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The word womyn is one of several alternative spellings of the English word women used by some feminists. There are other spellings, including womban or womon, wimmin; some writers who use such alternative spellings, avoiding the suffix "-man" or "-men", see them as an expression of female independence and a repudiation of traditions that define women by reference to a male norm. Womxn has been used by intersectional feminists to indicate the same ideas, with explicit inclusion of transgender women and women of color. "womyn" and other spelling variants were associated with regional dialects and eye dialect. Old English had a system of grammatical gender, whereby every noun was treated as either masculine, feminine or neuter, similar to modern German. In Old English sources, the word man was neuter. One of its meanings was similar to the modern English usage of "one" as a gender-neutral indefinite pronoun; the words wer and wyf were used, when necessary, to specify a woman, respectively. Combining them into wer-man or wyf-man expressed the concept of "any man" or "any woman".

Some feminist writers have suggested that this more symmetrical usage reflected more egalitarian notions of gender at the time. The term wimmin was considered by George P. Krapp, an American scholar of English, to be eye dialect, the literary technique of using nonstandard spelling that implies a pronunciation of the given word, standard; the spelling indicates that the character's speech overall is foreign, or uneducated. This form of nonstandard spelling differs from others in that a difference in spelling does not indicate a difference in pronunciation of a word; that is, it is dialect to the eye rather than to the ear. It suggests that a character "would use a vulgar pronunciation if there were one" and "is at the level of ignorance where one misspells in this fashion, hence mispronounces as well."The word womyn appeared as an Older Scots spelling of woman in the Scots poetry of James Hogg. The word wimmin appeared in 19th-century renderings of Black American English, without any feminist significance.

The usage of "womyn" as a feminist spelling of women first appeared in print in 1976 referring to the first Michigan Womyn's Music Festival. This is just after the founding of the Mountain Moving Coffeehouse for Womyn and Children, a lesbian feminist social event centred around women's music. Both the annual "MichFest" and the weekly coffeehouse operated a womyn-born womyn policy. Womyn's land was another usage of the term, associated with separatist feminism. Z. Budapest promoted the use of word wimmin in the 1970s as part of her Dianic Wicca movement, which claims that present-day patriarchy represents a fall from a matriarchal golden age; these re-spellings existed alongside the use of herstory, a feminist re-examination and re-telling of history. Another wave of female-produced music was known as the riot grrrl movement; the word "womyn" has been criticized by trans activists due to its usage in radical feminist circles which exclude trans women from identifying into the category of "woman" and prevent them from accessing spaces and resources for women.

Millie Tant, a fictional character in the British satirical comic Viz used the term wimmin when discussing women's rights. "Womxn" has been used in a similar manner as wimmin. Due to transgender women's perceived exclusion from the usage of these respellings, an "x" is used to "broaden the scope of womanhood," to include them; the Women's March on Seattle uses womxn. Feminist language reform Gender-neutral language We'Moon Womyn-born womyn Sol Steinmetz. "Womyn: The Evidence," American Speech, Vol. 70, No. 4, pp. 429–437

Pathfinder (website)

Pathfinder was a landing page with links to various Time Inc. websites. In its initial form, Pathfinder was one of the first Internet portals, created as Time Warner's entry onto the Internet; the objective of Pathfinder was to be an all-encompassing site that brought the best content from all of Time Warner under one banner. The site opened on October 24, 1994, with a small content team led by James Kinsella, Bruce Judson, Craig Bromberg, Oliver Knowlton, Curt Viebranz; the team grew to service a growing list of internal "content partners" - at its highest point, these "content partners" numbered 80. Most of these content partners were Time Inc. magazines such as Time, People and others, but others came from the distributed Time Warner corporate empire. was controversial within Time Warner. Many content partners were unhappy with the fact Pathfinder's existence prevented them from using their own URLs. For example, People Magazine was not allowed to use the domain "," but was instead restricted to a directory on Pathfinder.

Pathfinder's own staff were shocked when Time Inc. senior manager Don Logan publicly derided at an external analyst's meeting as a "black hole" of unprofitability. Pathfinder went through many managers and editors in its short life, suffered from high staff turnover rates after it became clear to many that its future was uncertain. Many early tech journalists and writers passed through its doors, including Walter Isaacson, James Kinsella, Daniel Okrent, John R. Quain, John Voelcker, Josh Quittner, Lev Grossman, Maura Johnston and Steven Petrow; the site was closed in April 1999, was considered to be an expensive failure. Some claim; some analysts believe that Pathfinder's failure led Time Warner's senior managers to conclude that it was impossible to run a successful Internet portal, this judgement led directly to Time Warner pursuing its eventual merger with AOL, a merger which unsuccessfully sought to generate "synergy" between the two corporate giants. transitioned with links to Time Inc.'s other sites.

Archive of front pages Ghost Sites' The Museum In The Pathfinder Basement


Outsourcery Plc, was a UK-based cloud services provider founded in 2007 by co-CEOs, Piers Linney and Simon Newton. The company went into administration in June 2016 when most of the business and assets were acquired by GCI Network Solutions Ltd. Outsourcery employed 110 people across three offices in Leicester and Manchester; the company provided solutions and cloud-based services, offered both directly and via a network of partners. These were deployed on its proprietary O-Cloud platform, housed in Ofcom regulated enterprise grade datacenters. Outsourcery was a member of the Microsoft Cloud OS Network, it was a founder member of the Cloud Industry Forum. Outsourcery's O-Cloud platform was certified to run government classified information at OFFICIAL and OFFICIAL SENSITIVE over the internet; this gave Outsourcery CESG Pan Government Accreditation and Public Services Network Protect connectivity to meet data sovereignty and security specifications for the public sector and UK government. Outsourcery's former Co-CEO, Piers Linney, became better known as a'Dragon' on series 11 and 12 of the BBC Two television programme, Dragons' Den.

Outsourcery's origins date from 1997 when the business provided mobile solutions to UK organisations. Piers Linney and Simon Newton acquired the business and assets of Genesis Communications – an established business-to-business mobile voice and data reseller. In the same year, Genesis acquired an early stage Microsoft application hosting company, Servelogic Limited, enabling it to enter the hosted services market. Between 2007 and 2010, the company saw revenue for cloud-based services grow from zero to over £4 million and the legacy business was subsequently sold through two transactions during 2011 for a total of £15 million. Outsourcery's Board was led by Ken Olisa OBE, along with Piers Linney, Simon Newton, Andrew Burton and Jane Hall. On 24 May 2013, Outsourcery was admitted to London's Alternative Investment Market; the sale of the legacy mobile distribution business was completed on 3 September 2013. On 6 November 2013, Outsourcery announced that it had partnered with Dell to design and deploy a secure cloud-based system.

The announcement followed Outsourcery's agreement with Microsoft to lead its UK initiative to accelerate the offering of cloud services for the UK public sector, in particular central government. Outsourcery suspended trading of its stock on AIM, on 3 June 2016, due to its inability to present audited financial results for the year ended 31 December 2015, it stated that "the potential proceeds from the current proposals would leave no or limited value to equity shareholders". That month Ernst & Young were appointed as administrators and most of the business and assets were sold to GCI Network Solutions Ltd. Outsourcery was ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 accredited; as a founder member, Outsourcery had achieved Cloud Industry Forum certification. Outsourcery achieved CESG Pan Government Accreditation in 2014 Comms Business: Green Channel Company Award – Winner Microsoft Hosting Solutions Partner of the Year Award – Winner Comms Business: Reseller of the Year Award – Winner Microsoft Dynamics CRM Partner of the Year Award – Finalist Mobile News Awards: Business Solutions Provider – Winner Parallels New Partner of the Year Award – Winner Comms Business Award: Channel Product of the Year Overall – Winner Comms Business: Most Innovative Channel Product of the Year – Winner Microsoft: Server Platform Partner of the Year Award – Finalist Manchester Evening News: Business of the Year Award – Winner IT Europa Awards: Service Provider of the Year – Winner UK Cloud Awards: Collaboration Product of the Year – Winner Microsoft: Sales Specialist of the Year – Finalist National Business Awards: Santander Small to Medium-sized Business of the Year and Blackberry Business Enabler of the Year – Finalist Storage, Cloud Awards: Saas Solution of the Year – Winner Microsoft Worldwide Partner of the Year Awards: Public Sector: Government – Finalist Official website Official website

The Assembly

The Assembly were a British synthpop project formed in 1983 in Basildon, England, by Vince Clarke and Eric Radcliffe. Feargal Sharkey was hired as a guest vocalist for the A-side of the group's only single, "Never Never". Clarke and Radcliffe had planned to use a different singer on each track the group recorded, but the group disbanded after the release of "Never Never", no other vocalists were employed by the duo. Clarke founded The Assembly shortly after disbanding Yazoo, upon completion and distribution of Yazoo's 1983 album, You and Me Both; the Assembly marked the most involved phase of Clarke's long-term professional relationship with sound engineer Radcliffe, who had contributed significant influences to the recordings of Clarke's previous bands, Depeche Mode and Yazoo. However, the Assembly project never became a full-fledged band and resulted in only one single release, the UK hit "Never Never", it featured a sampled guitar track triggered note for note on a Fairlight CMI). The sound was augmented by session musician Clem Clempson on electric guitar.

Former Undertones frontman Feargal Sharkey was hired to sing on this track. Clarke and Radcliffe had planned to use a different singer on each track the group recorded, but none were released after "Never Never"; the other track on the single, "Stop/Start," was an instrumental, featuring Clarke's signature songwriting style with syncopation that became the downbeat of the musical phrase. Despite the commercial success of the single, The Assembly was no longer a functioning entity by the end of 1984. Clarke went on to form Erasure with vocalist and co-songwriter Andy Bell in 1985. Although Erasure worked with Radcliffe on some of their early work, they began working with other producers and engineers, including Flood. Sharkey, for his part, began a successful solo career in 1984, achieved his only UK number one single in 1985 with "A Good Heart". "Never Never" was re-released on CD single in 1996 with four tracks, containing both the normal and extended versions of both the title song, "Stop/Start".

The music video for "Never Never", filmed at Upminster Windmill in the London Borough of Havering, was featured on the first Now That's What I Call Music! Video in 1983, though it did not feature on the corresponding compilation album. In May 2011, Sharkey appeared on stage during the Erasure set at Mute Records's Short Circuit music festival for a one-off performance of "Never, Never" with Clarke. "Never Never" – A side "Never Never", B side "Stop/Start" – 1983 – Mute TINY1 – No. 4 UK The Tube Casio VL-1

Manuel Cardoni

Manuel Cardoni is a Luxembourgish former professional football player. He is assistant manager of US Rumelange in the second tier of Luxembourg football, the Luxembourg Division of Honour. Cardoni is the son of one of Luxembourg's finest players in the 1970s. A tireless midfield playmaker, Cardoni started his career at US Rumelange before joining Luxembourg club Jeunesse Esch in 1992, he was snapped up by Bundesliga side Bayer Leverkusen, for whom he made only one substitute appearance in two seasons. He became the third Luxembourgish player in the Bundesliga after Nico Braun and Robby Langers, he rejoined Jeunesse Esch in 1998 and became player/manager at US Rumelange in 2006. Cardoni won the Luxembourgish Footballer of the Year award four times, he now serves as an ambassador for the Special Olympics. Cardoni made his debut for Luxembourg in a May 1993 World Cup qualification match against Iceland and went on to earn 68 caps, scoring 5 goals, he played. His final international game was an October 2004 World Cup qualification match against Liechtenstein.

Luxembourg National Division: 1995, 1996, 1999, 2004 Luxembourg Cup: 1999, 2000 Luxembourgish Footballer of the Year: 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000 Manuel Cardoni at

Sarah Cruddas

Sarah Cruddas is a television presenter and author. She is the host of Science Channel in the United States, she has an academic background in astrophysics and is the author of three children's books about space. Cruddas grew up in the East Riding of Yorkshire, attending South Hunsley School and Wyke College in Hull, where she gained A-levels in Maths, Further Maths and Chemistry; as a student she attended NASA's International Space Camp. She has a BSc in Physics with Astrophysics from the University of Leicester and a Post Graduate Diploma in Broadcast Journalism from the University of Westminster. After graduating, Cruddas started her career as a broadcast journalist and reporter with the BBC, working for BBC Coventry & Warwickshire, BBC Hereford & Worcester and BBC Radio 1Xtra, she presented news bulletins on TalkSport. In July 2008 Cruddas began working on screen as a weather presenter for the BBC's Look North programme, she would present and report on local radio including BBC Radio Humberside, BBC Lincolnshire, BBC Radio Leeds, BBC Radio Sheffield and BBC Radio York Whilst working at Look North she spent time developing national science shows for BBC 4 and BBC 2 and working as a science reporter for Look North and BBC Five Live.

In July 2011 she worked at NASA as a reporter covering the final space shuttle launch and landing for BBC radio. In November 2011, she left Look North to work as a Science Correspondent with the BBC based in Salford. Cruddas reported for the BBC News Channel and appeared on screen as an expert on Coast and Newsround; as well as presenting science shows for BBC Learning. In July 2012 Cruddas left the BBC. Since July 2012 she has worked as Broadcaster, she is the popular voice of space on British TV, most notably on Sky News, Channel 5 News and ITV. She has continued to work with the BBC as a reporter for the BBC News and Horizons Business on BBC World and has presented shows about space exploration on BBC Radio 4, BBC GNS and BBC World Service. Cruddas has appeared on screen talking about space on various US documentaries on Discovery Channel and the National Geographic Channel. Cruddas has written for The Sunday Times, New Scientist, BBC Futures, Sky at Night Magazine, BBC On-line, BBC Focus, Grazia magazine and The Royal Aeronautical Society.

Cruddas is the author of three children's books published by Dorling Kindersley: DK Find Out!: Solar System, Do You Know About Space? and The Space Race. The third become the first British children's book to travel to the edge of space after Cruddas launched the book using a balloon from the countryside near Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Since 2019 Cruddas has been a host of the television series'Contact' on Discovery Channel and Science Channel Cruddas divides her time between London and Los Angeles United States In November 2012 she made a cameo appearance as a newsreader in Derren Brown: ApocalypseAway from space, she is passionate about travel and has reported from across the world including. BBC Weather Lincolnshire county site news article Writing about the Big Bang in 2006 Personal website Agent website