometown of Ventura, California, she leads an annual Holiday Book Drive that donates new books to underprivileged children nationwide. More than 11,000 books have been donated through charities including the Boys and Girls Club, Casa Pacifica, Project Understanding, the Ventura County Migrant Education Services. Woodburn uses proceeds from her books to endow a Write On! Scholarship which sends youth to summer writing camps in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara
Kandasamy Pathmanabha was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and founder/leader of the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka. Pathmanabha was born on 19 November 1951, he was from Kankesanthurai in northern Ceylon. Pathmanabha became interested in radical politics in the late 1960s, he was one of the members of the Tamil Student Federation/Tamil Students' League, formed in 1972 as a reaction to the discriminatory Policy of standardisation. The 1974 Tamil conference incident further radicalised Pathmanabha. In 1974/75 Pathmanabha and others founded the Eelam Liberation Organisation. On 10 May 1976 the ELO robbed the Puloly Multi-purpose Cooperative Society's bank in Puloly. Pathmanabha was involved in the robbery. Others involved in the robbery included V. Balakumaran and S. Thavaraja. After the robbery Pathmanabha went on the run whilst the ELO disintegrated due to the security crackdown. Pathmanabha moved to London in 1976 to study accountancy.
Here he met with other Tamils. Together they formed the General Union of Eelam Students and the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students. Said Hammami, the Palestine Liberation Organization's representative in London, helped a small group Tamils including Pathmanabha take military training in the Lebanon. In 1978 he went to India to establish a base for GUES/EROS, he returned to Sri Lanka but the security forces were still looking for him so he had to travel in disguise. Pathmanabha and other members, including Douglas Devananda, Varatharaja Perumal and Suresh Premachandran, left the EROS in 1981 and formed their own militant group which would come to be known as the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front. Pathmanabha moved to Kodambakam, India in 1981 to establish the new group. In December 1986 the rival Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam attacked the EPRLF in Sri Lanka, inflicting a heavy losses and killing Gaffoor, the EPRLF's military commander. Many EPRLF cadres were killed or taken prisoner and EPRLF camps and weapons were seized by the LTTE.
Devananda was blamed for the debacle. The LTTE's animosity against the EPRLF, which it considered to be pro-India, increased following the outbreak of fighting between the LTTE and the Indian Peace Keeping Force in October 1987; the LTTE called for a boycott of the 1998 North Eastern Provincial Council election, stating that anyone who contested would be labelled a traitor and punished. The EPRLF contested and, with the connivance of the IPKF, secured 41 of the 71 seats on the North Eastern Provincial Council. Varatharaja Perumal became the first Chief Minister of North Eastern Province. On 1 March 1990, just as the IPKF were preparing to withdraw from Sri Lanka, Perumal moved a motion in the North Eastern Provincial Council declaring an independent Eelam. Fearful of the consequences once the IPKF had pulled out, the EPRLF leadership fled to India. On 11 March 1990 Pathmanabha was flown from Trincomalee to Bhubaneswar in an Indian military aircraft. President Ranasinghe Premadasa imposed direct rule on the North Eastern province on 25 March 1990.
On the evening of 19 June 1990 the EPRLF central committee were meeting at a flat at the Zachria Colony in Kodambakam. At around 7 pm gunmen started firing. Eight people including Pathmanabha, Member of Parliament G. Yogasangari and provincial minister P. Kirubakaran were killed. Five EPRLF cadres waiting outside the block of flats were killed; the assassination was blamed on the rival rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam