1999 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, the third edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in the United States and won by the host team. The final between the U. S. and China, held on 10 July at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, was the most-attended women's sports event in history with an official attendance of 90,185. U. S. President Bill Clinton was among those in attendance; the final was scoreless after extra time and won by the U. S. in a penalty shootout. This remains the only Women's World Cup tournament. An official music video of the number Let's Get Loud by Jennifer Lopez was filmed live at the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup. On 31 May 1996, the FIFA Executive Committee awarded as the tournament to the United States, they became the second country to host both men's and women's World Cup, having hosted the men's less than two years before the selection. 16 teams participated in the final tournament. The teams were: For a list of all squads that played in the final tournament, see 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup squads.
The group draw took place at the Spartan Stadium in San Jose, California on 14 February 1999.: Host. A No extra time was played; the following awards were given for the tournament: Sissi of Brazil and Sun Wen of China won the Golden Shoe award for scoring seven goals. In total, 123 goals were scored with three of them credited as own goals. 7 goals Sissi Sun Wen4 goals Ann Kristin Aarønes3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Hiromi Isozaki Ifeanyi Chiejine Brandi Chastain Table source FIFA Women's World Cup USA 1999, FIFA.com FIFA Technical Report and All Matches Brazilian Football Team, jogosdaselecaobrasileira.wordpress.com
Tiffany Marie Roberts Sahaydak, née Tiffany Marie Roberts, is an American soccer coach, former defender, Olympic gold medalist. She was a member of the 1999 U. S. national team that won the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup. She became the 16th player in U. S. history to play over 100 matches for her country and was a founding member of the WUSA, the first women's professional soccer league in the United States. She is head coach of the women's soccer team at the University of Central Florida. Born in Petaluma, Roberts attended the all-girls' Carondelet High School in Concord, California where she scored 90 goals and provided 51 assists in three and a half seasons. During her senior year, she scored nine goals with five assists in six games before leaving to join the national team, she graduated from high school via correspondent courses in order to train full-time with the national team beginning in January 1995 in preparation for the 1995 Women's World Cup. Roberts was named the 1994 California High School Player of the Year.
She was a three-time Parade High School All-American, a three-time NSCAA All-American and was the two-time National Girl's High School Player of the Year. As a junior, she scored 34 goals and served 20 assists and helped lead Carondelet to the state title and the number one ranking in the country. A top track athlete in high school, Roberts was ranked in the top 20 in the country for the 400 meter dash and was voted Carondelet's Most Valuable Track & Field Athlete in 1992 and 1993. Roberts played club soccer for two years with the San Ramon Soccer Club in California, she played with Alcosta Lightning from age 12-15 and was a member of the Lightning's Under-15 team that won the regional championship. She was voted the MVP of the Far Western Regional in 1993. Roberts attended the University of North Carolina and played for the Tar Heels under former national team coach, Anson Dorrance; as a freshman in 1995, she scored five goals and served six assists while starting 22 games and earning First-Team All-ACC honors.
As a sophomore, she helped the Tar Heels to the 1996 NCAA title while battling through injuries scoring nine goals and providing 15 assists. During her junior year in 1997, she started all 28 games, scored seven goals and provided 11 assists while helping the team to the NCAA title, she was named First-Team All-ACC and to the NCAA All-Tournament Team. During her senior year, she started all 26 games while scoring three goals with 12 assists and was named MVP of the Atlantic Coast Conference Tournament, she helped the Tar Heels to an undefeated regular season and a berth in the NCAA Championship game and was named to the NCAA All-Tournament Team. The same year, she finished third in voting for both the 1998 Hermann Trophy and MAC Player of the Year Award. Roberts was a founding player of the Women's United Soccer Association, the first women's professional soccer league in the United States, played for the Carolina Courage from 2001-2003. During the club's inaugural season in 2001, she started all 21 games.
She went on to captain the team over the next two seasons, winning the WUSA Championship in 2002, as well as earning two WUSA All-Star Team selections in 2002 and 2003. In 2005, Roberts joined the Washington Freedom Reserves, an exhibition team put together by the Washington Freedom ownership, joining former WUSA players like Kylie Bivens and Emily Janss, as well as U-21 National Team players, Ali Krieger and Joanna Lohman; the team brought in retired soccer players Sun Wen and Brandi Chastain as guest players for one game each. The Freedom compiled a 7–2–2 record for the season of exhibition matches all against W-League teams. Roberts made her international debut with the United States women's national soccer team at the age of 16 in 1994 during a match against Portugal and was a member of the U. S. team that won the title at the CONCACAF Qualifying Championship in Montreal in 1994. She scored her first goal on April 1994 in a match against Trinidad & Tobago. In 1995, she played for the team.
In 1996, she was a member of the gold medal-winning team at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. Her defensive play in the midfield was considered key to the victory over Norway during the Olympic semifinals. In 1998, Roberts was a member of the gold medal winning team at the 1998 Goodwill Games. During the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, she played in two. Roberts represented the United States on the U-21 national team that won the 1997 Nordic Cup in Denmark and finished second at the 1998 Nordic Cup in the Netherlands. Roberts began her coaching career as co-head coach of the women's soccer team at Virginia Commonwealth University along with her husband, former MLS player, Tim Sahaydak, she was hired as head coach at the University of Central Florida on May 6, 2013, with Tim hired as an assistant. In 2011, Roberts traveled to Brazil on behalf of the United States Department of State to conduct soccer clinics with former national team member and teammate, Linda Hamilton. In June 2014, Roberts traveled to Brazil on behalf of the United States Department of State to participate in a Sports Envoy program with former U.
S. national team member Cobi Jones. In July 2014, Roberts returned to Brazil as a member of the official White House delegation at the opening game of the FIFA World Cup in São Paulo, Brazil. Tiffany Roberts – FIFA competition record US Soccer profile Virginia Commonwealth coach profile Life After Soccer: Tiffany Roberts Sahaydak Tiffany Roberts on Twitter
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Julie Maurine Foudy is an American retired soccer midfielder, two-time FIFA Women's World Cup champion and Olympic gold medalist. She played for the United States women's national soccer team from 1987–2004. Foudy finished her international career with 271 caps and served as the team's captain from 2000–2004 as well as the co-captain from 1991–2000. In 1997, she was the first first woman to receive the FIFA Fair Play Award. From 2000–2002, Foudy served as president of the Women's Sports Foundation. In 2006, she co-founded the Julie Foudy Sports Leadership Academy, an organization focused on developing leadership skills in teenage girls. In 2007, she was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame with Mia Hamm, she is an analyst and the primary color commentator for women's soccer telecasts on ESPN. Foudy is the author of Choose to Matter: Being Courageously and Fabulously YOU and appeared in the HBO documentary Dare to Dream: The Story of the U. S. Women's Soccer Team, she was the executive producer of the documentary short, An Equal Playing Field, starring Christen Press and producer of the ESPN Nine for IX episode entitled, The 99ers featuring some of her teammates from the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup-winning U.
S. national team. Born in San Diego and raised in Mission Viejo, Foudy attended Mission Viejo High School where she was a two-time First-Team All-American, she was honored as the Player of the Year for Southern California three straight years and was named the Los Angeles Times' High School Player of the 1980s. Foudy was a four-time NSCAA All-American at Stanford University and finished her collegiate career with 52 goals, 32 assists and 136 points, she was named the 1991 Soccer America Player of the Year and the 1989 Soccer America Freshman of the Year as was a two-time finalist for the Hermann Trophy in 1991 and 1992. She helped lead the Cardinal to NCAA tournament playoff berths all four years and was the team's MVP for three consecutive years from 1989–1991, she was the recipient of the Stanford Outstanding Freshman and Junior Athlete Award and was named to Soccer America's College Team of the Decade for the 1990s. Foudy played for the Sacramento Storm, which won the 1993, 1995 and 1997 California State Amateur championship.
In 1994, Foudy played for Tyresö FF in the Damallsvenskan in Sweden joining her national team teammates, Michelle Akers, Mary Harvey and Kristine Lilly. Foudy held the captain's position for the San Diego Spirit; when the WUSA suspended operations in September 2003, Foudy was the official player's representative to the ongoing efforts to resurrect the league. Foudy played in four FIFA Women's World Cup tournaments, winning two FIFA Women's World Cups—in 1991 and 1999, she played in three Summer Olympic Games, winning an Olympic Gold Medal in 1996, Silver in 2000, Gold again in 2004. Following the 2004 Olympic Games, Foudy joined fellow soccer icons Mia Hamm, Joy Fawcett and Brandi Chastain in a 10-game "farewell tour" that marked the end of what the media labeled the "golden era" of US women's soccer. Foudy has served as an in-studio analyst for ABC, ESPN and ESPN2's coverage of the 2006 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 2008, has provided on-air commentary and analysis during United States Women's National Team matches since then.
She has coanchored ABC and ESPN telecasts of the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup and the 2007 season of Major League Soccer, including the MLS Cup. She appeared as a pundit for the ESPN coverage of the UEFA Euro 2008 championship finals, together with Andy Gray and Tommy Smyth. For the 2010 FIFA World Cup, she served as a reporter and analyst, doing features and analysis in South Africa for ESPN. Foudy is a reporter for ESPN's investigative program, Outside the Lines, she served as a sportsdesk reporter for NBC Sports coverage of the 2008 Summer Olympics. She fills in for Dana Jacobson on ESPN First Take. Since late-2010, Foudy has been paired with Ian Darke on ESPN's primary broadcast team for women's soccer telecasts, as was the case for the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. On Aug. 20th, 2013, ESPN Films teamed up with Foudy to premiere their new Nine for IX film on the 1999 Women's World Cup Team, The 99ers. The film, directed by Erin Leyden, produced by Foudy, tells the incredible story of the 1999 United States women's national soccer team, using Foudy's personal behind the scenes footage.
Reuniting key players from the 1999 squad and talking with current U. S. players as well, the film examines how women's soccer – and women's sports as a whole – has changed since that epic day at the Rose Bowl. The Julie Foudy Sports Leadership Academy is an organization focused on sports and leadership for girls founded in 2006 by Foudy and her husband Ian Sawyers; the academy hosts one-week combined sports camp and leadership academy for girls age 12–18. The staff includes World Cup champions and other leaders; the camps are focused on leadership building "on and off the field". Foudy was selected for induction into the National Soccer Hall of Fame for the class of 2007 alongside former teammate Mia Hamm. Foudy and Hamm's induction was the first all-female class of the U. S. National Soccer Hall of Fame. In 1997, she received the FIFA Fair Play Award for her work against child labor, the first American and first woman to win the award. For her accomplishments in soccer in the United States, Foudy was awarded the Golden Blazer in 2015 by Men in Blazers.
The American Library Association selected Foudy as Honorary Chair of National Library Week 2017. Foudy graduated from Mission Viejo High School in 1989 and Stanford University in 1994, she was accepted into Stanford Medical School in 1996, deferred for two years, decided not
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Briana Collette Scurry is an American retired soccer goalkeeper and current assistant coach of the Washington Spirit. Scurry was the starting goalkeeper for the United States women's national soccer team at the 1995 World Cup, 1996 Summer Olympics, 1999 World Cup, 2003 World Cup, the 2004 Summer Olympic Games, she played in the playoff for third place in the 2007 Women's World Cup. She was a founding member of the WUSA, playing three seasons as starting goalkeeper for the Atlanta Beat, her career total of 173 international appearances is the second most among female soccer goalkeepers. It is the fifteenth most of any American female player, the thirty-second most among all women. Scurry was elected to the National Soccer Hall of Fame on August 3, 2017, she was first black woman to be awarded the honor. Scurry was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota to parents and Robbie Scurry, she is the youngest of nine children, with five sisters. She played goalie for the Anoka High School Tornadoes for four years and was instrumental in their Minnesota State Championship win in 1989 which ended in a shootout victory.
In high school, Scurry ran track and played floor hockey and softball, but basketball was her first and deepest love. Briana was named Anoka High School's Athena Award winner as the school's top female athlete, she was named High School All American and Minnesota's top female athlete. In 2010, she was inducted into the Minnesota State High School Hall of Fame. In September 2011, Scurry was named to the inaugural class of the Anoka High School Hall of Fame. Scurry attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst and completed her four-year collegiate career with 37 shutouts in 65 starts and with a career record of 48–13–4 and a 0.56 goals-against-average She split time in the net in 1992 during her junior season, starting 13 games and earning seven shutouts. Scurry played three games in 1992 as a forward. In 1993, she helped lead the UMass Minutewomen to a 17–3–3 record, to the semifinals of the NCAA Women's Soccer Championship and the titles of the Atlantic 10 Conference regular season and tournament.
In her senior season, she started all 23 games and recorded 15 shutouts and a 0.48 goals-against average, the third best in the nation. Scurry was named the National Goalkeeper of the Year in 1993 by the Missouri Athletic Club Sports Foundation and was a 1993 second-team All-American, All-Northeast Region and All-New England first-team selection. Scurry was a founding player for the Atlanta Beat in the Women's United Soccer Association, the world's first women's league where the players were paid as professionals, she was the starting goalkeeper for the three seasons of the league. She helped the Beat to two WUSA Championship Games and was named the league's Goalkeeper of the Year in 2003. On March 13, 2009, Scurry was named to the preseason roster of the Washington Freedom, in the inaugural season of Women's Professional Soccer, she suffered a season-ending concussion early in the 2010 season, announced her retirement that year on September 8. In 2012 Briana was part of "Pitch Slap", a tournament softball team which dominated a beer league coed softball league Scurry was a goalkeeper for the United States women's national soccer team for most of the years between 1994–2008, earning a record 173 caps for the United States.
She started 159 of those games and finished her international career with a record of 133–12–14. She earned 71 shutouts. Scurry's first appearance for the United States women's national soccer team was March 16, 1994, versus Portugal, her first shutout was recorded the same day. In her first year with the USA, she earned seven shutouts in 12 starts, she was a member of the Gold Medal-winning US Women's National Team at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta where she started and played in every minute of the team's five matches conceding only three goals. Scurry played every minute of the 1999 Women's World Cup allowing only three goals and recording four shutouts, she started for the USA in 2004 Summer Olympic Games. She played two matches for the USA in the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup and was the alternate goalkeeper on the 2008 Olympic Team. On June 23, 2008, United States Women's Olympic soccer coach Pia Sundhage announced that Scurry would not be on the Olympic team, her last match for the USA was on November 2008, against the Korea Republic.
Scurry was appointed general manager of the WPS franchise magicJack beginning with the 2011 season. Scurry was part of the rotation of studio commentators for ESPN's telecasts of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. On December 6, 2017, Scurry was announced as the First Assistant Coach of the Washington Spirit and would serve as Technical Advisor for the Spirit Academy programs in Maryland and Virginia. 1989 High School All-American 1989 Minnesota’s High School Female Athlete of the Year 1993 All-New England, All-Northeast Region, All-American 1993 National Collegiate Goalkeeper of the Year 1994 Most Valuable Player, Chiquita Cup 1994 Algarve Cup 2nd Place 1995 World Cup Bronze Medalist 1996 Olympic Gold Medalist 1998 Goodwill Games Gold Medalist 1999 Algarve Cup 2nd place 1999 World Cup Champion 1999 Best Goalkeeper Award -World Cup 2000 Algarve Cup runner up 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup Champion 2000 Olympic Silver Medalist 2001 All-WUSA Second Team 2002 All-WUSA Second Team 2003 All-WUSA First Team 2003 WUSA Goalkeeper of the Year 2003 Algarve Cup Champion 2003 World Cup Bronze Medalist 2004 Algarve Cup Champion 2004 Olympic Gold Medalist 2006 CONCACAF Gold Cup Champion 2007 Algarve Cup Champion 2008 Peace Queen Cup Champion 2008 Four Nations Tournament Champion
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs