Women in science
Women have made significant contributions to science from the earliest times. The historical and sociological study of issues has become an academic discipline in its own right. The involvement of women in the field of medicine occurred in early civilizations. Women contributed to the proto-science of alchemy in the first or second centuries AD, during the Middle Ages, convents were an important place of education for women, and some of these communities provided opportunities for women to contribute to scholarly research. While the eleventh century saw the emergence of the first universities, women were, for the most part, the attitude to educating women in medical fields in Italy appears to have been more liberal than in other places. The first known woman to earn a university chair in a field of studies, was eighteenth century Italian scientist. Although gender roles were defined in the eighteenth century, women experienced great advances in science. During the nineteenth century, women were excluded from most formal scientific education, in the nineteenth century the rise of the womens college provided jobs for women scientists, and opportunities for education.
Marie Curie, the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize in 1903, went on to become a double Nobel Prize recipient in 1911, forty women have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2010. 17 women have been awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, the involvement of women in the field of medicine has been recorded in several early civilizations. An ancient Egyptian, Merit-Ptah, described in an inscription as chief physician, is the earliest known female scientist named in the history of science, agamede was cited by Homer as a healer in ancient Greece before the Trojan War. Agnodike was the first female physician to practice legally in fourth century BC Athens, the study of natural philosophy in ancient Greece was open to women. If we are to argue chemistry as the use of equipment and processes. Even during the time of the Egyptian dynasty, women were involved in applied chemistry, such as the making of beer, a good number of women have been recorded to have made major contributions to alchemy.
Many of which lived in Alexandria around the 1st or 2nd centuries AD, such distillation equipment were called kerotakis and the tribikos. Hypatia of Alexandria, daughter of Theon of Alexandria, was a teacher at the Neoplatonic School in Alexandria teaching astronomy, philosophy. She is recognized to be the first known woman mathematician in history through her major contributions to mathematics. Hypatia is credited with writing three major treatises on geometry and astronomy, as well as the invention of a hydrometer, an astrolabe, there is even evidence that Hypatia gave public lectures and may have held some sort of public office in Alexandria
Women in journalism
As journalism became a profession, women were restricted by custom from access to journalism occupations, and faced significant discrimination within the profession. Nevertheless, women operated as editors, sports analysts and journalists even before the 1890s, the first woman in Denmark who published articles in Danish papers were the writer Charlotte Baden, who occasionally participated in the weekly MorgenPost from 1786 to 1793. In the 1870s, the movement started and published papers of their own, with women editors. In 1912, eight women were members of the reporters union Københavns Journalistforbund, five in the club Journalistforeningen i København and a total of 35 women employed as journalists in Denmark. The first woman in Finland to work as a journalist in Finland under her own name was Adelaïde Ehrnrooth, anne-Marguerite Petit du Noyer has been referred to as one of the most famous early 18th century female journalists in Europe. Her reports of the leading to the Peace of Utrecht were read all over Europe and admired for the distinction with which she reported on scandal.
The first female journalist in Norway was Birgithe Kühle, who published the local paper Provincial-Lecture in Bergen between 1794 and 1795. In Sweden, Maria Matras, known as N. Wankijfs Enka, published the paper Ordinarie Stockholmiske Posttijdender in 1690–1695, margareta Momma became the first identified female journalist and chief editor as the editor of the political essaypaper Samtal emellan Argi Skugga och en obekant Fruentimbers Skugga in 1738. Hwad Nytt. between 1773 and 1795, from the 1880s, women became more common in the offices of the press, and when women was admitted to the Swedish Publicists Association in 1885,14 women were inducted as members. The pioneer generation of journalists were generally from the upper class who wished to earn their own income. Women were employed as translators and given the responsibility for the coverage of culture, nor was the struggle of life and competition so sharp, as it has become. The women pioneers were generally treated with sympathy and interest, even by the men, of the seven biggest newspapers in Stockholm, six had female co-workers prior to 1900, and when Swedish Union of Journalists was founded in 1901, women were included from the start.
Women covered World War I and the Russian revolution and several women journalists became famed role models such as Ester Blenda Nordström and Elin Brandell. During World War I, war time rationing made it necessary to cover household interests, in 1939, Elsa Nyblom became vice chairperson of the Publicistklubben. The informal discrimination changed when women started to expand the subjects treated at the womens sections. A noted example of development was Synnöve Bellander, editor of the womens section Hus och hem at Svenska Dagbladet in 1932–59. This development in the womens sections gradually transformed them to sections for family, the 1960s signified a great change. In 1970, Pernilla Tunberger became the first woman to be awarded Stora Journalistpriset and her writing analyzes the relevant events, personalities of key actors and consequences of the military struggles she observed
Women in music
As well, it describes music movements and genres related to women, womens issues and feminism. Notable women artists in pop, such as Bjork and Lady Gaga have commented about sexism, Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. A2015 article on concerto soloists in major Canadian orchestras, however, in 2012, women still made up just 6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Women are less common as players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists. Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres, Women are underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing, and sound engineering. Duchen states that here are women musicians who refuse to play on their looks. the ones who do tend to be more materially successful. One of the most recorded artists is a woman, Asha Bhosle, a songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics and chord progressions for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as pop, rock or country music. A songwriter can be called a composer, although the term tends to be mainly used for individuals from the classical music genre.
Only a few of the women in America had their music published and heard during the late 19th. According to Richard A. Reublin and Richard G. Beil, Women. struggled to write and publish music in the mans world of 20th century Tin Pan Alley. Prior to 1900 and even after 1900, it was expected that. women would perform music, as part of womens role in music education, women wrote hymns and childrens music. The secular music in print in America before 1825 shows only about 70 works by women, in the mid 19th century, notable women songwriters emerged, including Faustina Hasse Hodges, Susan Parkhurst, Augusta Browne and Marion Dix Sullivan. By 1900, there were more women songwriters, but. many were still forced to use pseudonyms or initials to hide the fact that they were women. Carrie Jacobs-Bond was the. preeminent woman composer of the late 1800s, the first million selling woman songwriter. Maude Nugent wrote Sweet Rosie OGrady in 1896 and she penned Down At Rosie Reillys Flat, My Irish Daisy and Mary From Tipperary.
Charlotte Blake was a writer for at the Whitney Warner Publishing Co. in Detroit. Initially, the company billed her as C, Blake to hide her gender, but by 1906 ads used her full name. Caro Roma was the pseudonym for Carrie Northly
A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child, supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof. Such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, women who meet the third and first categories usually fall under the terms birth mother or biological mother, regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the condition may be considered an adoptive mother. The above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of mother may differ based on how social and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males, those who are fathers do not, by definition and fatherhood are not limited to those who are or have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, the modern English word is from Middle English moder, from Old English mōdor, from Proto-Germanic *mōdēr, from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr.
Other cognates include Latin māter, Greek μήτηρ, Common Slavic *mati, Persian مادر, biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum. Typically a fetus develops from the zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the uterus until the fetus is sufficiently developed to be born. In humans, gestation is often around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and this is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation. Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process, the mothers breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infants immune system and commonly the sole source of nutrition for the first year or more of the childs life. Mother can often apply to an other than the biological parent. This is commonly either a mother or a stepmother. The term othermother or other mother is used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the childs primary mother.
Adoption, in forms, has been practiced throughout history. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes, in recent decades, international adoptions have become more and more common. Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a point of view
Legal rights of women in history
The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first womens rights declarations was the Declaration of Sentiments, the dependent position of women in early law is proved by the evidence of most ancient systems. In the Mosaic law, for monetary matters and mens rights were almost exactly equal, a woman was entitled to her own private property, including land, livestock and servants. A woman had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death gift, a woman could likewise bequeath her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon dying intestate, a womans property would be inherited by her if she had them, her husband if she was married. A woman could sue in court and did not need a male to represent her, in some situations, women actually had more rights than men. For example, captive women had to be ransomed prior to any male captives, when it came to specific religious or sacramental activities, women had fewer opportunities or privileges than men.
For example, in monetary or capital cases women could not serve as witnesses, a woman could not serve as a kohen in the Temple. A woman could not serve as queen, the monarch had to be male, a divorce could only be granted by the husband, upon which time she would receive the Ketubah and the return of significant portions of her dowry. In Ancient Egypt, legally, a woman shared the rights and status as a man – at least. An Egyptian woman was entitled to her own property, which could include land, livestock and servants. She had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her and she could divorce her husband, and sue in court. Most notably, a woman could do these legal matters without a male to represent her, however, on the whole, men vastly outnumbered women in most trades, including government administrators, the average woman still centered her time around the home and family. A few women became pharaohs, and women held important positions in government, in ancient Athenian law, women lacked many of the legal rights given to their male counterparts.
They were excluded from appearing in law courts or participating in the assembly, historians doubt that this ideal could have been attained except by the richest women, however. Women in Classical Athens did have the right to divorce, though they lost all rights to any children they had by their husband upon divorce, Roman law similar to Athenian law, was created by men in favor of men. Women had no voice, and no public role which only improved after the 1st century to the 6th century BCE. Freeborn women of ancient Rome were citizens had legal privileges and protections that did not extend to non-citizens or slaves, Roman society, was patriarchal, and women could not vote, hold public office, or serve in the military
Women in conservatism in the United States
Women in conservatism in the United States have advocated for social, political and cultural conservative policies since Anti-suffragism. Leading conservative women such as Phyllis Schlafly have expressed that women should embrace their privileged essential nature, Women first began to oppose suffrage in Massachusetts in 1868. They succeeded in blocking the proposal, and this caused the movement to gain momentum, the National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage was thus formed by Josephine Dodge in 1911 with approximately 350,000 members. This organization mostly consisted of women who were often wives of politicians. These women helped defeat nearly 40 suffrage proposals, and published the Womens Protest in order to voice their agenda nationwide. Dodge and the organization argued that women should stay out of politics in order to be efficient and diligent in work for which her nature. These anti-feminist beliefs are shaped the anti-suffrage crusade. A major source of womens activism was in Southern California in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in Orange County.
These women mainly consisted of suburban warriors, or middle class housewives who feared that their Christian nation was under attack. Increasing Cold War tensions and fears of Communism allowed for women to mobilize groups such as the John Birch Society. They eventually backed politician Barry Goldwater and successfully campaigned for him to become the candidate for the Republican Party in 1964. However, Goldwater lost the election to Lyndon Johnson in a landslide. Still, his nomination illustrated the shift from moderation to more hardline stances in many members of the Republican Party and his campaign showcased the success of conservative grassroots organizations and mobilization. After Goldwaters defeat, grassroots conservatives had to rethink their strategy, conservative women soon turned to Ronald Reagan. He won over the support of the women of Orange County, there were some women that opposed him due to his more mainstream views. Cyril Stevenson, a prominent leader of the California Republican Assembly and these attempts failed, nevertheless, as Reagan was elected.
However, a lower amount of women than men voted for Reagan when he was eventually elected President of the United States. Reagan gained the support of conservative women by attempting to close this gender gap
Women in STEM fields
STEM professions, like medicine, require higher education or training—especially in mathematics—in nearly all cases. Since the feminist revolution of the 1970s, the opportunities available to men and women in education have become broadly similar in most advanced economies. This has not yet translated to equal representation for women in the STEM professions on the ground, scholars are exploring the various reasons for the continued existence of this gender disparity in STEM fields. Those who view this disparity as resulting from discriminatory forces are seeking ways to redress this disparity within STEM fields, some proponents view diversity as an inherent human good, and wish to increase diversity for its own sake, regardless of its historical origin or present cause. In the United States, research findings are mixed concerning when boys and girls attitudes about mathematics, analyzing several nationally representative longitudinal studies, one researcher found few differences in girls and boys attitudes towards science in the early secondary school years.
Students aspirations to pursue careers in mathematics and science influence both the courses they choose to take in areas and the level of effort they put forth in these courses. A report by the U. S. Department of Education found that the gap in the aspirations of boys. Girls begin to lose self-confidence in middle school because they believe that men possess more intelligence in technical fields, the fact that men outperform women in spatial analysis, a skillset many engineering professionals deem vital, generates this misconception. Boys are more likely to gain spatial skills outside the classroom because they are encouraged to build. Research shows that girls can develop these skills with training. A1996 study of college freshmen by the Higher Education Research Institute shows that men and women differ greatly in their fields of study. The differences in the majors between male and female first-time freshmen directly relate to the differences in the fields in which men and women earn their degree.
At the post-secondary level, women are less likely than men to earn a degree in mathematics, physical sciences, or computer sciences, the exception to this gender imbalance is in the life sciences. In Scotland, a number of women graduate in STEM subjects. This represents a £170 million per annum loss to Scotlands national income, although female college graduates shared in the earnings growth of all college graduates in the 1980s, they earned less on average than male college graduates. Some of the differences in salary are related to the differences in occupations entered by women and men, among recent science and engineering bachelors degree recipients, women were less likely than men to be employed in science and engineering occupations. There remains wage gap between men and women in comparable scientific positions, among more experienced scientists and engineers, the gender gap in salaries is greater than for recent graduates. Salaries are highest in mathematics, computer science, and engineering, an fact sheet published by UNESCO in March 2015 presented worldwide statistics of women in the STEM fields, with a focus on Asia and the Pacific region
Women in piracy
While piracy was predominantly a male occupation, a minority of pirates were women. On many ships, women were prohibited by the ships contract, because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such. Anne Bonny, for example and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jacks ship and she and Mary Read, another female pirate, are often identified as being unique in this regard. This article contains a list of female pirates who are recognized by historians, during the Golden Age of Piracy, many men had to leave home to find employment or set sail for economic reasons. This left women with the responsibilities of taking on male roles. The need for women to fill these roles led them to be granted rights that had historically been exclusive to men, Women were allowed to trade, own ships, and work as retailers. Often they were innkeepers or ran alehouses, in some seaside towns, laws were even written to allow widows to keep their husbands responsibilities and property.
This was important to local economies, as alehouses and other establishments were centers of commerce. As heads of these establishments, women had an amount of freedom in business. At times, female business owners would even hide their clients when authorities came looking to arrest them for piracy, some women chose to marry pirates. These men were very wealthy, but their wives tended not to gain wealth as a result of their marriages, as it was difficult for pirates to send home wages. These womens houses and establishments were often used as havens for pirates. Women sometimes became pirates themselves, though they tended to have to disguise themselves as men in order to do so, Pirates did not allow women onto their ships very often. Many women of the time were unable to perform the demanding tasks required of the crew. Additionally, women were regarded as bad luck among pirates. It was feared that the members of the crew would argue. On many ships, women were prohibited by the ships contract, because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such.
Anne Bonny, for example and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jacks ship and she and Mary Read, another female pirate, are often identified as being unique in this regard
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world. They include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, Reproductive rights began to develop as a subset of human rights at the United Nations 1968 International Conference on Human Rights. States, have been slow in incorporating these rights in internationally legally binding instruments, issues related to reproductive rights are some of the most vigorously contested rights issues worldwide, regardless of the populations socioeconomic level, religion or culture. The issue of rights is frequently presented as being of vital importance in discussions. Reproductive rights are a subset of sexual and reproductive health and rights, in 1945, the United Nations Charter included the obligation to promote. Universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without discrimination as to race, language, the Charter did not define these rights.
Three years later, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first international document to delineate human rights. Parents have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number. The 1975 UN International Womens Year Conference echoed the Proclamation of Teheran, the twenty-year Cairo Programme of Action was adopted in 1994 at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The non-binding Programme of Action asserted that governments have a responsibility to meet individuals reproductive needs, the ICPD addressed issues such as violence against women, sex trafficking, and adolescent health. Unlike previous population conferences, a range of interests from grassroots to government level were represented in Cairo. 179 nations attended the ICPD and overall eleven thousand representatives from governments, NGOs, international agencies, the ICPD did not address the far-reaching implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Cairo Programme of Action was adopted by 184 UN member states, the Beijing Platform demarcated twelve interrelated critical areas of the human rights of women that require advocacy.
The Platform framed womens reproductive rights as indivisible and inalienable human rights, in relation to reproductive health, Principle 9 on The Right to Treatment with Humanity while in Detention requires that States shall. Nonetheless, African and Islamic Countries, as well as the Russian Federation, have objected to the use of these principles as Human Rights standards. The first legal textbook on reproductive rights law, Cases on Reproductive Rights and Justice by Melissa Murray, State abuses against reproductive rights have happened both under right-wing and left-wing governments. Some governments have implemented policies of forced sterilizations of undesirable population groups. It includes the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion, in the exercise of this right, they should take into account the needs of their living and future children and their responsibilities towards the community
Women in philosophy
Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the fields history. A notable medieval philosopher was Hypatia, notable modern philosophers included Mary Wollstonecraft and Sarah Margaret Fuller. Influential contemporary philosophers include Susanne Langer, Hannah Arendt, Simone de Beauvoir, Mary Midgley, Mary Warnock, Julia Kristeva, Patricia Churchland and Susan Haack. In the early 1800s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women, nevertheless, U. S. Department of Education reports from the 1990s indicate that philosophy is one of the least proportionate fields in the humanities with respect to gender. Women make up as little as 17% of philosophy faculty in some studies, in 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy. discipline’s own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment of women students and professors. Jennifer Saul, a professor of philosophy at the University of Sheffield, stated in 2015 that women are. leaving philosophy after being harassed, assaulted, or retaliated against.
In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that there is gender imbalance, in June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total. According to Eugene Sun Park, hilosophy is predominantly white and predominantly male and this homogeneity exists in almost all aspects and at all levels of the discipline. Susan Price argues that the philosophical. canon remains dominated by white males—the discipline that. still hews to the myth that genius is tied to gender, according to Saul, the oldest of the humanities, is the malest. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, in the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that. there is compelling evidence of. philosophy’s gender imbalance and bias and partiality in many of its theoretical products. In 1992, the association recommended that fifty percent of. positions should be filled by women, in 2014, philosophy professors Neven Sesardic and Rafael De Clercq published an article entitiled Women in Philosophy, Problems with the Discrimination Hypothesis.
Sesardic and De Clercq argue that proponents of the discrimination hypothesis, Haslanger states that she experienced “occasions when a woman’s status in graduate school was questioned because she was married, or had a child, or was in a long-distance relationship. In July 2015, British philosopher Mary Warnock addressed the issue of the representation of women in British university philosophy departments, against intervention, by quotas or otherwise, to increase women’s chances of employment in philosophy. There is nothing intrinsically harmful about this imbalance and she states that she does not. believe it shows a bias against women. Philosopher Julian Baggini states that he believes there is. little or no conscious discrimination against women in philosophy. At the same time, Baggini states that there may be a. great deal of unconscious bias against women in philosophy, in 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy. discipline’s own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment.
The post proposed that, since institutional procedures seemed to have been ineffective at removing or punishing harassers, philosophers should socially shun known offenders, the story was subsequently featured at Inside Higher Ed and several blogs, including Gawker and Jezebel. In 2013, a series of posts on the blog Whats it like to be a woman in philosophy, instigated a spate of mainstream media articles on the continued dominance of men in philosophy
Women in law enforcement
Women in law enforcement agencies have typically been outnumbered by men. The first policewoman in Germany was recruited in 1903, the first in the USA appeared in 1910, since that time many law enforcement agencies have sought to reduce discrimination and increase the numbers of women working in this sector. Henriette Arendt was a German Policewoman in 1903 and their trial period was deemed successful and from 1910 onward, policewomen were employed in other Swedish cities. During the First World War a volunteer service was established by Margaret Damer Dawson and they had joined forces after seeing the trouble faced by refugees during the war. These volunteer women were allowed to patrol the streets of London. These Women Police Volunteers were trained and they were intended to assist women during the turmoil of the war, during The First World War The Womens Police Service, led by Margaret Damer Dawson, provided women officers to police the government munitions factories. Some Chief Constables and Watch Committees choose to employ women police, two of the first were Hull and Southampton in 1915.
As the end of the First World War several groups of womens police Voluntary Patrols were in major cities in Great Britain. These well-bred women patrolling the streets to help women and children, the Voluntary Womens Force at Bath, Somerset was created in 1912. Apart from Londons Metropolitan Police commissioning of a report by a female on females in custody in 1907, the Prison Service had involved women many years previously. Matrons had been employed as staff to look after women and children. They were usually the wives of serving police officers, two women in particular sought to point out the lack of a woman Constable presence was wrong. They each had a relative in political high office, one of these women was Edith Tancred. She became a campaigner for the requirement of women police, Peto decided to take the administrative path within the Constabulary for promotion. Both Tancred and Peto were well placed in society to get their views heard and they were soon joined by three other women campaigners, and around 1911 started unofficial street patrols from an office in Bristol to maintain public morality and decency.
In 1914 Peto had joined the National Union of Women Workers, florence Mildred White left her teaching post at the Godolphin School in 1914 to live and work in the newly created Bath office of the group, where Peto had become the Assistant Patrols Organizer. White stayed until May 1918, working under the supervision of Peto, sir Leonard Dunning, Her Majestys Inspector of Constabulary wrote an article in the police magazine in 1918. About two of the six pages of his annual Report concerned the employment of women into police work