Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal. The sport is considered a form of hockey and has a common background with association football, ice hockey and field hockey. Like football, the game is played in halves of 45 minutes each, there are eleven players on each team, the bandy field is about the same size as a football pitch, it is played on ice like ice hockey, but like field hockey, players use bowed sticks and a small ball. A variant of bandy, rink bandy, is played to the same rules but on a field the size of an ice hockey rink, with ice hockey goal cages and with six players on each team, or five in USA Rink Bandy League. Traditional eleven-a-side bandy and rink bandy are recognized by the International Olympic Committee. More informal varieties exist, like seven-a-side bandy with sized goal cages but without corner strokes; those rules were applied at Davos Cup in 2016. Rink bandy has in turn led to the creation of the sport rinkball.
Bandy is the predecessor of floorball, invented when people started playing with plastic bandy-shaped sticks and lightweight balls when running on the floors of indoor gym halls. Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the world's second-most participated winter sport after ice hockey. Bandy is ranked as the number two winter sport in terms of tickets sold per day of competitions at the sport's world championship. However, compared with the seven Winter Olympic sports, bandy's popularity among other winter sports across the globe is considered by the International Olympic Committee to have a, "gap between popularity and participation and global audiences", a roadblock to future Olympic inclusion; the earliest origin of the sport is debated. Though many Russians see their old countrymen as the creators of the sport – reflected by the unofficial title for bandy, "Russian hockey" – Russia and Holland each had sports or pastimes which can be seen as forerunners of the present sport.
English bandy developed as a winter sport in the Fens of East Anglia. Large expanses of ice would form on the flooded meadows or shallow washes in cold winters, skating has been a tradition. Members of the Bury Fen Bandy Club published rules of the game in 1882, introduced it into other countries; the first international match took place in 1891 between Bury Fen and the Haarlemsche Hockey & Bandy Club from the Netherlands. The same year, the National Bandy Association was started in England; the match dubbed "the original bandy match", was held in 1875 at The Crystal Palace in London. However, at the time, the game was called "hockey on the ice" as it was considered an ice variant of field hockey; the first national bandy league was started in Sweden in 1902. Bandy was played at the Nordic Games in Stockholm and Kristiania in 1901, 1903, 1905 and between Swedish and Russian teams at similar games in Helsinki in 1907. A European championship was held in 1913 with eight countries participating. In modern times, Russia has held a top position in the bandy area, both as a founding nation of the International Federation in 1955 and fielding the most successful team in the World Championships.
The highest altitude where bandy has been played is in the capital of the Tajik autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan, Khorugh. As a precursor to ice hockey bandy has influenced its development and history – in European and former Soviet countries. While modern ice hockey was created in Canada, a game more similar to bandy was played after British soldiers introduced the game in the late 19th century. At the same time as modern ice hockey rules were formalized in British North America, bandy rules were formulated in Europe. A cross between English and Russian bandy rules developed, with the football-inspired English rules dominant, together with the Russian low border along most of the two sidelines, this is the basis of the present sport since the 1950s. Before Canadians introduced ice hockey into Europe in the early 20th century, "hockey" was another name for bandy, still is in parts of Russia and Kazakhstan. With football and bandy being dominant sports in parts of Europe, it was common for sports clubs to have bandy and football sections, with athletes playing both sports at different times of the year.
Some examples are English Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club and Norwegian Strømsgodset IF and Mjøndalen IF, with the latter still having an active bandy section. In Sweden, most football clubs which were active during the first half of the 20th Century played bandy; as the season for each sport increased in time, it was not as easy for the players to engage in both sports, so some clubs came to concentrate on one or the other. Many old clubs still have both sports on their program. Both bandy and ice hockey were played in Europe during the 20th century in Sweden and Norway. Ice hockey became more popular than bandy in most of Europe because it had become an Olympic sport, while bandy had not. Athletes in Europe who had played bandy switched to ice hockey in the 1920s to compete in the Olympics; the smaller ice fields needed for ice hockey made its rinks easier to maintain in countries with short winters. On the other hand, ice hockey was not played in the Soviet Union until the 1950s when the USSR wanted to compete internationally.
The typical European style of ice hockey, with flowing, less physical play, represents a heritage of bandy. The sp
2012 Women's Bandy World Championship
The Bandy World Championship for women 2012 was contested between 6 bandy playing countries. The championship was played in Russia from 23 to 26 February. Sweden defeated 5-3, in the final-game. Canada Finland Norway Russia Sweden United States VI Women's Bandy World Championship
Borlänge is a locality in Dalarna County, Sweden. It is the seat of the Borlänge Municipality and has a total population of 51,604 inhabitants as of 2017. Borlänge was the name of a tiny village, the first historical information about it is from 1390; the village was insignificant up until about 1870. In 1875 a railway between Falun and Ludvika, via Borlänge was inaugurated and at the same time the construction of Domnarfvets Jernverk, the ironworks of neighbouring village Domnarvet, had started. Thanks to its railway station the village of Borlänge became important in servicing the ironworks. In 1898, Borlänge was granted privileges by the national Swedish government as a town of its own with about 1,300 inhabitants, but still today it belongs to the Church of Sweden's regionally dominant parish of Stora Tuna, centered on a large medieval cathedral by that name, now located in a rural district east of the city. In the 1900s, the Stora Kopparbergs Bergslag - the owner of the ironworks in Domnarvet at the time - built a papermill in an adjacent village to Borlänge called Kvarnsveden.
Many area residents emigrated to the United States in the late early 20th centuries. In 1944, the City of Borlänge was incorporated after the market town joined the industrial towns of Domnarvet and Kvarnsveden. In 1971 the municipality of Borlänge was established when the Stora Tuna municipality merged with the City of Borlänge. From the 1940s onward, the municipality has been dominated by the Social Democratic Party. In the early 1970s, the Kvarnsvedens Pappersbruk paper mill and the Domnarvets Jernverk steel mill had a high demand for employees. Between 1970-1974, the Tjärna Ängar Million Programme district was built. In the 1990s, Borlänge had the highest crime rate per thousand inhabitants, dominated by violence and theft. During all of the 20th century Borlänge has been a typical heavy industry community with good economic growth. According to the Borlänge Municipality, as of 2017, Borlänge has a population of 51,604 inhabitants. 11,693 residents in the city are of foreign origin. Of these individuals, 8,837 were born abroad and 2,856 were born in Sweden.
Most of the residents of foreign background come from Asia, other Nordic countries, other parts of Europe. According to the Borlänge Municipality, in the 1990s, most foreign-born residents of Borlänge arrived from Southern Europe, due to the civil wars in Yugoslavia. During the 2000s, immigrants in the city came from Somalia and Turkey; the Somalia-born immigrants arrived via family reunification. This migration had decreased by the following decade, with most newcomers in Borlänge now consisting of asylum immigrants from Syria and Eritrea; as of 2016, there are 472 refugees in the municipality, most of whom originate from Syria and Somalia. The newer asylum immigrants in the city emigrated from Syria and Eritrea; as of 2017, the most common countries of origin for total foreign-born individuals residing in Borlänge are Somalia, Syria, Turkey, Thailand, Iran and Norway. Borlänge's official districts and their inhabitants from 1975-2010: According to the Borlänge Municipality, many of the city's inhabitants with a foreign background live in the neighborhoods of Jakobsgårdarna and Tjärna Ängar.
An agreement between the Borlänge Municipality and the Swedish Migration Board to receive 30 refugees per year has contributed to the population growth, with many arriving via family reunification. Additionally, people have relocated to the city from other areas. Many are young, with few individuals older than 60 years of age. Over a five-year period, the number of inhabitants in Tjärna Ängar increased as 1,000 young persons relocated to the neighborhood; the new arrivals principally came from two or three foreign backgrounds, included university students and people who had emigrated from abroad. In its December 2015 report, the Swedish Police Authority placed the Borlänge's Tjärna Ängar district in the second highest category of urban areas with high crime rates. In the summer of 2016, there was widespread vandalism, cars were torched and when firefighters arrived, they were attacked with stones and had to wait for police to escort them in order to complete their mission; the Dalarna University College has student accommodation in the area where female students are sexually harassed by the local male youth on a regular basis and avoid going outdoors after sunset.
In a 2018 interview, the local police commissioner stated in an interview that clan leaders and religious leaders have taken over the leadership of the area, where 9 out of 10 are born abroad. Police has noted a change in 2017 when crime happens, nobody calls the police but the injured parties settle among themselves according to "an eye for an eye" in a parallel justice system. Although the official number of inhabitants are 3500, inofficially the population may be as high as 6000-10000, when water usage and the weight of generated household waste is analysed. Borlänge has always been an industrial town surrounding the iron mill of Domnarvet and the paper mill of Kvarnsveden; as a city with a structure divided by rails and roads, with a modern city center, Borlänge houses the head office for a state authority - the National Swedish Transport Administration Trafikverket. Borlänge promotes itself as a shopping centre in Dalarna; this is possible due to the Kupolen area, situated abo
Bandy World Championship
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams. The tournament is administrated by the Federation of International Bandy, it is distinct from the Bandy World Cup, a club competition, from the Women's Bandy World Championship. Although bandy has been played since the 19th century, the first men's world championships were only played in 1957, the first women's ones were only in 2004. A bandy tournament was held as a demonstration sport at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, but this had no world championship status. A four nation tournament in 1954 was played in Moscow, this was the first time the Soviet Union met teams from other countries and the first time the new, jointly agreed rules were used, but this wasn't called a world championship; the international federation was founded in 1955 by the four countries. The first Bandy World Championship was organised in 1957 in association with the 50th anniversary of the Ball Association of Finland, which at the time was the governing body of bandy in Finland.
It was played at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium. From 1961-2003, the championships were played every two years, but has since been played annually. For a long time, only four countries competed in the world championships: the Soviet Union, Sweden and Norway, with the Soviet Union as the dominating country. Since more countries have joined the tournaments, starting with the United States in 1985; the interest for the sport has spread to other parts of Europe, North America and Asia, the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 opened the way for separate national teams from the former Soviet republics. Somalia became the first team from Africa to compete, in the 2014 tournament in Irkutsk; the record number of participants are 18, set in 2016 and 2017. Denmark, Switzerland and Poland are countries that have expressed interest in participating in future tournaments, but has so far not made any appearance. Denmark and Poland have in fact exited FIB, while Switzerland is expected to debut in the 2019 edition, just like Great Britain.
Armenia wanted to come to 2011, but wasn't allowed to, as the tournament format at the time only allowed twelve teams and several more wanted to come. Of the countries which still haven't taken part, at least India was denied in 2011. Most also Lithuania; the reason for the 2011 tournament having only eleven teams, was a late cancellation from Australia, another country no longer an FIB member. With more nations competing, Group B was created in 1991. In 2012 there was a Group C for the first time. Group C was abolished in 2013, when instead two sub-groups of Group B were created. In 2014 there were two sub-groups in Group A, increasing the number of teams in that division from six to eight; the number of groups is not fixed, it is changed from year to year. Japan and Kyrgyzstan made their first World Championships in 2012, Ukraine joined in 2013, Germany and Somalia made their debuts in 2014, China in 2015, the Czech Republic in 2016. Russia, Sweden, Norway, USA and Belarus play in group A; until 2011, the best team in group B used to go into a playoff match with the team which came bottom of the A-group, replacing them if they won.
In 2004 the B-pool was played in a location separate from group A for the first time, at the City Park Ice Rink in Budapest. In 2013 this happened again as Vetlanda hosted the B-pool, whereas Vänersborg was the main venue of the A-pool with three matches played at other locations, Trollhättan and Oslo. In 2015 and 2016 the tournament were separated in time while in the same cities; the Division B matches are shorter except for the end matches. The competition was played as an all-meet-all round-robin tournament. Starting in 1983, semifinals and a final was added to follow the round-robin stage; when the number of participating nations increased, the championship was split up in two groups from 2003 onwards, A and B, with the better teams in Group A. The winner of Group B for some years played a game against the least successful team of Group A to determine qualification for Group A for next year, but in 2016, 2017, 2018 winning Group B has been directly qualifying for group A for the following year while the last placed team of Group A is automatically relegated to Group B.
The interest is biggest in Sweden and Russia. For a few times now it has been shown on Eurosport 2; the games can be followed in any country by streaming on the Internet. Countries in italics no longer compete at the World Championships; the most consecutive gold medals were won by the Soviet Union with 11. Russia has won four consecutive gold medals and Sweden has won three consecutive gold medals. "Results from the championships 1957-1999 by Per G. Olsson". Archived from the original on 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2006-02-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Lappeenranta is a city and municipality situated on the shore of the lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland, about 30 kilometres from the Russian border. It belongs to the region of South Karelia. With 73,000 inhabitants Lappeenranta is the 13th largest city in Finland; the neighboring municipality of Joutseno was consolidated with Lappeenranta on January 1, 2009, the neighboring municipality of Ylämaa on January 1, 2010. Lappeenranta is known as an international university city in Finland with Lappeenranta University of Technology and Saimaa University of Applied Sciences which together have 13,000 students from 68 countries. Lappeenranta is a commercial centre of South-East Finland and the meeting point of the EU and Russia, 215 km from both Helsinki and St. Petersburg. Location on the southern shore of Lake Saimaa makes the city the region's centre for tourism. Lappeenranta is the second most visited city by Russian tourists in Finland after Helsinki and it competes with Helsinki for the largest share of tax-free sales in Finland.
Lappeenranta is a model for a clean living environment. Lappeenranta was the only Finnish city among the 14 finalists in the international Earth Hour City Challenge 2014, organized by WWF. Lappeenranta's original core settlement, Lapvesi Lappee, was formed around a headland jutting into Lake Saimaa, the site of the present fortress; the public market was established here, which became so important as a trading place that general Governor Count Per Brahe the Younger proposed that the Swedish government should grant town priviledges to Lapvesi. The town was chartered in 1649 by Queen Christina of Sweden. At the time, Lapvesi was an important port for tar. Between 1721 and 1743, Lappeenranta was the capital of Kymmenegård and Nyslott County and during this period the Swedes built the fortress out in stages. In 1741, the Battle of Villmanstrand was fought between the Swedish and Russian armies in the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743; the battle ended in a Russian victory. The town was pillaged, wooden structures including the provincial chancellery were burnt and the ecclesiastical archives damaged.
The old municipalities of Lappee and Lauritsala were combined to form Lappeenranta in 1967. Nuijamaa joined in 1989. During the financial downturn of 2009 and 2010, Joutseno and Ylämaa merged into Lappeenranta; the name Lappeenranta consists of the genitive of Lappee and the common noun ranta which means "shore". The history of Lappeenranta includes the rural municipality of the hundred Lapvesi; the Swedish name Villmanstrand contains the words vildman meaning "wild-man" and strand meaning "shore". A wild-man is depicted on Lappeenranta's coat of arms, it has a humid continental climate of the warm-summer type in the continental subarctic zone on older data. The summers became longer, although never hot, are warm and one of the hottest in the country due to its situation at the same time southern but inland. Being in an eastern part of Finland, the winters are strict but still mild. Anchorage has some similarities by being of marine influence of hot currents and at the same time of the marginal continentality.
But Lappeenranta is still able to receive heat waves that cross Central Europe in a warmer climate than cool. Between 2000 and 2017 the temperature change was greater than the whole previous century, with +1.2 ° C. Since 2000 the number of hot days has become 2 per year, while the 1900 data indicates only 2 days per decade. From the first half of the twentieth century the days above 24 °C changed from rare to occasional in the second half to regular in the present century. There was a 17.5 decrease in temperature below -1 °C for the same comparison period. 2015 was the hottest year since 1900. Having one of the less than 50 days with freezing days. Work to reduce the temperature increase has been carried out, the city is again among the best 45 cities in the world in the WWF City Challenge 2016. One of the goals is to reduce carbon dioxide by 30% by 2020 and zero emissions by 2050. Lappeenranta has numerous schools at all levels of education, including the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, located in a shared Skinnarila campus of around 8000 students, the Army Academy, South Karelia Vocational College and South Karelia Adult Education Centre.
Lappeenranta is connected to neighbouring municipalities by road. The city is located 215 km from 195 km from St. Petersburg. There are multiple daily train departures to destinations within Finland from the central station and to Russia from Vainikkala station; the Allegro train service operating between Helsinki and St. Petersburg stops in Lappeenranta; the journey time to Helsinki is St. Petersburg about 1.5 hours. During the summer, when Lake Saimaa and the Saimaa Canal are accessible by water, there is a visa-free connection by ship from Lappeenranta to Vyborg, Russia; the regionally owned Lappeenranta Airport is located west of the city center. The airport predominantly serves charter flights to the Canary Islands and Madeira; the city's main employers are the: City of Lappeenranta UPM-Kymmene South Karelia Social and Health Care District Lappeenranta University of Technology Paroc Nordkalk VR Group Fazer The Armed Forces Outotec Lappeenranta has multiple sports teams playing in top levels of Finnish sports leagues.
SaiPa is an Ice hockey team playing in the highest level in SM-liiga. SaiPa was fourth in the national Ice hockey league in the season of 2013-2014. 2014 IIHF Ice Hocke
Norway women's national bandy team
Norway women's national bandy team represent Norway in the Women's Bandy World Championship. The team has participated in all World Championships for women since the first tournament in 2004; as of 2018, the team has won five bronze medals. Norway was the host for the 2010 Women's Bandy World Championship, played in Drammen. Http://www.bandyforbundet.no/bandy/