Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the game date back to the Middle Ages in Pakistan; the game can be played on grass, water turf, artificial turf or synthetic field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball; the length of the stick depends on the player's individual height. Only one face of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick; the specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States.
Known as "hockey" in many territories, the term "field hockey" is used in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term "landhockey" is used and to some degree in Norway where it is governed by Norway's Bandy Association. During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick. Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team.
If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds; the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires. If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored; the governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior and masters club competitions. The FIH is responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field, reduced to 40 m × 20 m.
With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball, the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick. There is a depiction of a field hockey-like game in Ancient Greece, dating to c. 510 BC, when the game may have been called Κερητίζειν because it was played with a horn and a ball. Researchers disagree over, it could have been one-on-one activity. Billiards historians Stein and Rubino believe it was among the games ancestral to lawn-and-field games like hockey and ground billiards, near-identical depictions appear both in the Beni Hasan tomb of Ancient Egyptian administrator Khety of the 11th Dynasty, in European illuminated manuscripts and other works of the 14th through 17th centuries, showing contemporary courtly and clerical life.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior, to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have for about 1,000 years been playing beikou, a game with some similarities to field hockey. A similar field hockey or ground billiards variant, called suigan, was played in China during the Ming dynasty. A game similar to field hockey was played in the 17th century in Punjab state in India under name khido khundi. In South America, most in Chile, the local natives of the 16th century used to play a game called chueca, which shares common elements with hockey. In Northern Europe, the games of hurling and Knattleikr, both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule, akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
2018 Women's Hockey World Cup
The 2018 Women's Hockey World Cup was the 14th edition of the Women's Hockey World Cup, a field hockey tournament. It was held from 21 July to 5 August 2018 at the Lee Valley Hockey and Tennis Centre in London, England. Defending champions the Netherlands won the tournament for a record eighth time after defeating Ireland 6–0 in the final, who claimed their first World Cup medal. Spain won the third place match by defeating Australia 3–1 to claim their first World Cup medal as well. In March 2013, one month after the FIH published the Event Assignment Process Document for the 2014–2018 cycle, Belgium and New Zealand were shortlisted as candidates for hosting the event and were demanded to submit bidding documentation, requirement that Belgium did not meet. In addition one month before the host election, Australia withdrew their application due to technical and financial reasons. England was announced as host on 7 November 2013 during a special ceremony in Switzerland. Chosen to host the 2015 EuroHockey Nations Championship for men and women, the tournament will be held at the Lee Valley Hockey and Tennis Centre within the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London, England.
This venue is part of the legacy from the 2012 Summer Olympics as the Riverbank Arena, where the field hockey events took place, scaled down and moved to its current location at Lee Valley Park. Due to the increase to 16 participating teams, the new qualification process was announced in July 2015 by the International Hockey Federation; each of the continental champions from five confederations and the host nation received an automatic berth. In addition, the 10/11 highest placed teams at the Semifinals of the 2016–17 FIH Hockey World League not qualified entered the tournament; the following sixteen teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, competed in this tournament. The 16 teams were drawn into each containing four teams; each team played each other team in its group once. The first-placed team in each group advanced to the quarterfinals, while the second- and third-placed teams in each group go into the crossover matches. From there on a single-elimination tournament was played. 15 umpires were appointed by the FIH for this tournament.
The schedule was published on 26 November 2017. All times are British Summer Time. There were 126 goals scored in 36 matches, for an average of 3.5 goals per match. 8 goals 6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Official website
Argentina women's national field hockey team
The Argentina women's national field hockey team is governed by the Argentine Hockey Confederation. The current coach is Carlos Retegui, appointed after Agustín Corradini; the team is fourth in the FIH World Rankings since August 2018 after their 6th place at the 2018 Hockey World Cup. Las Leonas have appeared in five Hockey World Cup finals, including the first final in 1974, which they lost 1–0 to the Netherlands. Argentina had to settle with second place in two more finals before winning the tournament for the first time in 2002, beating the Netherlands 4–3 in the final on penalty strokes after a 1–1 draw. Argentina, led by eight-time FIH Player of the Year Luciana Aymar won again in 2010, a 3–1 victory over the Netherlands. Argentina's World Cup winning coaches are Sergio Vigil in 2002, Carlos Retegui in 2010. Argentina has been successful at the Summer Olympics, winning four consecutive medals since the 2000 edition, when they became the first women's team in any sport to win an Olympic medal for their country.
Luciana Aymar is the only player that won those four medals. After their first title in 2001 at a Champions Trophy, they have won the tournament six more times. In front of a home crowd they won the 2014–15 World League as the first international title after Aymar's retirement from the national team the previous year. At a continental level, Argentina has dominated and won every tournament they played, including the Pan American Cup and the Pan American Games leaving the United States with second place on most events until they lost the 2011 Pan American Games final for the first time. In July 2003, after the implementation of an official World Ranking System, Argentina reached the top of the FIH World Rankings for the first time, reaching it again in 2010 after obtaining the World Cup title and once more in late 2013. Hockey was introduced in Argentina by English immigrants in the beginning of the 20th century, the first women's teams were formed in 1909. In 1997, Sergio Vigil, a former player for the men's national team, was appointed coach.
Under his leadership, Las Leonas achieved their first World Hockey Cup title, their first Olympic medals, their first Champions Trophy medals, many other achievements. The team went from having a rather limited audience to becoming a national sensation, with some of the players appearing as models in advertising campaigns. Throughout its history, the team has developed a reputation for being tenacious when a match appears to be lost. For this reason, a lioness was chosen as their symbol when the team qualified for the 2000 Summer Olympics. During the second round of games, Argentina played against the powerful Dutch team, they chose this occasion to place the image of a lioness on their shirts for the first time; the image was designed by then-player Inés Arrondo together with Vigil's sister-in-law. Argentina won that match, went on to win the silver medal, Las Leonas were born. Subsequently, the junior team is called Las Leoncitas; the lioness logo was redesigned in 2006 by the team kit supplier, along with Confederación Argentina de Hockey and some of the most representative players.
This is different from the original, showing the lioness' tail pretending to be a hockey stick while holding a ball. The nickname falls in line with an unwritten Argentine tradition of naming national teams after big cats: the men's field hockey team is called Los Leones, the men's rugby union team is called Los Pumas, the women's volleyball team is known as Las Panteras. Since its breakthrough in the 2000 Summer Olympics, Argentina has won more than 20 official titles, which are detailed below: Summer Olympics: Silver medal: Sydney 2000, London 2012 Bronze medal: Athens 2004, Beijing 2008 World Cup: 2002, 2010 FIH Hockey World League: 2014–15 Champions Trophy: 2001, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 Pan American Cup: 2001, 2004, 2009, 2013, 2017 Pan American Games: 1987, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007 South American Championship: 2003, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2013, 2014 The following players were called to compete on April 13 against New Zealand for the FIH Pro League in Rosario, Argentina. Head coach: Carlos Retegui These players were called-up in the last 12 months.
When Luciana Aymar, retired from the national team in 2014 after 376 international matches played, some of Aymar's teammates asked the Confederation for the retirement of her iconic number 8 worn by her during 17 years with the national team. The number is not retired by the CAH, although it has not been assigned to other players since. Head Coach: Hernán Zago Argentina men's national field hockey team The team alternates between light blue and black skirt/socks when using their main kit during the same tournament arbitrarily. For example, during the 2010 World Cup, see photos from Day 1, Day 3 and Day 6. Official website FIH profile
Hockey World Cup
The Men's Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation. The tournament was started in 1971, it is held every four years. There is a Women's Hockey World Cup, held since 1974 and was organised by the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations until 1981, when the governing bodies merged into the current International Hockey Federation in 1982. Pakistan is the most successful team; the Netherlands and Australia have each won three titles, Germany has won two titles. Belgium and India have both won the tournament once; the 2018 tournament was held in India from 28 November to 16 December. Belgium defeated Netherlands in a penalty shoot-out 3–2 after the match ended in a 0–0 tie to win their first World Cup title; the World Cup expanded to 16 teams in 2018, FIH will evaluate the possibility of increasing it to 24 in 2022. The Hockey World Cup was first conceived by Pakistan's Air Marshal Nur Khan, he proposed his idea to the FIH through the first editor of World Hockey magazine.
Their idea was approved on 26 October 1969, adopted by the FIH Council at a meeting in Brussels on 12 April 1970. The FIH decided that the inaugural World Cup would be held in Pakistan. However, political issues would prevent that first competition from being played in Pakistan; the FIH had inadvertently scheduled the first World Cup to be played in Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Furthermore and India had been at war with each other only six years earlier; when Pakistan invited India to compete in the tournament, a crisis arose. Pakistanis, led by cricketer Abdul Hafeez Kardar, protested against India's participation in the Hockey World Cup. Given the intense political climate between Pakistan and India, the FIH decided to move the tournament elsewhere. In March 1971, coincidentally in the same month Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan, the FIH decided to move the first Hockey World Cup to the Real Club de Polo grounds in Barcelona, considered a neutral and peaceful European site.
The FIH has set no limitations on the size of the competition. The 1971 Cup included the smallest World Cup to date; the 1978 Cup featured fourteen nations. The 2002 Cup featured the largest World Cup to date; the remaining 9 World Cups have featured 12 nations. The first three tournaments were held every two years; the 1978 cup was the only tournament held three years from the previous one. It has continued that way. In other words, the tournament has been held every four years since; the Hockey World Cup trophy was created by the Pakistani Army. On 27 March 1971, in Brussels, the trophy was formally handed to FIH President Rene Frank by Mr H. E Masood, the Pakistani Ambassador to Belgium; the trophy consists of a silver cup with an intricate floral design, surmounted by a globe of the world in silver and gold, placed on a high blade base inlaid with ivory. At its peak is a model hockey stick and ball. Without its base, the trophy stands 120.85 mm high. Including the base, the trophy stands 650 mm, it weighs 11,560 g, including 6,815 g of silver, 350 g of ivory and 3,500 g of teak.
The Hockey World Cup consists of a final tournament stage. The format for each stage is the same; the qualification stage has been a part of the Hockey World Cup since 1977. All participating teams play in the qualification round; the teams compete for a berth in the final tournament. The top two teams are automatically qualified and the rest of the berths are decided in playoffs; the final tournament features other qualified teams. Sometimes it features the winners of the Summer Olympics' hockey competition or the continental runners-up; the teams play a round robin tournament. The composition of the pools is determined using the current world rankings; the top two teams in each pool play in the semifinals for a place in the final. The bottom two teams in the semifinals have a third place playoff; the rest of the teams have playoffs to determine their final positions. If they are third or fourth in their pool, they play for fifth place. Twenty four teams have qualified for a Hockey World Cup. Of these, eleven teams have made it to the semifinals.
Seven teams have made it through to the finals. To date the most successful teams are Pakistan, with four titles from six final appearances, the Netherlands, with three titles from seven final appearances, Australia with three titles from five final appearances. Germany won in 2002 and 2006, while India and Belgium won their lone titles in 1975 and 2018, respectively. Below is a list of teams that have finished in the top four positions in the tournament: * = host nation ^ = includes results representing West Germany between 1971 and 1990 # = states that have since split into two or more independent nations Nine nations have hosted the Hockey World Cup. Only the Netherlands and Germany have won the tournament as hosts. Spain and Pakistan emerged as host runners-up in the 1971, 1986 and 1990 tournaments. Australia placed third. To date, the finals of the Hockey World Cup have been contested by Asian and Oceania continental teams. European teams have won the most with six titles, followed by Asia
United States women's national field hockey team
The United States women's national field hockey team, coached by Janneke Schopman since 2017, made its first international appearance in 1920 when a touring team visited England, coached by Constance M. K. Applebee; the team made several international appearances in the early 20th Century, leading to the United States hosting the eighth International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations Tournament in 1963. Once the IFWHA merged with its counterpart on the men's side, the United States' first appearance at an FIH-sanctioned tournament was the 1983 Women's Hockey World Cup in Kuala Lumpur, where the Americans ended up in sixth place, they have won bronze at the Los Angeles bronze at the 1994 World Cup. During the 1984 Summer Olympics, the team won a bronze medal; this happened after The Netherlands defeated Australia in the final match of the round-robin tournament and Australia and the United States were left tied for third place with identical records: two wins, two losses, one draw, nine goals scored and seven goals conceded.
Following the Holland-Australia match, the United States players came down from the stands and competed with the Australians in a penalty shoot-out to decide the bronze medal. The US won the shootout to claim America's first Olympic medal in women's field hockey; the Olympic qualifying squad placed first in the second series of games during the 2008 Women's Hockey Olympic Qualifier. The team finished in eighth place in the 2008 Summer Olympics, they lost to Germany 4-2 to end their run in the Olympic Games. The USWNT qualified for the London 2012 Olympic Games after defeating Argentina 4-2 at the Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico; the U. S. had high hopes of finishing their rocky 2012 Olympic campaign on a high note. That didn’t happen for Team USA as the final match at Riverbank Arena in London’s Olympic Park ended with a disappointing 2-1 loss to Belgium, leaving the U. S. with a last place finish in the tournament. In similar fashion to qualifying for the London 2012 Olympic Games, the USWNT defeated Argentina at the Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada to punch their ticket to the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.
In pool play the USWNT toppled both global hockey powerhouses Argentina and Australia with the same score of 2-1. Continuing in their preliminary schedule the USA rose above Japan 6-1 as well as India with a score of 3-0. Great Britain was USA’s final pool play competitor who defeated the USWNT dashing their near spotless record with a 2-1 win. In quartefinal play, Germany was able to grab one more goal than the USWNT to develop a 2-1 score, bringing USA's Olympic Games campaign to a close; the team finished in fifth place overall. A red box around indicates tournaments played in the United States Roster for the 2018 Women's Hockey World Cup. Head coach: Janneke Schopman Beth Anders Charlene Morett-Curtiss Kate Barber Beth Beglin Kris Fillat Tracey Fuchs Sheryl Johnson Barbara Marois Marcia Pankratz Karen Shelton Amy Tran United States men's national field hockey team USA Field Hockey USA Field Hockey Hall of Fame Official website FIH profile
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear