Audio mixing (recorded music)
In sound recording and reproduction, audio mixing is the process of combining multitrack recordings into a final mono, stereo or surround sound product. In the process of combining the separate tracks, their relative levels are adjusted and balanced and various processes such as equalization and compression are applied to individual tracks, groups of tracks, the overall mix. In stereo and surround sound mixing, the placement of the tracks within the stereo field are adjusted and balanced. Audio mixing techniques and approaches vary and have a significant influence on the final product. Audio mixing techniques depend on music genres and the quality of sound recordings involved; the process is carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes the record producer or recording artist may assist. After mixing, a mastering engineer prepares the final product for production. Audio mixing may be performed on digital audio workstation. In the late 19th century, Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner developed the first recording machines.
The recording and reproduction process itself was mechanical with little or no electrical parts. Edison's phonograph cylinder system utilized a small horn terminated in a stretched, flexible diaphragm attached to a stylus which cut a groove of varying depth into the malleable tin foil of the cylinder. Emile Berliner's gramophone system recorded music by inscribing spiraling lateral cuts onto a vinyl disc. Electronic recording became more used during the 1920s, it was based on the principles of electromagnetic transduction. The possibility for a microphone to be connected remotely to a recording machine meant that microphones could be positioned in more suitable places; the process was improved when outputs of the microphones could be mixed before being fed to the disc cutter, allowing greater flexibility in the balance. Before the introduction of multitrack recording, all sounds and effects that were to be part of a record were mixed at one time during a live performance. If the recorded mix wasn't satisfactory, or if one musician made a mistake, the selection had to be performed over until the desired balance and performance was obtained.
With the introduction of multi-track recording, the production of a modern recording changed into one that involves three stages: recording and mixing. Modern mixing emerged with the introduction of commercial multi-track tape machines, most notably when 8-track recorders were introduced during the 1960s; the ability to record sounds into separate channels meant that combining and treating these sounds could be postponed to the mixing stage. In the 1980s, home recording and mixing became more efficient; the 4-track Portastudio was introduced in 1979. Bruce Springsteen released the album Nebraska in 1982 using one; the Eurythmics topped the charts in 1983 with the song "Sweet Dreams", recorded by band member Dave Stewart on a makeshift 8-track recorder. In the mid-to-late 1990s, computers replaced tape-based recording for most home studios, with the Power Macintosh proving popular. At the same time, digital audio workstations, first used in the mid-1980s, began to replace tape in many professional recording studios.
A mixer is the operational heart of the mixing process. Mixers offer a multitude of inputs, each fed by a track from a multitrack recorder. Mixers have 2 main outputs or 8. Mixers offer three main functionalities. Summing signals together, done by a dedicated summing amplifier or, in the case of a digital mixer, by a simple algorithm. Routing of source signals to external processing units and effects. On-board processors with equalizers and compressors. Mixing consoles can be intimidating due to the exceptional number of controls. However, because many of these controls are duplicated, much of the console can be learned by studying one small part of it; the controls on a mixing console will fall into one of two categories: processing and configuration. Processing controls are used to manipulate the sound; these can vary in complexity, from simple level controls, to sophisticated outboard reverberation units. Configuration controls deal with the signal routing from the input to the output of the console through the various processes.
Digital audio workstations can perform many mixing features in addition to other processing. An audio control surface gives a DAW the same user interface as a mixing console; the distinction between a large console and a DAW equipped with a control surface is that a digital console will consist of dedicated digital signal processors for each channel. DAWs can dynamically assign resources like digital audio signal processing power, but may run out if too many signal processes are in simultaneous use; this overload can be solved by increasing the capacity of the DAW. Outboard gear and software plugins can be inserted into the signal path to extend processing possibilities. Outboard gear and plugins fall into two main categories: Processors – these devices are connected in series to the signal path, so the input signal is replaced with the processed signal. Examples include dynamic processing. However, some processors are used in parallel, as is the case in techniques such as parallel compression/limiting and sidechain equalization.
Effects – these can be considered as any unit that has an effect upon the signal, the term is used to describe units that are connected in parallel to the sig
Spandau Ballet are an English band formed in Islington, London, in 1979. Inspired by the capital's post-punk dance underground scene, they emerged at the start of the 1980s as the groundbreaking house band for the Blitz Kids playing "White European Dance Music" as "the applause" for this new club culture's audience. Spandau Ballet became one of the most successful groups of the New Romantic era of British pop, selling 25 million albums and having 23 hit singles worldwide, they gained international success as part of the record-breaking 1980s second US invasion of the Billboard Top 40 and across Europe and the Far East. Their musical influences ranged from art-pop, synth-pop, blue-eyed soul and rhythm and blues to glam rock, arena rock and the American crooners Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett; the band's classic line-up featured brothers Gary Kemp on guitar and backing vocals and Martin Kemp on bass, vocalist Tony Hadley, saxophonist Steve Norman and drummer John Keeble. Gary Kemp was the band's songwriter.
Their debut single, “To Cut a Long Story Short”, reached No.5 in the UK in 1980 and the Top 20 in Spain and Australia. It was the first of ten UK Top 10 singles hits including the No.2 “Gold” and two No.3 hits, "Chant No.1” and “Only When You Leave”. "True" reached No.1 in the UK, Ireland and Canada and the Top Five in the USA, Netherlands, New Zealand and Spain. It received a BMI award; the band have had eight UK top 10 albums, including three greatest hits compilations and an album of re-recorded material. In 1984 the band were the first to be approached by Bob Geldof to join the original Band Aid line-up; the same year they received a Brit Award for technical excellence. In 1985 they performed in the huge Live Aid benefit concert at Wembley Stadium and for Prince Charles for his Prince’s Trust charity. In 1990 the band played their last live show before a 19-year absence. In 1999 Hadley and Keeble launched an unsuccessful case in the High Court against Gary Kemp and Reformation publishing for a share of the band’s songwriting royalties.
Spandau Ballet reformed in 2009 for a sell-out "greatest hits" world tour. In 2014 their archive-only feature length documentary biopic, Soul Boys of the Western World, was world premiered at SXSW Film Festival in Austin, Texas, it was screened at the Rome, Ghent and NYC Doc film festivals and received its European premiere at the Royal Albert Hall, London. In 2017, Tony Hadley publicly announced his departure from Spandau Ballet via Twitter. A year the band announced the singer and actor Ross William Wild as their new lead singer in a ticketed gig at Subterania Club in west London followed by a series of European live dates and a one-off show at Eventim’s Hammersmith Apollo. Gary Kemp and Steve Norman first decided to form a band, both playing guitar, in October 1976 after witnessing The Sex Pistols perform that summer at Islington’s Screen on the Green; as close friends and school mates at Dame Alice Owen’s in Islington they were joined by John Keeble on drums, Michael Ellison on bass and Tony Hadley on vocals when the school relocated to Potter’s Bar.
They rehearsed at lunchtimes in the school’s music room, playing speeded-up versions of The Rolling Stones’ “Silver Train”, The Beatles “I Wanna Be Your Man” and The Animals “We’ve Gotta Get Out of This Place.” They played an original Gary Kemp composition, “I’ve Got Roots”, which inspired their band name, Roots. Their first gig was a fourth-form Christmas party December 1976 in the school dining room; the band changed their name to The Cut when Michael Ellison left with Steve Norman filling in on bass. In 1977 another Alice Owen’s pupil Richard Miller took over on bass guitar and the band changed their name to The Makers playing power-pop compositions by Gary Kemp or Steve Norman with titles like "Fantasy Girl" and "Pin-Ups" inspired by mid-Sixties bands like the Small Faces, they received a number of positive gig reviews from the British music press in Sounds and the New Musical Express. The band changed personnel and name once more when their manager and fellow Dame Alice Owen’s schoolmate Steve Dagger suggested Martin Kemp be brought in as their bass player after seeing how much attention he got from The Makers’ female fans when he was their roadie.
The band was now called Gentry and Martin played his first gig on July 1 1978 at the Middlesex Polytechnic in Cockfosters. Inspired by London’s new underground nightclub scene, which began in Autumn 1978 with a weekly Tuesday night hosted by Steve Strange and DJ Rusty Egan at Billy’s in Soho, the band switched musical direction to embrace the new electronic music. Friend and writer Robert Elms suggested they change their name to Spandau Ballet, a phrase which he told them he had seen written on a wall on a weekend trip to Berlin, their first performance was an invitation-only showcase on the morning of Saturday Nov 17, 1979 at Halligan’s Band Centre rehearsal studio, 103 Holloway Road, to test the reaction of the key influencers of the new scene. Having passed that ‘audition’ the band’s first gig as Spandau Ballet was at the Blitz’s Christmas party on December 5 1979. A series of exclusive ‘secret’ gigs in 1980 at unique non-rock venues like the Scala cinema and the cruiser HMS Belfast, advertised only by word-of-mouth, created the hype for a major record companies bidding war, the band signed to Chrysalis Records.
They released “To Cut a Long Story Short”, produced by Landscape’s Richard James Burgess. It became a Top Five hit in the UK charts in late 1980 as well as reaching the Top 20 in Australia and Spain, their second single, “The Freeze”, was another Top 20 hit in the UK, Ireland and Spain followed by the double A-side “Musclebound/Glow” and the Gold-certified debut album Journeys to Glory in ear
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
Time Out Group
Time Out Group is a global media and entertainment company. Its digital and physical presence comprises websites, mobile editions, live events and markets. Time Out covers events and culture in cities across the world. Time Out Group provides entertainment and drink recommendations to an international audience through print and digital platforms. Time Out was established in 1968, by founder Tony Elliott and has developed into a global platform across 315 cities and in 58 countries, it provides original editorial content for users to find things to do in the city as well as curated lists of the best films, attractions, culture and nightlife activities. Time Out Market, launched in 2014 in Lisbon, enables people to discover, book and share their experiences on one platform. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami, New York, Boston and Montreal in 2019 and in London-Waterloo and in Prague in 2021 – all bringing the best of the city under one roof; the original Time Out magazine was first published in 1968 by Tony Elliott with Bob Harris as co-editor, has since developed into a global platform across 315 cities and 58 countries.
The magazine was a one-sheet pamphlet with listings for London. It started as a counter-culture publication that had an alternative viewpoint on issues such as gay rights, racial equality, police harassment. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000 and evolved to a weekly circulation of 110,000. One of the editors in the 1970s was Roger Hutchinson; the brand was expanded to North America with Time Out New York magazine known as TONY in 1995 followed by Time Out New York Kids in 1996. The success of taking the Time Out brand abroad led to the expansion of the magazine worldwide; the brand grew to include travel magazines, city guides, books. Time Out was able to withstand print competition; when Time Out New York launched it did not have a website and was competing against well-established online publications such as Citysearch and The Village Voice. The company. Financial loss and the necessity to expand the Time Out brand led Tony Elliott to sell half of Time Out London and 66 percent of TONY to private equity group Oakley Capital in May 2011.
Under new ownership, the company expanded the brand digitally through partnerships with software companies to develop a common online platform for the brand and to create multi-city mobile applications. The company continued to grow digitally and launched an iPad app for New York and London in July 2012; the iPad app was sponsored by MasterCard. In July 2015, Time Out Group announced a £7 million investment in Flypay, a pay-at-table mobile app that will integrate its technology into Time Out's media platform. In June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an initial public offering and trades under the symbol TMO on London's AIM stock exchange. Time Out magazine is available in 40 cities around the world including Lisbon, Porto, L. A. Miami, Sydney, Hong Kong, Barcelona, Beijing, Tel Aviv, Mexico City, Tokyo and Istanbul among others. Time Out London magazine is a free weekly publication based in London. Time Out provides event listings and editorial on film and the arts in London to inform readers of the availability of entertainment in the city.
Time Out New York was the brand's first magazine launch in North America and debuted in 1995. Time Out New York is now available for free every other Wednesday in vending boxes and newsstands across New York City and there are copies inside cultural establishments and other locations; the web audience is estimated to 4.5 million unique visitors a month. Time Out Media publishes guides written by locals aimed at providing tourists with tips in urban "nooks" around the world. Mobile apps have been integrated with city guides to allow mobile users to use GPS to pinpoint their location on Time Out maps and search for dining and event recommendations along with a list of editors picks and other options. In April 2014 Time Out Lisbon launched the Time Out Mercado da Ribeira; the market hosts 35 small restaurant and artisan kiosks from the best chefs offering local specialties and has been recognised as one of the top tourist attractions in Lisbon. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami. In August 2011, Time Out acquired the personalisation business LikeCube.
Kelkoo, a daily-offers business, was acquired by Time Out in December 2011. The Time Out brand license was acquired for the Chicago publication March 2013; the acquisition was part of a strategy to build an international media organisation in 50 cities. Changes included moving from print publication to digital format as only a limited few cities still have a printed Time Out magazine edition including London and New York. Time Out acquired the event discovery platform Huge City in May 2014. In April 2016, Time Out acquired the geo-mapping start-up Hallstreet. In October 2016, Time Out acquired the event discovery and booking service YPlan
China Crisis are an English pop/rock band. They were formed in 1979 in Kirkby, near Liverpool, Merseyside with a core of vocalist/keyboardist Gary Daly and guitarist Eddie Lundon. China Crisis were part of a wave of new Liverpool acts in the late 1970s and early 1980s, led by OMD and including Echo and the Bunnymen, The Teardrop Explodes, A Flock of Seagulls and Frankie Goes to Hollywood. China Crisis had moderate success in the United Kingdom in the 1980s with five Top 40 singles and three Top 40 albums; the band achieved a modest level of commercial success in Western Europe and Australia, some minor chart successes in the Americas. Sharing an affection for Stevie Wonder, Steely Dan, David Bowie, Brian Eno and Lundon played with various Knowsley post-punk groups. Daly spent time tinkering with synthesizers and a drum machine. Along with Lundon, Daly began writing songs; the pair asked drummer and percussionist Dave Reilly to join them in 1981, in 1982 they released their debut single "African and White" as China Crisis on the independent record label, Inevitable.
In June 1982, they backed Tom Verlaine at The Venue in London. The band were signed to Virgin Records and recorded their debut album, Difficult Shapes & Passive Rhythms, Some People Think It's Fun to Entertain, released in December 1982. A re-release of "African and White" reached No. 45 in the UK Singles Chart. The follow-up single, "Christian", made UK No. 12 in early 1983 and brought them to national prominence. By the time of this success; the album peaked at No. 21 in the UK Albums Chart. During this period the band toured supporting Simple Minds. Adding Gary "Gazza" Johnson and Waterboys drummer Kevin Wilkinson to the line-up, a second album, Working with Fire and Steel – Possible Pop Songs Volume Two, was released in November 1983. Tracks included the singles "Tragedy and Mystery" and "Hanna Hanna" as well as the title track, "Working with Fire and Steel", which became a hit single in Australia; the album was a Top 20 success in the UK, China Crisis spent 1984 and 1985 making their biggest chart run, beginning with their only UK Top 10 hit single, "Wishful Thinking", which peaked at No.
9. Their third album, Flaunt the Imperfection, was produced by Walter Becker of Steely Dan fame and reached No. 9 in the UK Albums Chart in May 1985. China Crisis was so honoured to directly work with Becker that they listed him in the group as a quintet consisting of Daly, Johnson and Becker on the album's credits. Becker was living on Maui, when he was approached by Virgin to work on this project, he had to leave his expecting partner Eleanor to assist, he never formally appeared with the band and the subsequent tour featured new keyboard player Brian McNeill. Johnson was now credited as co-writer with Lundon; the album was promoted by the No. 14 UK hit single "Black Man Ray", which enjoyed critical acclaim and international success. The follow-up, "King in a Catholic Style", was a Top 20 UK single at No. 19, but it would prove to be the band's last substantial hit. A third release from the album, "You Did Cut Me", stalled at UK No. 54. They released a video compilation, Showbiz Absurd. In 1986, the band collaborated with producers Clive Langer and Alan Winstanley on What Price Paradise, which included "Arizona Sky", the album's first single release and another Australian hit.
All the band were now credited as songwriters. A second single from the album, "Best Kept Secret", made UK No. 36 in early 1987. It was to be the band's final Top 40 hit single; the five-piece band worked with Becker once more on 1989's Diary of a Hollow Horse, which earned critical acclaim though little commercial success. It fared better than its predecessor, making the UK Top 60, spawned the singles "St Saviour Square" and "Red Letter Day", both achieving the lower reaches of the UK Singles Chart. Becker produced most of the album's tracks, but this time was not credited as an official band member; the band's last studio album, Warped by Success, was released in 1994, following the band's parting of ways with the Virgin label. The album produced their final studio chart single, "Everyday the Same", which edged into the UK Top 100; the band was now once again a duo of Daly and Lundon, although Johnson and Wilkinson were both amongst the session musicians employed in the recording of the album.
In 1995 they released video entitled Acoustically Yours. This featured a live version of "Black Man Ray", saw a brief return for Johnson, McNeill, Wilkinson. Since 1992, there have been four compilation albums of their work for the UK and US markets and three live DVDs; the first of these, entitled Collection: The Very Best of China Crisis, made the Top 40 in the UK Albums Chart in 1990. On 17 July 1999, drummer Kevin Wilkinson committed suicide by hanging himself at the age of 41. Wilkinson had played with a wide variety of bands including The Waterboys, The Proclaimers and with Howard Jones. In 2000, Daly contributed a track to a tribute compilation to Green Indians. Since the late 1990s, China Crisis has concentrated on live performances with only original members Eddie Lundon and Gary Daly being constant throughout.
New wave music
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock. New wave moved away from blues and rock and roll sounds to create rock music or pop music that incorporated disco and electronic music. New wave was similar to punk rock, before becoming a distinct genre, it subsequently engendered fusions, including synth-pop. New wave differs from other movements with ties to first-wave punk as it displays characteristics common to pop music, rather than the more "artsy" post-punk. Although it incorporates much of the original punk rock sound and ethos, new wave exhibits greater complexity in both music and lyrics. Common characteristics of new wave music include the use of synthesizers and electronic productions, a distinctive visual style featured in music videos and fashion. New wave has been called one of the definitive genres of the 1980s, after it was promoted by MTV; the popularity of several new wave artists is attributed to their exposure on the channel.
In the mid-1980s, differences between new wave and other music genres began to blur. New wave has enjoyed resurgences since the 1990s, after a rising "nostalgia" for several new wave-influenced artists. Subsequently, the genre influenced other genres. During the 2000s, a number of acts, such as the Strokes, Franz Ferdinand and The Killers explored new wave and post-punk influences; these acts were sometimes labeled "new wave of new wave". The catch-all nature of new wave music has been a source of much controversy; the 1985 discography Who's New Wave in Music listed artists in over 130 separate categories. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock calls the term "virtually meaningless", while AllMusic mentions "stylistic diversity". New wave first emerged as a rock genre in the early 1970s, used by critics including Nick Kent and Dave Marsh to classify such New York-based groups as the Velvet Underground and New York Dolls, it gained currency beginning in 1976 when it appeared in UK punk fanzines such as Sniffin' Glue and newsagent music weeklies such as Melody Maker and New Musical Express.
In November 1976 Caroline Coon used Malcolm McLaren's term "new wave" to designate music by bands not punk, but related to the same musical scene. The term was used in that sense by music journalist Charles Shaar Murray in his comments about the Boomtown Rats. For a period of time in 1976 and 1977, the terms new wave and punk were somewhat interchangeable. By the end of 1977, "new wave" had replaced "punk" as the definition for new underground music in the UK. In the United States, Sire Records chairman Seymour Stein, believing that the term "punk" would mean poor sales for Sire's acts who had played the club CBGB, launched a "Don't Call It Punk" campaign designed to replace the term with "new wave"; as radio consultants in the United States had advised their clients that punk rock was a fad, they settled on the term "new wave". Like the filmmakers of the French new wave movement, its new artists were anti-corporate and experimental. At first, most U. S. writers used the term "new wave" for British punk acts.
Starting in December 1976, The New York Rocker, suspicious of the term "punk", became the first American journal to enthusiastically use the term starting with British acts appropriating it to acts associated with the CBGB scene. Part of what attracted Stein and others to new wave was the music's stripped back style and upbeat tempos, which they viewed as a much needed return to the energetic rush of rock and roll and 1960s rock that had dwindled in the 1970s with the ascendance of overblown progressive rock and stadium spectacles. Music historian Vernon Joynson claimed that new wave emerged in the UK in late 1976, when many bands began disassociating themselves from punk. Music that followed the anarchic garage band ethos of the Sex Pistols was distinguished as "punk", while music that tended toward experimentation, lyrical complexity or more polished production, came to be categorized as "new wave". In the U. S. the first new wavers were the not-so-punk acts associated with the New York club CBGB.
CBGB owner Hilly Kristal, referring to the first show of the band Television at his club in March 1974, said, "I think of that as the beginning of new wave." Furthermore, many artists who would have been classified as punk were termed new wave. A 1977 Phonogram Records compilation album of the same name features US artists including the Dead Boys, Talking Heads and the Runaways. New wave is much more tied to punk, came and went more in the United Kingdom than in the United States. At the time punk began, it was a major phenomenon in the United Kingdom and a minor one in the United States, thus when new wave acts started getting noticed in America, punk meant little to the mainstream audience and it was common for rock clubs and discos to play British dance mixes and videos between live sets by American guitar acts. Post-punk music developments in the UK were considered unique cultural events. By the early 1980s, British journalists had abandoned the term "new wave" in favor of subgenre terms such as "synthpop".
By 1983, the term of choice for the US music industry had become "new music", while to the majority of US fans it was still a "new wave" reacting to album-based rock. New wave died out in the mid-1980s, knocked out by guitar-driven rock reacting against new wave. In the 21st-century United States, "new wave" was used to describe ar