Though women artists have been involved in the making of art throughout history, their work, when compared to that of their male counterparts, is both overlooked and undervalued. Prevailing stereotypes about the sexes have caused certain media, such as textile or fiber arts, to be associated with women, despite having once been categories both men and women participated in. Additionally, art forms that have gained this distinction are, as in the case of both textile and fabric arts, demoted to categories like "arts and crafts", rather than fine art. Women in art have been faced with challenges due to gender biases in the mainstream fine art world, they have encountered difficulties in training and trading their work, as well as gaining recognition. Beginning in the late 1960s and 1970s, feminist artists and art historians created a Feminist art movement that overtly addresses the role of women in the art world and explores the role of women in art history and in society. There are no records of who the artists of the prehistoric eras were, but studies of many early ethnographers and cultural anthropologists indicate that women were the principal artisans in Neolithic cultures, in which they created pottery, baskets, painted surfaces and jewelry.
Collaboration on large projects was typical. Extrapolation to the artwork and skills of the Paleolithic era suggests that these cultures followed similar patterns. Cave paintings of this era have human hand prints, 75% of which are identifiable as women's. "For about three thousand years, the women – and only the women – of Mithila have been making devotional paintings of the gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon. It is no exaggeration to say that this art is the expression of the most genuine aspect of Indian civilization." The earliest records of western cultures mention specific individuals, although women are depicted in all of the art and some are shown laboring as artists. Ancient references by Homer and Virgil mention the prominent roles of women in textiles, poetry and other cultural activities, without discussion of individual artists. Among the earliest European historical records concerning individual artists is that of Pliny the Elder, who wrote about a number of Greek women who were painters, including Helena of Egypt, daughter of Timon of Egypt, Some modern critics posit that Alexander Mosaic might not have been the work of Philoxenus, but of Helena of Egypt.
One of the few named women painters who might have worked in Ancient Greece, she was reputed to have produced a painting of the battle of Issus which hung in the Temple of Peace during the time of Vespasian. Other women include Timarete, Kalypso, Aristarete and Olympias. While only some of their work survives, in Ancient Greek pottery there is a caputi hydria in the Torno Collection in Milan, it is attribute to the Leningrad painter from c. 460–450 BCE and shows women working alongside men in a workshop where both painted vases. Artists from the Medieval period include Claricia, Ende, Herrade of Landsberg and Hildegard of Bingen. In the early Medieval period, women worked alongside men. Manuscript illuminations and carved capitals from the period demonstrate examples of women at work in these arts. Documents show that they were brewers, wool merchants, iron mongers. Artists of the time period, including women, were from a small subset of society whose status allowed them freedom from these more strenuous types of work.
Women artists were of two literate classes, either wealthy aristocratic women or nuns. Women in the former category created embroideries and textiles. There were a number of embroidery workshops in England at the time at Canterbury and Winchester, it is presumed that women were entirely responsible for this production. One of the most famous embroideries of the Medieval period is the Bayeux Tapestry, embroidered with wool and is 230 feet long, its images narrate the Norman Conquest of England. The Bayeux Tapestry may have been created in either a commercial workshop by a royal or an aristocratic lady and her retinue, or in a workshop in a nunnery. In the 14th century, a royal workshop is documented, based at the Tower of London, there may have been other earlier arrangements. Manuscript illumination affords us many of the named artists of the Medieval Period including Ende, a 10th-century Spanish nun; these women, many more unnamed illuminators, benefited from the nature of convents as the major loci of learning for women in the period and the most tenable option for intellectuals among them.
In many parts of Europe, with the Gregorian Reforms of the 11th century and the rise in feudalism, women faced many strictures that they did not face in the Early Medieval period. With these societal changes, the status of the convent changed. In the British Isles, the Norman Conquest marked the beginning of the gradual decline of the convent as a seat of learning and a place where women could gain power. Convents were made subsidiary to male abbots, rather than being headed by an abbess, as they had been previously. In Pagan Scandinavia the only confirmed female runemaster, worked in the 11th century. In Germany, under the Ottonian Dynasty, convents retained their position as institutions of learning; this might be because convents were headed and populated by unmarried women from royal
Judy Chicago is an American feminist artist, art educator, writer known for her large collaborative art installation pieces about birth and creation images, which examine the role of women in history and culture. By the 1970s, Chicago had founded the first feminist art program in the United States. Chicago's work incorporates a variety of artistic skills, such as needlework, counterbalanced with labor-intensive skills such as welding and pyrotechnics. Chicago's most well known work is The Dinner Party, permanently installed in the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum; the Dinner Party celebrates the accomplishments of women throughout history and is regarded as the first epic feminist artwork. Other notable art projects by Chicago include International Honor Quilt, The Birth Project and The Holocaust Project. Judy Chicago was born Judith Sylvia Cohen in 1939, in Chicago, Illinois, her father came including the Vilna Gaon. Unlike his family predecessors, Arthur became a Marxist.
He worked nights at a post office and took care of Chicago during the day, while May, a former dancer, worked as a medical secretary. Arthur's active participation in the American Communist Party, liberal views towards women and support of worker's rights influenced Chicago's ways of thinking and belief. During the McCarthyism era in the 1950s, Arthur was investigated, which made it difficult for him to find work and caused the family much turmoil. In 1945, while Chicago was alone at home with her infant brother, Ben, an FBI agent visited their house; the agent began to ask the six-year-old Chicago questions about her father and his friends, but the agent was interrupted upon the return of May to the house. Arthur's health declined, he died in 1953 from peritonitis. May did not allow them to attend the funeral. Chicago did not come to terms with his death. May loved the arts, instilled her passion for them in her children, as evident in Chicago's future as an artist, brother Ben's eventual career as a potter.
At age of three, Chicago began to draw and was sent to the Art Institute of Chicago to attend classes. By the age of 5, Chicago knew that she "never wanted to do anything but make art" and started attending classes at the Art Institute of Chicago, she applied but was denied admission to the Art Institute, instead attended UCLA on a scholarship. While at UCLA, she became politically active, designing posters for the UCLA NAACP chapter and became its corresponding secretary. In June 1959, she became romantically linked with Jerry Gerowitz, she moved in with him, for the first time having her own studio space. The couple hitch hiked to New York in 1959, just as Chicago's mother and brother moved to Los Angeles to be closer to her; the couple lived in Greenwich Village for a time, before returning in 1960 from Los Angeles to Chicago so she could finish her degree. Chicago married Gerowitz in 1961, she was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Gerowitz died in a car crash in 1963, devastating Chicago and causing her to suffer from an identity crisis until that decade.
She received her Master of Fine Arts from UCLA in 1964. While in grad school, Chicago's created a series, abstract, yet recognized as male and female sexual organs; these early works were called Bigamy, represented the death of her husband. One depicted an abstract penis, "stopped in flight" before it could unite with a vaginal form, her professors, who were men, were dismayed over these works. Despite the use of sexual organs in her work, Chicago refrained from using gender politics or identity as themes. In 1965, Chicago displayed work at the Rolf Nelson Gallery in Los Angeles. In 1968, Chicago was asked why she did not participate in the "California Women in the Arts" exhibition at the Lytton Center, to which she answered, "I won't show in any group defined as Woman, Jewish, or California. Someday when we all grow up there will be no labels." Chicago began working in ice sculpture, which represented "a metaphor for the preciousness of life," another reference towards her husband's death. In 1969, the Pasadena Art Museum exhibited a series of Chicago's spherical acrylic plastic dome sculptures and drawings in an "experimental" gallery.
Art in America noted that Chicago's work was at the forefront of the conceptual art movement, the Los Angeles Times described the work as showing no signs of "theoretical New York type art." Chicago would describe her early artwork as minimalist and as her trying to be "one of the boys". Chicago would experiment with performance art, using fireworks and pyrotechnics to create "atmospheres", which involved flashes of coloured smoke being manipulated outdoors. Through this work she attempted to "soften" the landscape. During this time, Chicago began exploring her own sexuality in her work, she created the Pasadena Lifesavers, a series of abstract paintings that placed acrylic paint on Plexiglas. The works blended colors to create an illusion that the shapes "turn, open, vibrate, wiggle," representing her own discovery that "I was multi-orgasmic." Chicago credited Pasadena Lifesavers, as being the major turning point in her work in relation to women's sexuality and representation. As Chicago made a name for herself as an art
Linda Nochlin was an American art historian, Lila Acheson Wallace Professor Emerita of Modern Art at New York University Institute of Fine Arts, writer. A prominent feminist art historian, she became well known for her pioneering 1971 article "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?". Linda Natalie Weinberg was born the daughter of Jules Weinberg and Elka Heller in Brooklyn, New York and raised in the borough's Crown Heights neighborhood, she attended a progressive grammar school. She received her B. A. in Philosophy from Vassar College in 1951, her M. A. in English from Columbia University in 1952, her Ph. D in the history of art from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University in 1963. After working in the art history departments at Yale University, the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, Vassar College, Nochlin took a position at the Institute of Fine Arts, where she taught until retiring in 2013. In 2000, Self and History: A Tribute to Linda Nochlin was published, an anthology of essays developing themes that Nochlin worked on throughout her career.
Her critical attention was drawn to investigating the ways in which gender affects the creation and apprehension of art, as evidenced by her 1994 essay "Issues of Gender in Cassatt and Eakins". Besides feminist art history, she was best known for her work on Realism on Gustave Courbet. Complementing her career as an academic, she served on the Art Advisory Council of the International Foundation for Art Research. Nochlin was the co-curator of a number of landmark exhibitions exploring the history and achievements of female artists. 2007 — "Global Feminisms" at the Brooklyn Museum. 1976 — "Women Artists: 1550-1950" at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. In 1971, ArtNews published Nochlin's essay "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" in which she explored assumptions embedded in the title's question. She considered the nature of art along with the reasons why the notion of artistic genius has been reserved for male geniuses such as Michelangelo. Nochlin argued that significant societal barriers have prevented women from pursuing art, including restrictions on educating women in art academies and "the entire romantic, individual-glorifying, monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based ".
The thirty-year anniversary of Nochlin's ground-breaking inquiry informed a conference at Princeton University in 2001. The book associated with the conference, "Women artists at the Millennium", includes Nochlin's essay ""Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" Thirty Years After". In the conference and in the book, art historians addressed the innovative work of such figures as Louise Bourgeois, Eva Hesse, Francesca Woodman, Carrie Mae Weems and Mona Hatoum in the light of the legacies of thirty years of feminist art history. In her 1994 essay "Starting from Scratch: The Beginnings of Feminist Art History," Nochlin reflected on her awakening as a feminist and its impact on her scholarship and teaching: "In 1969, three major events occurred in my life: I had a baby, I became a feminist, I organized the first class in Women and Art at Vassar College."Nochlin deconstructed art history by identifying and questioning methodological presuppositions. She was an advocate for "art historians who investigate the work before their eyes while focusing on its subject matter, informed by a sensitivity to its feminist spirit."
Following Edward Said's influential 1978 book, Nochlin was one of the first art historians to apply theories of Orientalism to the study of art history in her 1983 paper, "The Imaginary Orient." Her key assertion was that Orientalism must be seen from the point-of-view of'the particular power structure in which these works came into being," in this case, 19th century French colonialism. Nochlin focused on the 19th century French artists Jean-Leon Gérôme and Eugène Delacroix, who both depicted'orientalist' themes in their work, including The Snake Charmer and The Death of Sardanapalus. In Gérôme's "The Snake Charmer," from the late 1860s, Nochlin described how Gérôme created a sense of verisimilitude not only in his rendering of the scene with such realistic precision one forgets a painter painted it, but in capturing the most minute details, such as meticulously painted tiles; as a result, the painting appears to be documentary evidence of life in the Ottoman court while, according to Nochlin, it is in fact a Westerner's vision of a mysterious world.
In Delacroix's "The Death of Sardanapalus" from 1827, Nochlin argued that the artist used Orientalism to explore overt erotic and violent themes that may not reflect France's cultural hegemony but rather the chauvinism and misogyny of early 19th century French society. Nochlin married twice. First, in 1953 she married Philip H. Nochlin, an assistant professor of Philosophy at Vassar, who died seven years later, she married Richard Pommer, an architectural historian, in 1968. Nochlin had two daughters: Jessica, with Philip Nochlin, Daisy, with Richard Pommer, depicted with Nochlin by the artist Alice Neel in 1973. Linda Nochlin died at age 86 on October 29, 2017. 1967: Arthur Kingsley Porter Prize for the best article published in The Art Bulletin 1978: Frank Jewett Mather Prize for Critical Writing, The College Art Association 1977: Woman of the Year, Mademoiselle magazine 1984-1985: Guggenheim Fellowship 1985: Fellow, Institute for Advanced Study 2003: Honorary Doctorate, Harvard University 2006: Visionary Woman Award, Moore College of Art & Design Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow, New York University's Institute for the H
Arts in Minneapolis
Minneapolis is the largest city in the US state of Minnesota, the county seat of Hennepin County. Minneapolitans support a dozen large art, cultural and historical museums alongside smaller galleries and museums, four large ballet and folkdance companies, as well as filmmakers groups and numerous theater companies; the city publishes updates to The Minneapolis Plan for Arts and Culture which has produced results such as the formal recognition of the Northeast Arts District in Northeast Minneapolis. The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, founded in 1883, is located near the Minneapolis College of Art and Design in south central Minneapolis. Designed by the preeminent New York architectural firm McKim and White, the original building opened its doors in 1915; the largest art museum in the city, the MIA expanded in 1974 with an addition designed by the late Japanese architect Kenzo Tange. In June 2006, the museum unveiled a new wing designed by architect Michael Graves; the Minneapolis Park Board collaborated with the Walker Art Center to build the outdoor Minneapolis Sculpture Garden near downtown and across the street from the center.
The north wing of the Walker Art Center was designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes. In 2005, an expansion designed by Herzog & de Meuron opened that doubled the size of the museum and added new galleries, a restaurant, a 385-seat theater; the Weisman Art Museum on the University of Minnesota campus offers a varied collection with strengths in early American modernism and Asian furniture. The Weisman is housed in a striking stainless steel building designed by architect Frank Gehry; the Warehouse District adjoining downtown was a hub of studio and gallery activity in the 1980s and early 1990s, but increasing rents and a surge of condominium and retail development caused many artists and galleries to relocate to other areas of the city or to the Lowertown District of downtown Saint Paul. Despite the negative effects of gentrification on the neighborhood's art scene, the Warehouse District continues to be home to various studio buildings, commercial art galleries, nonprofit arts organizations; the Traffic Zone Center for Visual Art, a prominent artist cooperative and exhibition space founded in 1995, anchors the eastern part of the district.
The most notable artist collective in Minneapolis, The Handicraft Guild founded in 1904, sits just outside the North Loop in the business district of downtown next to the headquarters of the Target corporation. Today, Northeast Minneapolis is the most vibrant visual arts community in the city, including the Northeast Minneapolis Arts District established in 2001, the Northeast Minneapolis Arts Association. Art-a-Whirl in May and The Art Attack at the Northrup-King building in November are open-studio events in Northeast Minneapolis; the Stone Arch Festival is held on the riverfront across from downtown. The Uptown Art Fair and art fairs in Loring Park and Powderhorn Park are held during August. Minnesota Center for Book Arts is a national leader in celebrating and preserving the traditional crafts of hand papermaking, letterpress printing and hand bookbinding, as well as supporting contemporary art and artists utilizing these disciplines. Founded during the 1970s to include women who are missing in the male-dominant history of the art world, the Women's Art Registry of Minnesota collective and gallery was in Minneapolis until it moved to Saint Paul where it continues as a volunteer organization.
Minneapolis is fortunate to have live music performances of all kinds. Koerner, Ray & Glover played West Bank cafes while the Metropolitan Opera stopped at Northrop Auditorium; the State Theatre, Orpheum Theatre, Walker Art Center and Guthrie Theater bring new music to Minneapolis. Bob Dylan, a Minnesota native spent time playing the Dinkytown folk music circuit. Classical music is performed at Orchestra Hall as well as small venues like the Bakken Library and Museum; the Minnesota Opera moved back to Minneapolis from Saint Paul in 1990, one of seven opera companies now operating in the area, including the Mill City Summer Opera. Concerts at stadiums and theaters in the area continue to draw the world's finest musicians; the MacPhail Center for Music founded in 1907 built new facilities near the Mississippi riverfront in 2006. Prince is Minneapolis's most famous musical progeny. With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records, he helped make First Avenue & 7th Street Entry and Minneapolis one of the most important music venues in the United States.
The Time, The Replacements, The Jayhawks, Lifter Puller, Hüsker Dü, Soul Asylum, Boiled in Lead, Tapes'n Tapes, Motion City Soundtrack and Happy Apple are well known Minneapolis acts. The city has garnered notice for rap and hip hop and the underground group Atmosphere, as well as various other hip-hop artists on the independent label Rhymesayers Entertainment such as P. O. S, Eyedea, DJ Abilities and Brother Ali. A home to poetry readings in live music venues, Minneapolis has developed a vibrant spoken word community; the Minnesota Boychoir now serving Minnesota for 52 years is a big part of the culture in Minnesotan Choral culture. The Twin Cities is second only to New York City in live theater per capita and is the third-largest theater market in the U. S. after New York City and Chicago, supporting the Jungle, Mixed Blood, Skewed Visions, the Brave New Workshop, Theater Latté Da and the Children's Theatre Company. The Guthrie Theater has 32,000 subscribers and moved in 2006 to a riverfront complex designed by Jean Nouvel for three stages—thrust and experimental.
The 178-foot cantilevered bridge to the Mississippi is open to visitors during box office hours. Founder Tyrone Guthrie who direc
New York School of Applied Design for Women
The New York School of Applied Design for Women, established in 1892, was an early design school for women in New York City. The New York School of Applied Design building is now a landmarked building; the school became the New York Phoenix School of Design in 1944 when it merged with the Phoenix Art Institute, in 1974, it merged with the Pratt Institute to form the Pratt-New York Phoenix School of Design. The school located at 200 West 23rd Street, was established in 1892; the founder and driving force of the school, Ellen Dunlap Hopkins, was involved in the academic program, fund-raising among wealthy individuals and administration. Unique at its time for providing advanced education to working class women, its purpose was that "of affording to women inspiration which may enable them to earn a livelihood by the employment of their taste and manual dexterity in the application of ornamental design to manufacture and the arts."The school provided courses in illustration, book cover design, interior design and textile design, a wide range of other art and design courses.
The school, with an extensive art library, taught historic art and design classes for the students first two years at the school. It employed Henry L. Parkhurst of Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company to teach book cover design, Paul de Longpré taught watercolor flower painting, Daniel Carter Beard taught animal drawing; the school arranged for the sale of artworks by students. Its original directors were James Carroll Beckwith of the Art Students League of New York and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, its supporters included John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, Adolph Lewisohn. Within two years of operation, two of its students were the first women to join the New York Sketch Club and a student was the first woman to have her work presented with male architects at the Architectural League; the school outgrew rented additional space an adjacent building. Harvey Wiley Corbett, an architect and instructor at the school ran the Atelier Corbett and the school's architectural department, based upon the principles that he learned at the École des Beaux-Arts in France.
When it was clear that a new building was needed, he engaged his students to work on the plans for the building, some paid at scale wages. The New York School of Applied Design building, located at 160 Lexington Avenue on the northwest corner of Lexington Avenue and East 30th Street, is a neoclassical building of terra cotta and stone; the five-story building, built in 1908 and 1909, was designed by architect Harvey Wiley Corbett of the firm Pell & Corbett, funded by J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller; the front entry on 30th Street has a double-paneled doorway and paneled spandrel, above, a cornice and a five-paned transom. Alongside the doorway are pilasters; the high ashlar base includes a bas-relief frieze made from casts of the Parthenon frieze held in the Elgin Marbles collection of the British Museum. Architectural features include ionic columns, a terra cotta entablature with classical moldings, a terra cotta cornice with ornate acanthus scrolls and palmettes. On the fifth floor is a skylit studio.
The steep gabled roof is made of galvanized iron. By 1977, there had been no major changes to the original building design. At the time it was criticized in an Architecture magazine article as "drastically modern"; the building, which faces 30th Street, was designated a New York City Landmark in 1977 for its "special character, special historical and aesthetic interest and value as part of the development and cultural characteristics of New York City." The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 16, 1982. In 1986, the building no longer housed an art school; the building, purchased by Altro Health and Rehabilitation Services, was used as vocational training center. Touro College purchased the building in 1990 or 1991. In 1992, the building underwent a $750,000 renovation, led by the architectural firm Lemberger Brody Associates, became the school's Lexington Avenue campus, It has ten classrooms, a library, two reading rooms, a laboratory; the building retains its oversized skylights.
Classes began in September 1992. Touro sold it in 2006 to Lexington Landmark Properties, it is now the site of Dover Street Market, having undergone an architectural project that reflects the design aesthetics of founder Rei Kawakubo, implemented by architect Richard H. Lewis. Within the interior of the building, is a glass elevator, three 60-foot pillars, art installations. By 1910, there were 4,000 women. Beginning that year, there was an affiliation with Columbia University that allowed the school's students to take courses at Columbia for two years, enroll in Columbia; the affiliation continued until 1912. Austin W. Lord was an instructor of architecture courses. In 1915, architect James Monroe Hewlett and Anne Dornin where architecture instructors. For her role with the school, Dunlap Hopkins was awarded the Michael Friedsam Gold Medal; the citation stated, "Courageous leader in the education of women, student of the arts and friend of the artists, sympathetic teacher of young designers destined to improve by their work and their ideas the standards of art in industry, founder of the New York School of Applied Design and for 45 years its guide and counselor, devout adherent of the belief that the might of the fine design will make the right of successful industrial art."
She died in 1939. Arch
American Association of University Women
The American Association of University Women founded in 1881, is a non-profit organization that advances equity for women and girls through advocacy and research. The organization has a nationwide network of 170,000 members and supporters, 1,000 local branches, 800 college and university partners, its headquarters are in Washington, D. C. AAUW's CEO is Kim Churches. In 1881 Marion Talbot and Ellen Swallow Richards invited 15 alumnae from 8 colleges to a meeting in Boston, Massachusetts; the purpose of this meeting was to create an organization of women college graduates that would assist women in finding greater opportunities to use their education, as well as promoting and assisting other women's college attendance. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae or ACA, was founded on January 14, 1882; the ACA worked to improve standards of education for women so that men and women's higher education was more equal in scope and difficulty. At the beginning of 1884, the ACA had been meeting only in Boston.
However, as more women across the country became interested in its work, the Association saw that expansion into branches was necessary to carry on its work. Washington, D. C. was the first branch to be created in 1884, New York, Pacific and Boston branches followed in 1886. In 1885, the organization took on one of its first major projects: they had to justify their right to exist. A common belief held at the time that a college education would harm a woman’s health and result in infertility; this myth was supported by Harvard-educated Boston physician Dr. Edward H. Clarke. An ACA committee led by Annie Howes created a series of questions that were sent to 1,290 ACA members. After the results were tabulated, the data demonstrated that higher education did not harm women’s health; the report, "Health Statistics of Female College Graduates" was published in 1885 in conjunction with the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor. This first research report is one of many conducted by AAUW during its history.
In 1887, a fellowship program for women was established. Supporting the education of women through fellowships would continually remain a critical part of AAUW’s mission. Back in 1883, a similar group of college women had considered forming a Chicago, Illinois branch of the ACA, they formed the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae with Jane M. Bancroft as its first president. WACA was broad in purpose and consisted of five committees: fine arts, outdoor occupations,domestic professions and journalism, higher education of women in the West. In 1888, WACA awarded its first fellowship of $350 to Ida Street, a Vassar College graduate, to conduct research at the University of Michigan. In 1889, WACA merged with the ACA. In 1919, the ACA participated in a larger effort led by a group of American women which raised $156,413 to purchase a gram of radium for Marie Curie for her experiments. In 1921, the ACA merged with the Southern Association of College Women to create the AAUW, although local branches continued to be the backbone of AAUW.
The policy of expansion increased both the size and the impact of the Association, from a small, local organization to a nationwide network of college educated women, by 1929, there were 31,647 members and 475 branches. During World War II, AAUW began raising money to assist female scholars displaced by the Nazi led occupation who were unable to continue their work; the War Relief Fund received numerous pleas for help and worked tirelessly to find teaching and other positions for refugee women at American schools and universities and in other countries. Individual branch members of AAUW participated by signing immigration affidavits of support. During 1940, its inaugural year, the War Relief Committee raised $29,950 for distribution with 350 branches contributing; the organization was "largely apolitical" until the 1960s. On the other hand, women in the workforce had increased to the extent that they made up 38% of workers by the end of the 1960s. Women graduating from college were looking for good employment.
Membership in 1960 was at most of them middle class. AAUW is one of the world's largest sources of funding for women who have graduated from college; each year, AAUW has provided $3.5 to $4 million in fellowships and awards for women and for community action projects. The Foundation funds pioneering research on women and education; the organization funds studies germane to the education of women. The AAUW Legal Advocacy Fund, a program of the Foundation, is the United States' largest legal fund focused on sex discrimination against women in higher education. LAF provides funds and a support system for women seeking judicial redress for sex discrimination in higher education. Since 1981, LAF has helped female students and administrators challenge sex discrimination, including sexual harassment, pay inequity, denial of tenure and promotion, inequality in women’s athletics programs. AAUW sponsors grassroots and advocacy efforts and Campus Action Projects and other educational programs in conjunction with its ongoing programmatic theme, Education as the Gateway to Women's Economic Security.
Along with three other organizations, it founded the CTM Madison Family Theatre in 1965. AAUW joined forces with other women's organizations in August 2011 to launch HERVotes to mobilize women voters in 2012 on preserving health and economic rights. In 2011, the AAUW Action Fund launched an initiative to encourage women to vote in the 2012 election; the campaign
Alice Neel was an American visual artist, known for her portraits depicting friends, lovers, poets and strangers. Her paintings have an expressionistic use of line and color, psychological acumen, emotional intensity. Neel was called "one of the greatest portrait artists of the 20th century" by Barry Walker, curator of modern and contemporary art at the Museum of Fine Arts, which organized a retrospective of her work in 2010. Alice Neel was born on January 28, 1900, in Merion Square, Pennsylvania to George Washington Neel, an accountant for the Pennsylvania Railroad, Alice Concross Hartley Neel. In mid-1900, her family moved to the rural town of Pennsylvania. Young Alice was the fourth of five children, with a sister, her oldest brother, died of diphtheria shortly after she was born. He was only eight years old, she was raised into a strait-laced middle-class family during a time when there were limited expectations and opportunities for women. Her mother had said to her, "I don't know what you expect to do in the world, you're only a girl."In 1918, after graduating from high school, she took the Civil Service exam and got a high-paying clerical position in order to help support her parents.
After three years of work, taking art classes by night in Philadelphia, Neel enrolled in the Fine Art program at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women in 1921. In her student works she rejected impressionism, the popular style at the time, instead embraced the Ashcan School of Realism, it is believed this influence came from one of the most prominent figures of the Ashcan School, Robert Henri, who taught at Philadelphia School of Design for Women. At Philadelphia School of Design for Women she won honorable mention in her painting class for the Francisca Naiade Balano Prize two years in a row. In 1925 Neel received the Kern Doge Prize for Best Painting in her life class, she graduated from Philadelphia School of Design for Women in 1925. Neel said that she chose to attend an all-girls school so as not to be distracted from her art by the temptations of the opposite sex, she met an upper-class Cuban painter in 1924, Carlos Enríquez, at the Chester Springs summer school run by PAFA. The couple married on June 1925, in Colwyn, Pennsylvania.
Neel soon moved to Havana to live with Enríquez's family. In Havana, Neel was embraced by the burgeoning Cuban avant-garde, a set of young writers and musicians. In this environment Neel developed the foundations of her lifelong political consciousness and commitment to equality. Neel said she had her first solo exhibition in Havana, but there are no dates or locations to confirm this. In March 1927, Neel exhibited with her husband in the XII Salon des Bellas Artes; this exhibition included Eduardo Abela, Victor Manuel García Valdés, Marcelo Pogolotti, Amelia Pelaez who were all part of the Cuban Vanguardia Movement During this time, she had seven servants and lived in a mansion. Neel's daughter, was born on December 26, 1926, in Havana. In 1927, the couple returned to the United States to live in New York. Just a month before Santillana's first birthday, she died of diphtheria; the trauma caused by Santillana's death infused the content of Neel's paintings, setting a precedent for the themes of motherhood and anxiety that permeated her work for the duration of her career.
Shortly following Santillana's death, Neel became pregnant with her second child. On November 24, 1928, Isabella Lillian was born in New York City. Isabetta's birth was the inspiration for Neel's "Well Baby Clinic", a bleak portrait of mothers and babies in a maternity clinic more reminiscent of an insane asylum than a nursery. In the spring of 1930, Carlos had given the impression that he was going overseas to look for a place to live in Paris. Instead, he returned to Cuba. During the time of Enriquez's absence, Neel sublet her New York apartment and traveled to work in the studio of her friends and fellow painters Ethel V Ashton and Rhonda Myers. Mourning the loss of her husband and daughter, Neel suffered a massive nervous breakdown, was hospitalized, attempted suicide, she was placed in the suicide ward of the Philadelphia General Hospital. In the insane asylum, she painted. Alice loved a wretch, she loved the wretch in the hero in the wretch. She saw. Deemed stable a year Neel was released from the sanatorium in 1931 and returned to her parents' home.
Following an extended visit with her close friend and frequent subject, Nadya Olyanova, Neel returned to New York. There Neel painted the local characters, including Joe Gould, whom she depicted in 1933 with multiple penises, which represented his inflated ego and "self-deception" about who he was and his unfulfilled ambitions; the painting, a rare survivor of her early works, has been shown at Tate Modern. During the Depression, Neel was one of the first artists to work for the Works Progress Administration. At the end of 1933, Neel was offered $30 a week to participate in the Public Works of Art Project during an interview at the Whitney Museum, she had been living in poverty. While Neel participated in the Public Works of Art Project and the Works Project Administration /Federal Art Project, her work gained some recognition in the art world. While enrolled in these government programs she painted in a realist style and her subjects were Depression-era street scenes and Communist thinkers and leaders.
Some of these sitters included Mother Bloor, the poet Kenneth Fearing, Pat Whalen. She had an affair with a man named Kenneth Doolittle, a heroin