Women in piracy
While piracy was predominantly a male occupation, a minority of pirates were women. On many ships, women were prohibited by the ships contract, because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such. Anne Bonny, for example and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jacks ship and she and Mary Read, another female pirate, are often identified as being unique in this regard. This article contains a list of female pirates who are recognized by historians, during the Golden Age of Piracy, many men had to leave home to find employment or set sail for economic reasons. This left women with the responsibilities of taking on male roles. The need for women to fill these roles led them to be granted rights that had historically been exclusive to men, Women were allowed to trade, own ships, and work as retailers. Often they were innkeepers or ran alehouses, in some seaside towns, laws were even written to allow widows to keep their husbands responsibilities and property.
This was important to local economies, as alehouses and other establishments were centers of commerce. As heads of these establishments, women had an amount of freedom in business. At times, female business owners would even hide their clients when authorities came looking to arrest them for piracy, some women chose to marry pirates. These men were very wealthy, but their wives tended not to gain wealth as a result of their marriages, as it was difficult for pirates to send home wages. These womens houses and establishments were often used as havens for pirates. Women sometimes became pirates themselves, though they tended to have to disguise themselves as men in order to do so, Pirates did not allow women onto their ships very often. Many women of the time were unable to perform the demanding tasks required of the crew. Additionally, women were regarded as bad luck among pirates. It was feared that the members of the crew would argue. On many ships, women were prohibited by the ships contract, because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such.
Anne Bonny, for example and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jacks ship and she and Mary Read, another female pirate, are often identified as being unique in this regard
Women in law enforcement
Women in law enforcement agencies have typically been outnumbered by men. The first policewoman in Germany was recruited in 1903, the first in the USA appeared in 1910, since that time many law enforcement agencies have sought to reduce discrimination and increase the numbers of women working in this sector. Henriette Arendt was a German Policewoman in 1903 and their trial period was deemed successful and from 1910 onward, policewomen were employed in other Swedish cities. During the First World War a volunteer service was established by Margaret Damer Dawson and they had joined forces after seeing the trouble faced by refugees during the war. These volunteer women were allowed to patrol the streets of London. These Women Police Volunteers were trained and they were intended to assist women during the turmoil of the war, during The First World War The Womens Police Service, led by Margaret Damer Dawson, provided women officers to police the government munitions factories. Some Chief Constables and Watch Committees choose to employ women police, two of the first were Hull and Southampton in 1915.
As the end of the First World War several groups of womens police Voluntary Patrols were in major cities in Great Britain. These well-bred women patrolling the streets to help women and children, the Voluntary Womens Force at Bath, Somerset was created in 1912. Apart from Londons Metropolitan Police commissioning of a report by a female on females in custody in 1907, the Prison Service had involved women many years previously. Matrons had been employed as staff to look after women and children. They were usually the wives of serving police officers, two women in particular sought to point out the lack of a woman Constable presence was wrong. They each had a relative in political high office, one of these women was Edith Tancred. She became a campaigner for the requirement of women police, Peto decided to take the administrative path within the Constabulary for promotion. Both Tancred and Peto were well placed in society to get their views heard and they were soon joined by three other women campaigners, and around 1911 started unofficial street patrols from an office in Bristol to maintain public morality and decency.
In 1914 Peto had joined the National Union of Women Workers, florence Mildred White left her teaching post at the Godolphin School in 1914 to live and work in the newly created Bath office of the group, where Peto had become the Assistant Patrols Organizer. White stayed until May 1918, working under the supervision of Peto, sir Leonard Dunning, Her Majestys Inspector of Constabulary wrote an article in the police magazine in 1918. About two of the six pages of his annual Report concerned the employment of women into police work
Women in conservatism in the United States
Women in conservatism in the United States have advocated for social, political and cultural conservative policies since Anti-suffragism. Leading conservative women such as Phyllis Schlafly have expressed that women should embrace their privileged essential nature, Women first began to oppose suffrage in Massachusetts in 1868. They succeeded in blocking the proposal, and this caused the movement to gain momentum, the National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage was thus formed by Josephine Dodge in 1911 with approximately 350,000 members. This organization mostly consisted of women who were often wives of politicians. These women helped defeat nearly 40 suffrage proposals, and published the Womens Protest in order to voice their agenda nationwide. Dodge and the organization argued that women should stay out of politics in order to be efficient and diligent in work for which her nature. These anti-feminist beliefs are shaped the anti-suffrage crusade. A major source of womens activism was in Southern California in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in Orange County.
These women mainly consisted of suburban warriors, or middle class housewives who feared that their Christian nation was under attack. Increasing Cold War tensions and fears of Communism allowed for women to mobilize groups such as the John Birch Society. They eventually backed politician Barry Goldwater and successfully campaigned for him to become the candidate for the Republican Party in 1964. However, Goldwater lost the election to Lyndon Johnson in a landslide. Still, his nomination illustrated the shift from moderation to more hardline stances in many members of the Republican Party and his campaign showcased the success of conservative grassroots organizations and mobilization. After Goldwaters defeat, grassroots conservatives had to rethink their strategy, conservative women soon turned to Ronald Reagan. He won over the support of the women of Orange County, there were some women that opposed him due to his more mainstream views. Cyril Stevenson, a prominent leader of the California Republican Assembly and these attempts failed, nevertheless, as Reagan was elected.
However, a lower amount of women than men voted for Reagan when he was eventually elected President of the United States. Reagan gained the support of conservative women by attempting to close this gender gap
Women in computing
Historically, women in computing have had an effect on the evolution of the industry, with many of the first programmers during the early 20th century being female. Since July 2012 and previously an executive, usability leader. Ada Lovelace was the first person to publish an algorithm intended to be executed by the first modern computer, the Analytical Engine created by Charles Babbage. Grace Hopper was the first person to create a compiler for a language and one of the first programmers of Mark I computer. The regularly working programmers of the ENIAC computer in 1944, were six female mathematicians, Marlyn Meltzer, Betty Holberton, Kathleen Antonelli, Ruth Teitelbaum, Jean Bartik, Adele Goldstine was one of the teachers and trainers of the six original programmers of ENIAC computer. Adele died of cancer in 1964 at the age of 44, Smalltalk was used by Apple to launch Apple Lisa in 1983, the first personal computer with GUI, and one year its Macintosh. Windows 1.0, based on the principles, was launched a few months in 1985.
1842, Ada Lovelace was an analyst of Charles Babbages analytical engine,1893, Henrietta Swan Leavitt joined the Harvard computers, a group of women engaged in the production of astronomical data at Harvard. She was instrumental in discovery of the variable stars, which are evidence for the expansion of the universe. 1926, Grete Hermann published the paper for computerized algebra. It was her thesis, titled The Question of Finitely Many Steps in Polynomial Ideal Theory. 1940s, American women were recruited to do calculations and program computers during WWII. 1943, Women worked as WREN Colossus operators during WW2 at Bletchley Park,1943, Many wives of scientists at Los Alamos were first organized as computers on the Manhattan Project. 1943, Gertrude Blanch led the Mathematical Tables Project group from 1938 to 1948,1946, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Frances Spence, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, and Ruth Lichterman were the regularly working programmers of the ENIAC. Adele Goldstine, involved in the programming, wrote the manual for the ENIAC.
1947, Irma Wyman worked on a missile guidance project at the Willow Run Research Center, to calculate trajectory, they used mechanical calculators. In 1947–48, she visited the U. S. Naval Proving Ground where Grace Hopper was working on similar problems,1948, Kathleen Booth is credited with writing the assembly language for the ARC2 computer. 1949, Grace Hopper, was a United States Navy officer and one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I and she developed the first compiler for an electronic computer, known as A-0
Womens history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so. The main centers of scholarship have been the United States and Britain, History was written mainly by men and about mens activities in the public sphere—war, politics and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles such as wives, daughters. The study of history is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically worthy, other aspects of this area of study is the differences in womens lives caused by race, economic status, social status, and various other aspects of society. Changes came in the 19th and 20th centuries, for example, Women traditionally ran the household and reared the children, were nurses, wives, neighbors and teachers. During periods of war, women were drafted into the market to undertake work that had been traditionally restricted to men. Following the wars, they invariably lost their jobs in industry and had to return to domestic, the history of Scottish women in the late 19th century and early 20th century was not fully developed as a field of study until the 1980s.
In addition, most work on women before 1700 has been published since 1980, scholars are uncovering womens voices in their letters, memoirs and court records. In Ireland studies of women, and gender relationships more generally, had been rare before 1990, they now are commonplace with some 3000 books and articles in print. But approaches used by academics in the research of broadly based social histories has been applied to the field of womens history as well. The high level of research and publication in womens and gender history is due to the high interest within French society, in the Ancien Régime in France, few women held any formal power, some queens did, as did the heads of Catholic convents. In the Enlightenment, the writings of philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau provided a program for reform of the ancien régime. Rousseaus conception of the relations between private and public spheres is more unified than that found in modern sociology, Rousseau argued that the domestic role of women is a structural precondition for a modern society.
Salic law prohibited women from rule, the laws for the case of a regency, the queen could ensure the passage of power from one king to another—from her late husband to her young son—while simultaneously assuring the continuity of the dynasty. Educational aspirations were on the rise and were becoming increasingly institutionalised in order to supply the church, girls were schooled too, but not to assume political responsibility. Girls were ineligible for leadership positions and were considered to have an inferior intellect to their brothers. France had many local schools where working-class children - both boys and girls - learned to read, the better to know, love. The Enlightenment challenged this model, but no alternative was presented for female education
An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, a queen consort shares her husbands rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wifes rank, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in contemporary or classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king, a queen mother is a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigning sovereign. The Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus, rather than basilissa and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland. Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a queen regnant, Athaliah. The much Hasmonean Queen Salome Alexandra was highly popular, accession of a regnant occurs as a nations order of succession permits. The scope of succession may be matrilineal, patrilineal, or both, or, open to general election when necessary, the right of succession may be open to men and women, or limited to men only or women only.
Historically, many realms forbade succession by women or through a line in obedience to the Salic law. No queen regnant ever ruled France, for example, only one woman, Maria Theresa, ruled Austria. As noted in the list below of widely known ruling queens, in the waning days of the 20th century and early days of the 21st, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK amended their acts of succession to absolute primogeniture. In some cases the change does not take effect during the lifetimes of people already in the line of succession at the time the law was passed, in 2011, the 16 Realms of the Commonwealth agreed to remove the rule of male-preference primogeniture. Once the necessary legislation was passed, this means that had Prince William had a daughter first, in China, Wu Zetian became the Chinese empress regnant and established the Zhou Dynasty after dismissing her sons. It should be noted, that Empress Wu used the title huangdi and in many European sources, although the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan is currently barred to women, this has not always been the case, throughout Japanese history there have been eight empresses regnant.
Again, the Japanese language uses the term josei tennō for the position which would be empress regnant in English, monarch Order of succession Queen consort Rani Regent Salic law Sultana Monter, William. The Rise of Female Kings in Europe, 1300-1800, studies 30 women who exercised full sovereign authority in Europe
Women in science
Women have made significant contributions to science from the earliest times. The historical and sociological study of issues has become an academic discipline in its own right. The involvement of women in the field of medicine occurred in early civilizations. Women contributed to the proto-science of alchemy in the first or second centuries AD, during the Middle Ages, convents were an important place of education for women, and some of these communities provided opportunities for women to contribute to scholarly research. While the eleventh century saw the emergence of the first universities, women were, for the most part, the attitude to educating women in medical fields in Italy appears to have been more liberal than in other places. The first known woman to earn a university chair in a field of studies, was eighteenth century Italian scientist. Although gender roles were defined in the eighteenth century, women experienced great advances in science. During the nineteenth century, women were excluded from most formal scientific education, in the nineteenth century the rise of the womens college provided jobs for women scientists, and opportunities for education.
Marie Curie, the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize in 1903, went on to become a double Nobel Prize recipient in 1911, forty women have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2010. 17 women have been awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, the involvement of women in the field of medicine has been recorded in several early civilizations. An ancient Egyptian, Merit-Ptah, described in an inscription as chief physician, is the earliest known female scientist named in the history of science, agamede was cited by Homer as a healer in ancient Greece before the Trojan War. Agnodike was the first female physician to practice legally in fourth century BC Athens, the study of natural philosophy in ancient Greece was open to women. If we are to argue chemistry as the use of equipment and processes. Even during the time of the Egyptian dynasty, women were involved in applied chemistry, such as the making of beer, a good number of women have been recorded to have made major contributions to alchemy.
Many of which lived in Alexandria around the 1st or 2nd centuries AD, such distillation equipment were called kerotakis and the tribikos. Hypatia of Alexandria, daughter of Theon of Alexandria, was a teacher at the Neoplatonic School in Alexandria teaching astronomy, philosophy. She is recognized to be the first known woman mathematician in history through her major contributions to mathematics. Hypatia is credited with writing three major treatises on geometry and astronomy, as well as the invention of a hydrometer, an astrolabe, there is even evidence that Hypatia gave public lectures and may have held some sort of public office in Alexandria
Legal rights of women in history
The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first womens rights declarations was the Declaration of Sentiments, the dependent position of women in early law is proved by the evidence of most ancient systems. In the Mosaic law, for monetary matters and mens rights were almost exactly equal, a woman was entitled to her own private property, including land, livestock and servants. A woman had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death gift, a woman could likewise bequeath her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon dying intestate, a womans property would be inherited by her if she had them, her husband if she was married. A woman could sue in court and did not need a male to represent her, in some situations, women actually had more rights than men. For example, captive women had to be ransomed prior to any male captives, when it came to specific religious or sacramental activities, women had fewer opportunities or privileges than men.
For example, in monetary or capital cases women could not serve as witnesses, a woman could not serve as a kohen in the Temple. A woman could not serve as queen, the monarch had to be male, a divorce could only be granted by the husband, upon which time she would receive the Ketubah and the return of significant portions of her dowry. In Ancient Egypt, legally, a woman shared the rights and status as a man – at least. An Egyptian woman was entitled to her own property, which could include land, livestock and servants. She had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her and she could divorce her husband, and sue in court. Most notably, a woman could do these legal matters without a male to represent her, however, on the whole, men vastly outnumbered women in most trades, including government administrators, the average woman still centered her time around the home and family. A few women became pharaohs, and women held important positions in government, in ancient Athenian law, women lacked many of the legal rights given to their male counterparts.
They were excluded from appearing in law courts or participating in the assembly, historians doubt that this ideal could have been attained except by the richest women, however. Women in Classical Athens did have the right to divorce, though they lost all rights to any children they had by their husband upon divorce, Roman law similar to Athenian law, was created by men in favor of men. Women had no voice, and no public role which only improved after the 1st century to the 6th century BCE. Freeborn women of ancient Rome were citizens had legal privileges and protections that did not extend to non-citizens or slaves, Roman society, was patriarchal, and women could not vote, hold public office, or serve in the military
Female entrepreneurs are said to encompass approximately 1/3 of all entrepreneurs worldwide. Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk. Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes. Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation. For example, in the 2000s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian and they act as the manager and oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual identifies a business opportunity and acquires, for Schumpeter, the changes and dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur. The ‘norm’ of a healthy economy, in the 2010s, entrepreneurship can be studied in college or university as part of the disciplines of management or business administration.
Before the 20th century, female operated small businesses as a way of supplementing their income, in many cases, they were trying to avoid poverty or were replacing the income from the loss of a spouse. At that time, the ventures that these women undertook were not thought of as entrepreneurial, many of them had to focus on their domestic responsibilities. The term entrepreneur is used to describe individuals who have ideas for products and/or services that turn into a working business. In earlier times, this term was reserved for men, in the 17th century, Dutch colonists who came to what is now known as New York City, operated under a matriarchal society. In this society, many women inherited money and lands, and through this inheritance, one of the most successful women from this time was Margaret Hardenbrook Philipse, who was a merchant, a ship owner, and was involved in the trading of goods. During the mid 18th century, it was popular for women to own certain businesses like brothels, taverns, most of these businesses were not perceived with good reputations, because, it was considered shameful for women to be in these positions.
Society frowned upon women involved in businesses, they detracted from the womens supposed gentle. During the 18th and 19th centuries, more came out from under the oppression of societys limits. Despite the disapproval of society, women such as Rebecca Lukens flourished, in 1825, Lukens took her family business of Iron works, and turned it into a profit-generating steel business. In the 1900s, due to a progressive way of thinking. Although these female entrepreneurs serviced mostly female consumers, they were making great strides
Women in the workforce
Until modern times and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational conventions, restricted womens entry and participation in the workforce. Womens lack of access to education had effectively excluded them from the practice of well-paid. Women were largely limited to low-paid and poor status occupations for most of the 19th and 20th centuries, or earned less pay than men for doing the same work. Women are viewed as the caregiver to children still to this day. The increasing rates of women contributing in the force has led to a more equal disbursement of hours worked across the regions of the world. However, in western European countries the nature of womens employment participation remains markedly different from that of men, for example, few women are in continuous full-time employment after the birth of a first child. Due to the lack of childcare and because women in Britain lose 9% of their wage after their first child and 16% after their second child.
In the United States, womens earnings were 83 percent of male full-time workers in 2014. ”With the current norm in place, women are forced to juggle full-time jobs. As the Civil War raged in the U. S, much of her site visits were conducted in Philadelphia, New York and Boston. She distilled her research to list over 500 jobs that were open to women as well as the information about the jobs and she indicated when employers offered their reasons for wage differentials based on gender. She dedicated her book to worthy and industrious women in the United States, striving to earn a livelihood, and the book garnered much attention by reviewers and scholars across the country. She sold her rights to the book to another publisher who put it out instead as an encyclopedia, The Employments of Women, A Cyclopaedia of Womans Work and it sold better once it was re-titled again in 1870 as How Women Can Make Money, Married or Single. In total, the different versions of the book ended up with 36 editions published between 1862 and 2006, and six editions of the adaptation in German.
In the twentieth century, division of labor by gender has been studied most systematically in womens studies, occupational studies, such as the history of medicine or studies of professionalization, examine questions of gender, and the roles of women in the history of particular fields. Women dominate as accountants and psychologists and this body of law is called employment discrimination law, and gender and race discrimination are the largest sub-sections within the area. Laws specifically aimed at preventing discrimination against women have been passed in countries, see. Women still contribute to their communities in many regions mainly through agricultural work, in Southern Asia, Western Asia, and Africa, only 20% of women work at paid non-agricultural jobs. Worldwide, womens rate of employment outside of agriculture grew to 41% by 2008