Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the late 1800s, women worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, sought to change voting laws in order to allow them to vote. National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, worked for equal civil rights for women. Women who owned property gained the right to vote in the Isle of Man in 1881, in 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted all women the right to vote. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917. Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood: The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth.
But the vote was much more than a reward for war work. Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; the United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries being parties to this Convention. In ancient Athens cited as the birthplace of democracy, only adult, male citizens who owned land were permitted to vote. Through subsequent centuries, Europe was ruled by monarchs, though various forms of parliament arose at different times; the high rank ascribed to abbesses within the Catholic Church permitted some women the right to sit and vote at national assemblies – as with various high-ranking abbesses in Medieval Germany, who were ranked among the independent princes of the empire.
Their Protestant successors enjoyed the same privilege into modern times. Marie Guyart, a French nun who worked with the First Nations peoples of Canada during the seventeenth century, wrote in 1654 regarding the suffrage practices of Iroquois women, "These female chieftains are women of standing amongst the savages, they have a deciding vote in the councils, they make decisions there like the men, it is they who delegated the first ambassadors to discuss peace." The Iroquois, like many First Nations peoples in North America, had a matrilineal kinship system. Property and descent were passed through the female line. Women elders could depose them; the emergence of modern democracy began with male citizens obtaining the right to vote in advance of female citizens, except in the Kingdom of Hawai'i, where universal manhood and women's suffrage was introduced in 1840. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was in effect during the Age of Liberty. Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant women suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Pitcairn Islands, the Isle of Man, Franceville, but some of these operated only as independent states and others were not independent.
In 1756, Lydia Taft became the first legal woman voter in colonial America. This occurred under British rule in the Massachusetts Colony. In a New England town meeting in Uxbridge, she voted on at least three occasions. Unmarried white women who owned property could vote in New Jersey from 1776 to 1807. In the 1792 elections in Sierra Leone a new British colony, all heads of household could vote and one-third were ethnic African women; the female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838. This right was transferred; the seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, New York was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The conference refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from the U. S. because of their sex. In 1851, Stanton met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women in the U.
S. In 1868 Anthony encouraged working women from the printing and sewing trades in New York, who were excluded from men's trade unions, to form Working Women's Associations; as a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868, Anthony persuaded the committee on female labor to call for votes for women and equal pay for equal work. The men at the conference deleted the reference to the vote. In the U. S. women in the Wyoming Territory could vote as of 1869. Subsequent American suffrage groups disagreed on tactics, with the National American Woman Suffrage Association arguing for a state-by-state campaign and the National Woman's Party focusing on an amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In 1881 the Isle of Man, an internally self-governing dependent territory of the British Crown, enfranchised women property owners. With this it provide
A woman is a female human being. The word woman is reserved for an adult, with girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent; the plural women is sometimes used for female humans, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "women's rights". Women with typical genetic development are capable of giving birth from puberty until menopause. There are trans women, intersex women; the spelling of "woman" in English has progressed over the past millennium from wīfmann to wīmmann to wumman, the modern spelling woman. In Old English, wīfmann meant "female human", whereas wēr meant "male human". Mann or monn had a gender-neutral meaning of "human", corresponding to Modern English "person" or "someone"; the medial labial consonants f and m in wīfmann coalesced into the modern form "woman", while the initial element wīf, which meant "female", underwent semantic narrowing to the sense of a married woman. It is a popular misconception that the term "woman" is etymologically connected to "womb". "Womb" is from the Old English word wambe meaning "stomach".
The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign used in biology for the female sex. It is a stylized representation of the goddess Venus's hand-mirror or an abstract symbol for the goddess: a circle with a small equilateral cross underneath; the Venus symbol represented femininity, in ancient alchemy stood for copper. Alchemists constructed the symbol from a circle above an equilateral cross. Womanhood is the period in a human female's life after she has passed through childhood and adolescence around age 18; the word woman can be used to mean any female human, or to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl meant "young person of either sex" in English; the term girl is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a unmarried woman. In particular common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman.
The term "womanhood" means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche. Menarche, the onset of menstruation, occurs on average at age 12–13. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a girl's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday, like the quinceañera of Latin America; the earliest women whose names are known through archaeology include: Neithhotep, the wife of Narmer and the first queen of ancient Egypt. Merneith and regent of ancient Egypt during the first dynasty, she may have been ruler of Egypt in her own right. Merit-Ptah lived in Egypt and is the earliest known female physician and scientist. Peseshet, a physician in Ancient Egypt. Puabi, or Shubad – queen of Ur whose tomb was discovered with many expensive artifacts. Other known pre-Sargonic queens of Ur include Ashusikildigir and Gansamannu. Kugbau, a taverness from Kish chosen by the Nippur priesthood to become hegemonic ruler of Sumer, in ages deified as "Kubaba".
Tashlultum, Akkadian queen, wife of Sargon of Akkad and mother of Enheduanna. Baranamtarra and influential queen of Lugalanda of Lagash. Other known pre-Sargonic queens of the first Lagash dynasty include Menbara-abzu, Ashume'eren, Ninkhilisug and Shagshag, the names of several princesses are known. Enheduanna, the high priestess of the temple of the Moon God in the Sumerian city-state of Ur and the first known poet and first named author of either gender. Shibtu, king Zimrilim's consort and queen of the Syrian city-state of Mari. During her husband's absence, she ruled as regent of Mari and enjoyed extensive administrative powers as queen. In terms of biology, the female sex organs are involved in the reproductive system, whereas the secondary sex characteristics are involved in nurturing children or, in some cultures, attracting a mate; the ovaries, in addition to their regulatory function producing hormones, produce female gametes called eggs which, when fertilized by male gametes, form new genetic individuals
Women in music
This article is about women in music in different genres and around the world. Women in music describes the role of women as composers, instrumental performers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions; as well, it describes music movements and genres related to women, women's issues and feminism. In the 2010s, while women constitute a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, a significant proportion of songwriters, there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists. Notable women artists in pop, such as Bjork and Lady Gaga have commented about sexism and gender discrimination in the music industry. Additionally, a recent study led by Dr. Smith announced that "...over the last six years, the representation of women in the music industry has been lower". In classical music, although there have been a huge number of women composers from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are underrepresented in the performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias.
Women constitute a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. A 2015 article on concerto soloists in major Canadian orchestras, indicated that 84% of the soloists with the Orchestre Symphonique de Montreal were men. In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands. Women are underrepresented in extreme metal genres. Women are underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing, sound engineering. While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education "to such a degree that women dominated during the half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century."According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London's The Independent, women musicians in classical music are "too judged for their appearances, rather than their talent" and they face pressure "to look sexy onstage and in photos."
Duchen states that while "here are women musicians who refuse to play on their looks...the ones who do tend to be more materially successful." According to the UK's Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but women are much less to have positions of authority, such as being the conductor of an orchestra, a profession, called "one of the last glass ceilings in the music industry". In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are few women behind the audio console acting as music producers, the individuals who direct and manage the recording process. One of the most recorded artists is a woman, Asha Bhosle, an Indian singer, best known as a playback singer in Hindi cinema. A songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics and chord progressions for songs for a popular music genre such as pop, rock or country music. A songwriter can be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used for individuals from the classical music genre.
"Only a few of the many women in America had their music published and heard during the late 19th and early 20th centuries." According to Richard A. Reublin and Richard G. Beil, the "lack of mention of women is a glaring and embarrassing omission in our musical heritage." Women "struggled to publish music in the man's world of 20th century Tin Pan Alley. Prior to 1900 and after, it was expected that "women would perform music, not make music." In 1880, Chicago music critic George P. Upton wrote the book Women In Music, in which he argued that "women lacked the innate creativity to compose good music" due to the "biological predisposition" of women, it was accepted that women would have a role in music education, they became involved in this field "to such a degree that women dominated music education during the half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century." As part of women's role in music education, women wrote children's music. The "secular music in print in America before 1825 shows only about 70 works by women."
In the mid 19th century, notable women songwriters emerged, including Faustina Hasse Hodges, Susan Parkhurst, Augusta Browne and Marion Dix Sullivan. By 1900, there were many more women songwriters, but "many were still forced to use pseudonyms or initials" to hide the fact that they were women. Carrie Jacobs-Bond was the "preeminent woman composer of the late 1800s and well into the middle of the twentieth century... the first million selling woman" songwriter. Maude Nugent wrote "Sweet Rosie O'Grady" in 1896, she penned "Down At Rosie Reilly's Flat", "My Irish Daisy" and "Mary From Tipperary". Charlotte Blake was a staff writer for at the Whitney Warner Publishing Co. in Michigan. The company billed her as "C. Blake" to hide her gender, but by 1906 ads used her full name. Caro Roma was the gender-ambiguous pseudonym for Carrie Northly, she was "one of America's more well known and popular composers of the Tin P
Violence against women
Violence against women known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence are violent acts or committed against women and girls. Considered a form of hate crime, this type of violence is gender-based, meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women and girls expressly because they are female; the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men." Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, declared in a 2006 report posted on the United Nations Development Fund for Women website:Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime with the abuser someone known to her.
Violence against women can fit into several broad categories. These include violence carried out by "individuals" as well as "states"; some of the forms of violence perpetrated by individuals are: rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, reproductive coercion, female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, obstetric violence, mob violence. Some forms of violence condoned by certain states such as war rape. Many forms of VAW, such as trafficking in women and forced prostitution are perpetrated by organized criminal networks; the World Health Organization, in its research on VAW, has analyzed and categorized the different forms of VAW occurring through all stages of life from before birth to old age. In recent years, there has been a trend of approaching VAW at an international level through means such as conventions or, in the European Union, through directives; the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence known as the Istanbul Convention, provides the following definition of violence against women: "Violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women and shall mean all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are to result in, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life Although the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women includes VAW in its General Recommendations 12 and 19, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action mentions VAW at paragraph 18, it was the 1993 United Nations General Assembly resolution on the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which became the first international instrument to explicitly define VAW and elaborate on the subject.
Other definitions of VAW are provided by the 1994 Inter-American Convention on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and by the 2003 Maputo Protocol. In addition, the term gender-based violence refers to "any acts or threats of acts intended to hurt or make women suffer physically, sexually or psychologically, which affect women because they are women or affect women disproportionately"; the definition of gender-based violence is most "used interchangeably with violence against women", some articles on VAW reiterate these conceptions by suggesting that men are the main perpetrators of this violence. Moreover, the definition stated by the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women supported the notion that violence is rooted in the inequality between men and women when the term violence is used together with the term'gender-based.'In Recommendation Rec5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence, the Council of Europe stipulated that VAW "includes, but is not limited to, the following": a. violence occurring in the family or domestic unit, inter alia and mental aggression and psychological abuse and sexual abuse, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partners and cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honour, female genital and sexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such as forced marriages.
These definitions of VAW as being gender-based are seen by some to be unsatisfactory and problematic. These definitions are conceptualized in an understanding of society as patriarchal, signifying unequal relations between men and women. Opponents of such definitions argue that the definitions disregard violence against men and that the term gender, as used in gender based viole
Women in computing
Women in computing have shaped the evolution of information technology. They were among the first programmers in the early-20th century, contributed to the industry; as technology and practices altered, the role of women as programmers has changed, the recorded history of the field has downplayed their achievements. Since the 18th century, women have developed scientific computations, including Nicole-Reine Lepaute's prediction of Halley's Comet, Maria Mitchell's computation of the motion of Venus; the first algorithm intended to be executed by a computer was designed by Ada Lovelace, a pioneer in the field. Grace Hopper was the first person to design a compiler for a programming language. Throughout the 19th and early-20th century, up to World War II, programming was predominantly done by women. After the 1960s, the "soft work", dominated by women evolved into modern software, the importance of women decreased; the gender disparity and the lack of women in computing from the late 20th century onward has been examined, but no firm explanations have been established.
Many women continued to make significant and important contributions to the IT industry, attempts were made to readdress the gender disparity in the industry. In the 21st century, women held leadership roles in multiple tech companies, such as Meg Whitman and chief executive officer of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Marissa Mayer, president and CEO of Yahoo! and key spokesperson at Google. Nicole-Reine Etable de la Brière Lepaute was one of a team of human computers who worked with Alexis-Claude Clairaut and Joseph-Jérôme Le Français de Lalande to predict the date of the return of Halley's Comet, they began work on the calculations in 1757, working throughout the day and sometimes during mealtimes. Their methods were followed by successive human computers, they divided large calculations into "independent pieces, assembled the results from each piece into a final product" and checked for errors. Lepaute continued to work on computing for the rest of her life, working for the Connaissance de Temps and publishing predictions of solar eclipses.
One of the first computers for the American Nautical Almanac was Maria Mitchel. Her work on the assignment was to compute the motion of the planet Venus; the Almanac never became a reality. Ada Lovelace was the first person to publish an algorithm intended to be executed by the first modern computer, the Analytical Engine created by Charles Babbage; as a result she is regarded as the first computer programmer. Lovelace was introduced to Babbage's difference engine when she was 17. In 1840, she asked if she could become involved with his first machine. By this time, Babbage had moved on to his idea for the Analytical Engine. A paper describing the Analytical Engine, Notions sur la machine analytique, published by L. F. Menabrea, came to the attention of Lovelace, who not only translated it into English, but corrected mistakes made by Menabrea. Babbage suggested that she expand the translation of the paper with her own ideas, signed only with her initials, AAL, "synthesized the vast scope of Babbage's vision."
Lovelace imagined. She drew up explanations of how the engine could handle inputs, outputs and data storage, she created several proofs to show how the engine would handle calculations of Bernoulli Numbers on its own. The proofs are considered the first examples of a computer program. Lovelace downplayed her role in her work during her life, for example, in signing her contributions with AAL so as not be "accused of bragging."After the Civil War in the United States, more women were hired as human computers. Many were war widows looking for ways to support themselves. Others were hired when the government opened positions to women because of a shortage of men to fill the roles. Anna Winlock asked to become a computer for the Harvard Observatory in 1875 and was hired to work for 25 cents an hour. By 1880, Edward Charles Pickering had hired several women to work for him at Harvard because he knew that women could do the job as well as men and he could ask them to volunteer or work for less pay; the women, described as "Pickering's harem" and as the Harvard Computers, performed clerical work that the male employees and scholars considered to be tedious at a fraction of the cost of hiring a man.
The women working for Pickering cataloged around ten thousand stars, discovered the Horsehead Nebula and developed the system to describe stars. One of the "computers," Annie Jump Cannon, could classify stars at a rate of three stars per minute; the work for Pickering became so popular that women volunteered to work for free when the computers were being paid. Though they performed an important role, the Harvard Computers were paid less than factory workers. By the 1890s, women computers were college graduates looking for jobs where they could use their training in a useful way. Florence Tebb Weldon, was part of this group and provided computations relating to biology and evidence for evolution, working with her husband, W. F. Raphael Weldon. Florence Weldon's calculations demonstrated that statistics could be used to support Darwin's theory of evolution. Another human computer involved in biology was Alice Lee. Pearson hired two sisters to work as part-time computers at his Biometrics Lab and Frances Cave-Brown-Cave.
During World War I, Karl Pearson and his Biometrics Lab helped produce ballistics calculations for the British Ministry of Munitions. Beatrice Cave-Brown-Cave helpe
Female entrepreneurs are said to encompass 1/3 of all entrepreneurs worldwide. An entrepreneur is a person who organizes and manages an enterprise a business with considerable initiative and risk; the number of self-employed women has increased over the past three decades. Entrepreneurship has traditionally been defined as the process of designing and running a new business, which begins as a small business, such as a startup company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire, it has been defined as the "...capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit." While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of businesses have to close, due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis -- or a combination of all of these" or due to lack of market demand. In the 2000s, the definition of "entrepreneurship" has been expanded to explain how and why some individuals identify opportunities, evaluate them as viable, decide to exploit them, whereas others do not, and, in turn, how entrepreneurs use these opportunities to develop new products or services, launch new firms or new industries and create wealth.
Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as "a person who organizes and manages any enterprise a business with considerable initiative and risk". Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a small business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale; the entrepreneur is seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes." Entrepreneurs tend to be good at perceiving new business opportunities and they exhibit positive biases in their perception and a pro-risk-taking attitude that makes them more to exploit the opportunity."Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking." While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary sector groups, charitable organizations and government.
For example, in the 2000s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian, environmental or community goals. An entrepreneur is in control of a commercial undertaking, directing the factors of production–the human and material resources–that are required to exploit a business opportunity, they oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include actions such as developing a business plan, hiring the human resources, acquiring financial and material resources, providing leadership, being responsible for the venture's success or failure. Economist Joseph Schumpeter stated that the role of the entrepreneur in the economy is "creative destruction"–launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur... the ‘norm’ of a healthy economy."Entrepreneurship operates within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups. The strongest entrepreneurship ecosystems are those found in top entrepreneurship hubs such as Silicon Valley, New York City, Boston and other such locations where there are clusters of leading high-tech firms, top research universities, venture capitalists. In the 2010s, entrepreneurship can be studied in college or university as part of the disciplines of management or business administration. Before the 20th century, female operated small businesses as a way of supplementing their income. In many cases, they were trying to avoid poverty or were replacing the income from the loss of a spouse. At that time, the ventures that these women undertook were not thought of as entrepreneurial.
Many of them had to focus on their domestic responsibilities. For instance, with longstanding and significant barriers to educational and alternative employment opportunities, Black women were relegated to low-paying jobs and domestic work—particularly in the Jim Crow South; as a result, Black women of the early 20th century developed entrepreneurial niches in dressmaking, Black hair care, private home domestic work and midwifery. Lower levels of wealth, access to capital, racial discrimination and inadequate networks have b
Women in the workforce
Women in the workforce earning wages or salary are part of a modern phenomenon, one that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men, but women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce. Until modern times and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational conventions, restricted women's entry and participation in the workforce. Economic dependency upon men, the poor socio-economic status of women, have had the same impact as occupations have become professionalized over the 19th and 20th centuries. Women's lack of access to higher education had excluded them from the practice of well-paid and high status occupations. Entry of women into the higher professions like law and medicine was delayed in most countries due to women being denied entry to universities and qualification for degrees. Women were limited to low-paid and poor status occupations for most of the 19th and 20th centuries, or earned less pay than men for doing the same work.
However, through the 20th century, the labor market shifted. Office work that does not require heavy labor expanded, women acquired the higher education that led to better-compensated, longer-term careers rather than lower-skilled, shorter-term jobs; the increasing rates of women contributing in the work force has led to a more equal disbursement of hours worked across the regions of the world. However, in western European countries the nature of women's employment participation remains markedly different from that of men. Although access to paying occupations has been and remains unequal in many occupations and places around the world, scholars sometimes distinguish between "work" and "paying work", including in their analysis a broader spectrum of labor such as uncompensated household work, childcare and family subsistence farming; as the Civil War raged in the U. S. Virginia Penny of Louisville, Kentucky was finished her research project and published the ground-breaking book, How women can make money married or single, in all branches of the arts and sciences, trades and mechanical pursuits.
Hoping to offer hard facts about what women in the workforce would encounter, Penny had interviewed thousands of employers, using both a survey via the postal mail and in person – when she would interview workers. Many of her site visits were in New York and Boston, she distilled her research to list over 500 jobs that were open to women as well as the information about the jobs and potential availability for women. She indicated when employers offered their reasons for wage differentials based on gender, she dedicated her book "to worthy and industrious women in the United States, striving to earn a livelihood," and the book garnered much attention from reviewers and scholars across the country. She sold her rights to the book to another publisher who put it out as an encyclopedia, The Employments of Women: A Cyclopaedia of Woman's Work, in 1863, it sold better once it was re-titled again in 1870 as How Women Can Make Married or Single. In its several different versions, 36 editions were published between 1862 and 2006, six editions of the adaptation in German.
In the twentieth century, division of labor by gender has been studied most systematically in women's studies and gender studies more broadly. Occupational studies, such as the history of medicine or studies of professionalization examine questions of gender, the roles of women in the history of particular fields. Women dominate as accountants and psychologists. In addition, modern civil rights law has examined gender restrictions of access to a field of occupation; this body of law is called employment discrimination law, gender and race discrimination are the largest sub-sections within the area. Laws aimed at preventing discrimination against women have been passed in many countries. Women still contribute to their communities in many regions through agricultural work. In Southern Asia, Western Asia, Africa, only 20% of women work at paid non-agricultural jobs. Worldwide, women's rate of paid employment outside of agriculture grew to 41% by 2008. One of the main forms of paid employment for women worldwide is a traditional one, that of the market "hawker".
Women have worked outside the home as vendors at markets since ancient times in many parts of the world, such as Central America, South Asia, Africa. During the 20th century, the most significant global shift in women's paid employment came from the spread of global travel and the development of a large migrant workforce of women domestic workers seeking jobs outside of their native country; the Philippines is a major source of female domestic workers. Before the 1990s, the majority of Filipinos working outside the Philippines were male, but by 2012, an estimated 63% of Filipinos working overseas were female. Estimates of Filipino women working overseas are in the millions. Over 138,000 new domestic workers gained permission to work overseas in 2012, a number that grew 12% from the previous year. Overseas employment results in the women leaving their own children behind in the Philippines to be cared for by relatives. Domestic employees from the Philippi