International Women's Day
International Women's Day is celebrated on March 8 every year. It is a focal point in the movement for women's rights. A New York textile factory caught on fire on 8 March 1908, with the owner trapping his female workers inside to prevent them from striking with other factory workers, he had been forcing them to work 10-hour days, making fabric of lilac color. 129 workers died in the fire. The colors of the fabric they were working on were chosen as the symbol of the international women's rights movement. After the Socialist Party of America organized a Women's Day on February 1909, in New York. At the 1910 International Socialist Woman's Conference suggested German revolutionary Clara Zetkin proposed that 8 March be honored as a day annually in memory of working women; the day has been celebrated as International Women's Day or International Working Women's Day since. For women at that meeting, the day was about demanding the right to work without discrimination. After women gained suffrage in Soviet Russia in 1917, March 8 became a national holiday there.
The day was predominantly celebrated by the socialist movement and communist countries until it was adopted by the feminist movement in about 1967. The United Nations began celebrating the day in 1975. Commemoration of International Women's Day today ranges from being a public holiday in some countries to being ignored elsewhere. In some places, it is a day of protest. International Men's Day is celebrated on November 19; the earliest Women's Day observance, called "National Woman's Day," was held on February 28, 1909, in New York, organized by the Socialist Party of America at the suggestion of activist Theresa Malkiel. Though there have been claims that the day was commemorating a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8, 1857, researchers have described this as a myth. In August 1910, an International Socialist Women's Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. Inspired in part by the American socialists, German Socialist Luise Zietz proposed the establishment of an annual Women's Day and was seconded by fellow socialist and communist leader Clara Zetkin, supported by socialist activist Käte Duncker, although no date was specified at that conference.
Delegates agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights including suffrage for women. The following year on March 19, 1911, IWD was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark and Switzerland. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations. In Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Women demanded that they be given the right to hold public office, they protested against employment sex discrimination. The Americans continued to celebrate National Women's Day on the last Sunday in February. In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February. In 1914 International Women's Day was held on March 8 in Germany because that day was a Sunday, now it is always held on March 8 in all countries; the 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women's suffrage on March 8, 1914.
Activist Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square. On March 8, 1917, on the Gregorian calendar, in the capital of the Russian Empire, women textile workers began a demonstration, covering the whole city; this marked the beginning of the February Revolution, which alongside the October Revolution made up the Russian Revolution. Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for "Bread and Peace" – demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, the end of czarism. Revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February was International Woman's Day and meetings and actions were foreseen, but we did not imagine. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date, but in the morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike... all went out into the streets." Seven days Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, the provisional Government granted women the right to vote.
Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, but it was a working day until 1965. On May 8, 1965, by the decree of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the USSR "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, the struggle for peace, but still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays." From its official adoption in Soviet Russia following the Revolution in 1917, the holiday was predominantly celebrated in communist countries and by the communist movement worldwide. Communist leader Dolores Ibárruri led a women's march in Madrid in 1936 on the eve of the Spanish Civil War, it was commemorated by the communists in China from 1922.
In 1927, in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, there was a march of 25,000 women and male supporters, including re
Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer and fasting. It is preceded by Shrove Tuesday and falls on the first day of Lent, the six weeks of penitence before Easter. Ash Wednesday is traditionally observed by Western Christians. Most Latin Rite Roman Catholics observe it, as do some Protestants like Anglicans, Methodists, some Reformed churches, Baptists and Independent Catholics; as it is the first day of Lent, Christians begin Ash Wednesday by marking a Lenten calendar, praying a Lenten daily devotional, abstaining from a luxury that they will not partake of until Eastertide arrives. Ash Wednesday derives its name from the placing of repentance ashes on the foreheads of participants to either the words "Repent, believe in the Gospel" or the dictum "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The ashes are prepared by burning palm leaves from the previous year's Palm Sunday celebrations. Many Christian denominations emphasize fasting, as well as abstinence during the season of Lent and in particular, on its first day, Ash Wednesday.
The First Council of Nicæa spoke of Lent as a period of fasting for forty days, in preparation for Eastertide. In many places, Christians abstained from food for a whole day until the evening, at sunset, Western Christians traditionally broke the Lenten fast, known as the Black Fast. In India and Pakistan, many Christians continue this practice of fasting until sunset on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, with some fasting in this manner throughout the whole season of Lent. In the Roman Catholic Church, Ash Wednesday is observed by fasting, abstinence from meat, repentance – a day of contemplating one's transgressions. On Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, Roman Catholics between the ages of 18 and 59 are permitted to consume one full meal, along with two smaller meals, which together should not equal the full meal; some Catholics will go beyond the minimum obligations put forth by the Church and undertake a complete fast or a bread and water fast until sunset. Ash Wednesday and Good Friday are days of abstinence from meat, as are all Fridays during Lent.
Some Roman Catholics continue fasting throughout Lent, as was the Church's traditional requirement, concluding only after the celebration of the Easter Vigil. Where the Ambrosian Rite is observed, the day of fasting and abstinence is postponed to the first Friday in the Ambrosian Lent, nine days later. A number of Lutheran parishes teach communicants to fast on Ash Wednesday, with some people choosing to continue doing so throughout the entire season of Lent on Good Friday. One Lutheran congregation's A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent recommends that the faithful "Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day without meat". In the Church of England, throughout much of the Worldwide Anglican Communion, the entire forty days of Lent are designated days of fasting, while the Fridays are designated as days of abstinence in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, with the Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion defining "Fasting meaning not more than a light breakfast, one full meal, one half meal, on the forty days of Lent."
The same text defines abstinence as refraining from flesh meat on all Fridays of the Church Year, except for those during Christmastide. The historic Methodist homilies regarding the Sermon on the Mount stress the importance of the Lenten fast, which begins on Ash Wednesday; the United Methodist Church therefore states that: There is a strong biblical base for fasting during the 40 days of Lent leading to the celebration of Easter. Jesus, as part of his spiritual preparation, went into the wilderness and fasted 40 days and 40 nights, according to the Gospels. Rev. Jacqui King, the minister of Nu Faith Community United Methodist Church in Houston explained the philosophy of fasting during Lent as "I'm not skipping a meal because in place of that meal I'm dining with God"; the Reformed Church in America describes Ash Wednesday as a day "focused on prayer and repentance." The liturgy for Ash Wednesday thus contains the following "Invitation to Observe a Lenten Discipline" read by the presider: We begin this holy season by acknowledging our need for repentance and our need for the love and forgiveness shown to us in Jesus Christ.
I invite you, therefore, in the name of Christ, to observe a Holy Lent, by self-examination and penitence, by prayer and fasting, by practicing works of love, by reading and reflecting on God's Holy Word. Many of the Churches in the Reformed tradition retained the Lenten fast in its entirety, although it was made voluntary, rather than obligatory. Ashes are ceremonially placed on the heads of Christians on Ash Wednesday, either by being sprinkled over their heads or, in English-speaking countries, more by being marked on their foreheads as a visible cross; the words used traditionally to accompany this gesture are, "Memento, quia pulvis es, et in pulverem reverteris." This custom is credited to Pope Gregory I the Great. In the 1969 revision of the Roman Rite, an alternative formula was introduced and given first place "Repent, believe in the Gospel" and the older formula was translated as "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The old formula, based on the words spoken to Adam and Eve after their sin, reminds worshippers of their sinfulness and mortality and thus, implicitly, of their need to repent in time.
The newer formula makes explicit. Various manners of placing the ash
New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Karen Lorraine Jacqueline Speier is an American politician who serves as U. S. Representative for California's 14th congressional district, serving in Congress since 2008, she is a member of the Democratic Party. The district, numbered as the 12th District from 2008 to 2013, includes the northern two-thirds of San Mateo County and the southwest quarter of San Francisco, she represents much of the territory, represented by her political mentor, Leo Ryan. In 1978, while working as his aide, Speier survived five gunshot wounds during the assassination of Ryan, part of the Jonestown massacre. Speier is a former member of the California State Senate who represented parts of San Francisco and San Mateo counties. On April 8, 2008, she won the special election for the vacated United States House of Representatives seat of late Congressman Tom Lantos. A Caltrain "Baby Bullet" express. Speier was born in 1950 in San Francisco, grew up in an apolitical family, the daughter of Nancy and Manfred "Fred" Speier.
Her mother was of Armenian descent and a survivor of the Armenian Genocide, while her father was an immigrant from Germany. Speier took Jacqueline as her confirmation name after Jackie Kennedy, she is a graduate of Mercy High School in Burlingame. She earned a B. A. degree from the University of California, a J. D. degree from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1976. Speier's first marriage was to Dr. Steven Sierra, an emergency-room doctor, in 1987. In 1988, they had a son Jackson Kent, while she was serving as a member of the California State Assembly. Sierra died in a car accident in 1994 at the age of 53. At the time, Speier was two months pregnant with a daughter she named Stephanie. In 2001, Speier married an investment consultant. Speier entered politics by serving as a congressional staffer for Congressman Leo Ryan. Speier was part of his November 1978 fact-finding mission organized to investigate allegations of human-rights abuses by Jim Jones and his Peoples Temple followers all of whom were American citizens who had moved to Jonestown, with Jones in 1977 and 1978.
Speier was one of two members of the mission. Several Peoples Temple members ambushed the investigative team and others boarding the plane to leave Jonestown on November 18. Five people died, including Congressman Ryan. While trying to shield herself from rifle and shotgun fire behind small airplane wheels with other team members, Speier was shot five times and waited 22 hours before help arrived; that same day, over 900 remaining members of the Peoples Temple died in Jonestown and Georgetown in a mass murder-suicide. Speier's political career began with an unsuccessful run to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Congressman Ryan, she lost the Democratic primary to G. W. "Joe" Holsinger. He lost to San Mateo County Supervisor. Speier won her first election in 1980, when she ran for the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors and defeated a 20-year incumbent. At the time, she was the youngest person elected to the board, she was reelected in 1984, was selected as chairwoman. In 1986, midway through her second term on the Board of Supervisors, Speier ran for the California State Assembly from a district in northern San Mateo County.
She won by a few hundred votes. She was reelected five more times, the last time as the nominee of both the Democratic and Republican parties. State law prevented Speier from running for reelection to the Assembly in 1996, but in 1998 she was elected to the California State Senate. In 2002, she was elected to a second term with 78.2% of the vote. As a state senator, Speier was instrumental in securing $127 million funding to start the "Baby Bullet" express service for Caltrain, for which the commuter rail agency named a new locomotive after her. Speier focused on representing consumer rights. Senator Speier was termed out of the California State Senate in 2006. During her last term, she served as assistant president pro tempore of the California State Senate. In 2006, Speier ran in the Democratic primary for Lieutenant Governor of California against insurance commissioner John Garamendi and state senator Liz Figueroa. In the June 6, 2006 elections, Garamendi defeated Speier in a close race. Garamendi received 42.5%, Speier received 39.7%, Figueroa received the remaining 17.8% of the vote.
Speier endorsed Hillary Clinton's bid for president. On January 13, 2008, Speier announced she was running in the Democratic primary for the 12th District, Ryan's old district; the seat was being vacated by 14-term incumbent and fellow Democrat Tom Lantos, who announced on January 2, 2008, that he was not seeking re-election. Speier had spent much of 2007 building support to challenge Lantos in the Democratic primary. On January 17, 2008, Lantos endorsed Speier as his successor, she picked up endorsements from Congresswoman Anna Eshoo, Congressman Mike Thompson and San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom. Lantos died February 11, 2008. Speier won a special primary election on April 8, 2008 to fill the remainder of his term, which ended in January 2009, she won an outright majority, avoiding a runoff that would have been held on June 3, coinciding with the regular primary election. She was elected to a full term in November with 75 percent of the vote and has been reelected three more times with no substantive opposition.
On July 11, 2008, Speier introduced her first bill, the Gasoline Savings and Speed Limit Reduction Act, which would set a national speed limit of 60 mph in urban areas and 65 mph on less-populated stretches of highway. In January 2016