L. S. Lowry
Laurence Stephen Lowry was an English artist. Many of his drawings and paintings depict Pendlebury, where he lived and worked for more than 40 years, Salford and its surrounding areas. Lowry is famous for painting scenes of life in the industrial districts of North West England in the mid-20th century, he developed a distinctive style of painting and is best known for his urban landscapes peopled with human figures referred to as "matchstick men". He painted mysterious unpopulated landscapes, brooding portraits and the unpublished "marionette" works, which were only found after his death. Due to his use of stylized figures and the lack of weather effects in many of his landscapes he is sometimes characterized as a naïve "Sunday painter", although this is not the view of the galleries that have organised retrospectives of his works. A large collection of Lowry's work is on permanent public display in The Lowry, a purpose-built art gallery on Salford Quays, named in his honour. Lowry rejected five honours during his life, including a knighthood in 1968, holds the record for the most rejected British honours.
On 26 June 2013 a major retrospective opened at the Tate Britain in London, his first at the Tate, in 2014 his first solo exhibition outside the UK was held in Nanjing, China. Lowry was born on 1 November 1887 at 8 Barrett Street, in Lancashire, it was a difficult birth, his mother Elizabeth, who hoped for a girl, was uncomfortable looking at him at first. She expressed envy of her sister Mary, who had "three splendid daughters" instead of one "clumsy boy". Lowry's father Robert, of northern Irish descent, worked as a clerk for the Jacob Earnshaw and Son Property Company and was a withdrawn and introverted man. Lowry once described him as "a cold fish" and " realised he had a life to live and did his best to get through it."After Lowry's birth, his mother's health was too poor for her to continue teaching. She is reported to have been respected, with aspirations of becoming a concert pianist, she was an nervous woman brought up to expect high standards by her stern father. Like him, she was controlling and intolerant of failure.
She used illness as a means of securing the attention and obedience of her mild and affectionate husband and she dominated her son in the same way. Lowry maintained, in interviews conducted in his life, that he had an unhappy childhood, growing up in a repressive family atmosphere. Although his mother demonstrated no appreciation of her son's gifts as an artist, a number of books Lowry received as Christmas presents from his parents are inscribed to "Our dearest Laurie". At school he showed no academic aptitude, his father was affectionate towards him but was, by all accounts, a quiet man, at his most comfortable fading into the background as an unobtrusive presence. Much of Lowry's early years were spent in the leafy Manchester suburb of Victoria Park, but in 1909, when he was 22, due to financial pressures, the family moved to 117 Station Road in the industrial town of Pendlebury. Here the landscape comprised textile mills and factory chimneys rather than trees. Lowry recalled: "At first I detested it, after years I got pretty interested in it obsessed by it...
One day I missed a train from Pendlebury – I had ignored for seven years – and as I left the station I saw the Acme Spinning Company's mill... The huge black framework of rows of yellow-lit windows standing up against the sad, damp charged afternoon sky; the mill was turning out... I watched this scene — which I'd looked at many times without seeing — with rapture..." After leaving school, Lowry began a career working for the Pall Mall Company collecting rents. He would spend some time in his lunch hour at Buile Hill Park and in the evenings took private art lessons in antique and freehand drawing. In 1905, he secured a place at the Manchester School of Art, where he studied under the French Impressionist, Pierre Adolphe Valette. Lowry was full of praise for Valette as a teacher, remarking "I cannot over-estimate the effect on me of the coming into this drab city of Adolphe Valette, full of French impressionists, aware of everything, going on in Paris". In 1915 he moved on to the Royal Technical Institute, Salford where his studies continued until 1925.
There he began to establish his own style. Lowry's oil paintings were impressionistic and dark in tone but D. B. Taylor of the Manchester Guardian took an interest in his work and encouraged him to move away from the sombre palette he was using. Taking this advice on board, Lowry began to use a white background to lighten the pictures, he developed a distinctive style of painting and is best known for his urban landscapes peopled with human figures referred to as "matchstick men". He painted mysterious unpopulated landscapes, brooding portraits and the unpublished "marionette" works, which were only found after his death, his father died in 1932. His mother, subject to neurosis and depression, became dependent on her son for care. Lowry painted after his mother had fallen asleep, between 10pm and 2am, or, depending how tired he was, he might stay up for another hour adding features. Many paintings produced during this period were damning self-portraits, which demonstrate the influence of expressionism and may have been inspired by an exhibition of Vincent van Gogh's work at Manchester Art Gallery in 1931.
He expressed regret that he received
Scholastic Corporation is an American multinational publishing and media company known for publishing and distributing books and educational materials for schools, teachers and children. Products are distributed to schools and districts, to consumers through the schools via reading clubs and fairs, through retail stores and online sales; the business has three segments: Children Book Publishing & Distribution and International. Scholastic holds the perpetual US publishing rights to the Harry Potter and Hunger Games book series. Scholastic is the world's largest publisher and distributor of children's books and print and digital educational materials for pre-K to grade 12. In addition to Harry Potter and The Hunger Games, the company is known for its school book clubs and book fairs, classroom magazines such as Scholastic News, popular book series: Clifford the Big Red Dog, The Magic School Bus, Captain Underpants, I Spy. Scholastic publishes instructional reading and writing programs, offers professional learning and consultancy services for school improvement.
Clifford the Big Red Dog serves as the mascot for Scholastic. In 1920, Maurice R. "Robbie" Robinson founded the business he named Scholastic Publishing Company in his hometown of Wilkinsburg, right outside Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a publisher of youth magazines, the first publication was The Western Pennsylvania Scholastic, it covered high school sports and social activities and debuted on October 22, 1920. In the 1960s, international publishing locations were added in New Zealand and Sydney. In February 2012, it bought Weekly Reader Publishing from Reader's Digest Association, announced in July that year that it planned to discontinue separate issues of Weekly Reader magazines after more than a century of publication, co-branded the magazines as "Scholastic News/Weekly Reader". Founded in 1923 by Maurice R. Robinson, The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, administered by the Alliance for Young Artists & Writers, have recognized more than 9 million young artists and writers, provided more than $25 million in awards and scholarships and are the nation's longest-running art and writing awards.
Recipients of The Scholastic Art and Writing Awards include Richard Anuszkiewicz, Richard Avedon, Harry Bertoia, Mel Bochner, Truman Capote, Paul Davis, Frances Farmer, Red Grooms, Robert Indiana, Bernard Malamud, Joyce Maynard, Joyce Carol Oates, Philip Pearlstein, Peter S. Beagle, Sylvia Plath, Robert Redford, Jean Stafford, Mozelle Thompson, Ned Vizzini, Kay WalkingStick, Andy Warhol, Charles White, all of whom won when they were in high school. In March 2018, author James Patterson announced an increase in his annual donations for classroom libraries from $1.75 million to $2 million, in a program run in conjunction with the Scholastic Book Clubs. Patterson is distributing 4,000 gifts of $500 each to teachers around the country. Trade Publishing Imprints include: Arthur A. Levine Books, which specializes in fiction and non-fiction books for young readers; the imprint was founded at Scholastic in 1996 by Arthur Levine in New York City. The first book published by Arthur A. Levine Books was When She Was Good by Norma Fox Mazer in autumn of 1997.
The imprint is most notable as the publisher for the American editions of the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling. In March 2019, Levine left Scholastic to form his own new publisher. Scholastic will retain Levine's back catalogue; the Chicken House Four Winds Press Klutz Press Orchard Books Scholastic Australia made up of Koala Books, Margaret Hamilton Books, Omnibus Books, Scholastic Press. Children's Press. Founded in 1945 and based in Chicago, this press published the Rookie Read-About series and has a secondary imprint, Franklin Watts. In 1996, Children's Press became a division of Grolier, which became an imprint of Scholastic Corporation in 2000. Scholastic Media is a corporate division led by Deborah Forte since 1995, it covers "all forms of media and consumer products, is comprised of four main groups – Productions, Marketing & Consumer Products and Audio." Weston Woods is its production studio, acquired in 1996, as was Soup2Nuts from 2001–2015 before shutting down. Scholastic has produced audiobooks such as the Caldecott/Newbery Collection.
It will produce the 39 Clues and as Scholastic Productions produced the series Voyagers!, My Secret Identity, Charles in Charge. In April 2019, Scholastic signed a distribution deal with 9 Story Media Group, including 230 hours of TV series. Scholastic book clubs are offered at schools in many countries. Teachers administer the program to the students in their own classes, but in some cases, the program is administered by a central contact for the entire school. Within Scholastic, Reading Clubs is a separate unit. Reading clubs are arranged by age/grade. Scholastic Parents Media publishes the Scholastic Child magazine; the group specializes in online advertising sales and custom programs designed for parents with children aged 0–6. Scholastic has been criticized for inappropriately marketing to children. Scholastic now requires parents to submit children's names with birth dates to place online orders, creating controversy. A significant number of titles carried have strong media tie-ins and are considered relatively
Young adult fiction
Young adult fiction is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted to teenagers half of YA readers are adults; the subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the experience of the protagonist. The genres available in YA include most of those found in adult fiction. Common themes related to YA include: friendship, first love and identity. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth are sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming-of-age novels. Young adult fiction was developed to soften the transition between children's novels and adult literature; the history of young adult literature is tied to the history of how childhood and young adulthood has been perceived. One early writer to recognize young adults as a distinct group was Sarah Trimmer, who, in 1802, described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21. In her children's literature periodical, The Guardian of Education, Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" and "Books for Young Persons", establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that still remains in use.
Nineteenth century literature presents several early works, that appealed to young readers, though not written for them, including The Swiss Family Robinson, Walter Scott's Waverley, Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, Tom Brown's Schooldays, Dickens' Great Expectations, Alice in Wonderland, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, Moonfleet by J. Meade Falkner. In the 1950s, two influential adult novels, The Catcher in the Rye and Lord of the Flies, which were not marketed to adolescents, still attracted the attention of the adolescent demographic; the modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s after the publication of S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders; the novel features a truer, darker side of adolescent life, not represented in works of fiction of the time, was the first novel published marketed for young adults as Hinton was one when she wrote it.
Written during high-school and published when Hinton was only 17, The Outsiders lacked the nostalgic tone common in books about adolescents written by adults. The Outsiders remains one of the best-selling young adult novels of all time; the 1960s became the era "when the'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern, research on adolescence began to emerge. It was the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own"; this increased the new idea of adolescent authors. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, what has come to be known as the "fab five" were published: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography of the early years of American poet Maya Angelou; the works of Angelou and Plath were not written for young readers. As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market and libraries began creating young adult sections distinct from children's literature and novels written for adults; the 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fiction, when challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market.
In the 1980s, young adult literature began pushing the envelope in terms of the subject matter, considered appropriate for their audience: Books dealing with topics such as rape, parental death, murder, deemed taboo, saw significant critical and commercial success. A flip-side of this trend was a strong revived interest in the romance novel, including young adult romance. With an increase in number of teenagers the genre "matured and came into its own, with the better written, more serious, more varied young adult books published during the last two decades"; the first novel in J. K. Rowling's seven-book Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997; the series was praised for its complexity and maturity, attracted a wide adult audience. While not technically YA, its success led many to see Harry Potter and its author, J. K. Rowling, as responsible for a resurgence of young adult literature, re-established the pre-eminent role of speculative fiction in the field, a trend further solidified by The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins.
The end of the decade saw a number of awards appear such as the Michael L. Printz Award and Alex Awards, designed to recognize excellence in writing for young adult audiences; the category of young adult fiction continues to expand into other media and genres: graphic novels/manga, light novels, mystery fiction, romance novels, subcategories such as cyberpunk, techno-thrillers, contemporary Christian fiction. Many young adult novels feature coming-of-age stories; these feature adolescents beginning to transform into adults, working through personal problems, learning to take responsibility for their actions. YA serves many literary purposes, it provides a pleasurable reading experience for young people, emphasizing real life experiences and
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Invention of Hugo Cabret
The Invention of Hugo Cabret is an American historical fiction novel written and illustrated by Brian Selznick and published by Scholastic. The hardcover edition was released on January 30, 2007, the paperback edition was released on June 2, 2008. With 284 pictures between the book's 533 pages, the book depends as much on its pictures as it does on the words. Selznick himself has described the book as "not a novel, not quite a picture book, not a graphic novel, or a flip book or a movie, but a combination of all these things"; the book won the 2008 Caldecott Medal, the first novel to do so, as the Caldecott Medal is for picture books. The book's primary inspiration is the true story of turn-of-the-century French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès, his surviving films, his collection of mechanical, wind-up figures called Automata. Selznick decided to add an Automaton to the storyline after reading Edison's Eve by Gaby Wood, which tells the story of Edison's attempt to create a talking wind-up doll.
Méliès owned a set of automata, which were sold to a museum but lay forgotten in an attic for decades. When someone re-discovered them, they had been ruined by rainwater. At the end of his life, Méliès was destitute as his films were screening in the United States, he sold toys from a booth in a Paris railway station. Selznick drew Méliès's real door in the book, as well as real columns and other details from the Montparnasse railway station in Paris. In 1930s Paris, young Hugo Cabret and his father repair an automaton at the museum where his father works; when Hugo's father dies in a fire, his uncle brings him to live and work at the train station maintaining the clocks. His uncle disappears, Hugo keeps the clocks running by himself, living inside the station walls and stealing food from the shops, he rescues the automaton from the burnt museum in hopes of restoring it. A few months Hugo is caught stealing from a toy booth and is forced to return his stolen tools and mechanisms, as well as his notebook containing his father’s drawings of the automaton.
Hugo fails to retrieve his notebook. A girl in the house named; the next day, Hugo returns to the toy booth, where the shopkeeper tells him the notebook has been burnt. Isabelle brings him to a bookshop to meet her friend Etienne, who sneaks them into the cinema. Georges allows Hugo to work with the possibility of returning the notebook. Hugo and Isabelle visit the theater but learn Etienne has been fired for sneaking children in, so Isabelle unlocks the door with a bobby pin, they are kicked out, Hugo is caught by the station inspector. Isabelle asks Hugo about his life, but he runs away, fearing that sharing the truth will send him to an orphanage or prison. Isabelle chases him but trips, revealing a heart-shaped key around her neck, which Hugo realizes is the key to the automaton; the next morning, Hugo learns. He pickpockets the key with a technique learned from Etienne and returns to his hidden room, where he is confronted by Isabelle, they use the key to activate the automaton, which produces a drawing of a rocket shooting a face in the moon.
The automaton signs its drawing "Georges Méliès". Believing Hugo has stolen the automaton, she runs home. Hugo notices a strangely locked drawer. Georges is enraged, ripping up the drawings inside the box. After Mama Jeanne forces everyone to bed, Hugo takes the key to the toy booth back to the station; the next day, he and Isabelle collect the money from the buy medicine for Georges. Hugo visits the film academy library. Hugo finds a book titled The Invention of Dreams with a drawing of the automaton, which he learns is a scene from the first movie his father saw, A Trip to the Moon, directed by Georges Méliès. Hugo invites Etienne and the book’s author, René Tabard, to Isabelle's house and explains Méliès’ career to Isabelle. At the house and Etienne screen A Trip to the Moon, George reveals his past: he was the prolific and innovative filmmaker Méliès, but after World War I, the deaths of Isabelle's parents, the loss of most of his films in a fire, he sank into depression and burned the rest, to begin a new life at the toy booth.
He created the automaton. Hugo returns to the station, stealing breakfast from Miss Emily as usual, he is pursued by the station inspector. In the chase, Hugo is struck by a train but is pulled back by the inspector, faints. Hugo awakens in a cell, he reveals everything to the inspector and is released to be adopted by Georges, Mama Jean, Isabelle. He and Méliès repair the automaton together. Six months Hugo and his new family attend a grand concert including Méliès’ surviving film scenes. Onstage, Tabard acknowledges Hugo and Etienne for their help in honoring Georges. In the end, it is revealed that Hugo made his own automaton that wrote and drew the entire book of The Invention of Hugo Cabret; the main protagonist of the story, Hugo Cabret, only 12, has a great talent for working with mechan
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. Founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts, it was a literary and cultural commentary magazine that published leading writers' commentary on abolition and other major issues in contemporary political affairs, its founders included Francis H. Underwood, along with prominent writers Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher Stowe, John Greenleaf Whittier. James Russell Lowell was its first editor, it was known for publishing literary pieces by leading writers. After financial hardship and ownership changes in the late 20th century, the magazine was purchased by businessman David G. Bradley, he refashioned it as a general editorial magazine aimed at a target audience of serious national readers and "thought leaders." In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in a decade. In 2016 the periodical was named Magazine of the Year by the American Society of Magazine Editors.
In July 2017, Bradley sold a majority interest in the publication to Laurene Powell Jobs's Emerson Collective. Its website, TheAtlantic.com, provides daily coverage and analysis of breaking news and international affairs, technology, health and culture. The editor of the website is Adrienne LaFrance; the Atlantic houses an editorial events arm, AtlanticLIVE. The Atlantic's president is Bob Cohn; the magazine, subscribed to by over 500,000 readers, publishes ten times a year. It was a monthly magazine for 144 years until 2001, it dropped "Monthly" from the cover beginning with the January/February 2004 issue, changed the name in 2007. The Atlantic features articles in the fields of politics, foreign affairs and the economy and the arts and science. On January 22, 2008, TheAtlantic.com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to browse its site, including all past archives. By 2011 The Atlantic's web properties included TheAtlanticWire.com, a news- and opinion-tracking site launched in 2009, TheAtlanticCities.com, a stand-alone website started in 2011, devoted to global cities and trends.
According to a Mashable profile in December 2011, "traffic to the three web properties surpassed 11 million uniques per month, up a staggering 2500% since The Atlantic brought down its paywall in early 2008."In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic.com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as topics related to the mind, sex and public health. Its launch was overseen by Nicholas Jackson, overseeing the Life channel and joined TheAtlantic.com to cover technology. TheAtlantic.com has expanded to visual storytelling, with the addition of the "In Focus" photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor. In 2011 it created its Video Channel. Created as an aggregator, The Atlantic's Video component, Atlantic Studios, has since evolved in an in-house production studio that creates custom video series and original documentaries. In 2015, TheAtlantic.com launched a dedicated Science section and in January 2016 it redesigned and expanded its politics section in conjunction with the 2016 U. S. presidential race.
A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published many significant authors. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe, William Parker, whose slave narrative, "The Freedman's Story" was published in February and March 1866, it published Charles W. Eliot's "The New Education", a call for practical reform, that led to his appointment to presidency of Harvard University in 1869. For example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction; the magazine published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one, lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural movements. For example, of the emerging writers of the 1920s, Ernest Hemingway had his short story "Fifty Grand" published in the July 1927 edition. In the midst of civil rights activism in the 20th century, the magazine published Martin Luther King, Jr.'s defense of civil disobedience in "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in August 1963.
The magazine has published speculative articles. The classic example is Vannevar Bush's essay "As We May Think", which inspired Douglas Engelbart and Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology; the Atlantic Monthly founded the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1917. Its published book included Drums Along the Blue Highways; the press was sold in 1986. In addition to publishing notable fiction and poetry, The Atlantic has emerged in the 21st century as an influential platform for longform storytelling and newsmaker interviews. Influential cover stories have included Anne Marie Slaughter's "Why Women Still Can't Have It All" and Ta-Nehisi Coates's "Case for Reparations". In 2015, Jeffrey Goldberg's "Obama Doctrine" was discussed by American media and prompted response by many world leaders; as of 2017, writers and frequent contributors to the print magazine include James F
Maurice Bernard Sendak was an American illustrator and writer of children's books. He became known for his book Where the Wild Things Are, first published in 1963. Born to Jewish-Polish parents, his childhood was affected by the death of many of his family members during the Holocaust. Sendak wrote works such as In the Night Kitchen, Outside Over There, illustrated many works by other authors including the Little Bear books by Else Holmelund Minarik. Sendak was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Polish Jewish immigrant parents named Sadie and Philip Sendak, a dressmaker. Sendak described his childhood as a "terrible situation" due to the death of members of his extended family during the Holocaust which exposed him at a young age to the concept of mortality, his love of books began when, as a child, he was confined to his bed. He decided to become an illustrator after watching Walt Disney's film Fantasia at the age of twelve. One of his first professional commissions was to create window displays for the toy store FAO Schwarz.
His illustrations were first published in 1947 in a textbook titled Atomics for the Millions by Maxwell Leigh Eidinoff. He spent much of the 1950s illustrating children's books written by others before beginning to write his own stories, his older brother Jack Sendak became an author of children's books, two of which were illustrated by Maurice in the 1950s. Maurice was the youngest of three siblings; when he was born, his sister Natalie was nine years older and his brother Jack five. Sendak gained international acclaim after writing and illustrating Where the Wild Things Are, edited by Ursula Nordstrom at Harper & Row, it features Max, a boy who "rages against his mother for being sent to bed without any supper". The book's depictions of fanged monsters concerned some parents when it was first published, as his characters were somewhat grotesque in appearance. Before Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak was best known for illustrating Else Holmelund Minarik's Little Bear series of books. Sendak recounted the reaction of a fan: A little boy sent me a charming card with a little drawing on it.
I loved it. I answer all my children's letters – sometimes hastily – but this one I lingered over. I sent him a card and I drew a picture of a Wild Thing on it. I wrote,'Dear Jim: I loved your card.' I got a letter back from his mother and she said:'Jim loved your card so much he ate it.' That to me was one of the highest compliments I've received. He didn't care that it was anything, he saw. Fifty years School Library Journal sponsored a survey of readers which identified Where the Wild Things Are as a top picture book; the librarian who conducted it observed that there was little doubt what would be voted number one and highlighted its designation by one reader as a watershed, "ushering in the modern age of picture books". Another called it "perfectly crafted illustrated... the epitome of a picture book" and noted that Sendak "rises above the rest in part because he is subversive."When Sendak saw a manuscript of Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories, the first children's book by Isaac Bashevis Singer, on the desk of an editor at Harper & Row, he offered to illustrate the book.
It received a Newbery Honor. Sendak was enthusiastic about the collaboration, he once wryly remarked that his parents were "finally" impressed by their youngest child when he collaborated with Singer. His book In the Night Kitchen issued in 1970, has been subjected to censorship for its drawings of a young boy prancing naked through the story; the book has been challenged in several American states including Illinois, New Jersey and Texas. In the Night Kitchen appears on the American Library Association's list of "frequently challenged and banned books", it was listed number 21 on the "100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–1999". His 1981 book Outside Over There is the story of a girl and her sibling jealousy and responsibility, her father is so Ida is left to watch her baby sister, much to her dismay. Her sister is kidnapped by goblins and Ida must go off on a magical adventure to rescue her. At first, she is not eager to get her sister and nearly passes her sister right by when she becomes absorbed in the magic of the quest.
In the end, she rescues her baby sister, destroys the goblins, returns home committed to caring for her sister until her father returns home. Sendak was an early member of the National Board of Advisors of the Children's Television Workshop during the development stages of the Sesame Street television series, he adapted his book Bumble Ardy into an animated sequence for the series, with Jim Henson as the voice of Bumble Ardy. He wrote and designed three other animated stories for the series: Seven Monsters, Up & Down, Broom Adventures. Sendak produced an animated television production based on his work titled Really Rosie, featuring the voice of Carole King, broadcast in 1975 and is available on video. An album of the songs was produced, he contributed the opening segment to Simple Gifts, a Christmas collection of six animated shorts shown on PBS TV in 1977 and issued on VHS in 1993. He adapted his book Where the Wild Things Are for the stage in 1979. Additionally, he designed sets for many operas and ballets, including the award-winning Pacific Northwest Ballet production of Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker, Houston Grand Opera's productions of Mozart's The Magic Flute and Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, Los Angeles County Music Center's 1990