Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Central Java is a province of Indonesia. This province is located in the middle of Java, the province is 32,800.69 km2 in area, approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census, Central Java is a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a special region since Indonesian independence. Located in the middle of the island of Java, the Central Java province is bordered by West Java, a small portion of its south region is the Yogyakarta Special Region province, fully enclosed on the landward side by the Central Java province. To the north and the south, the Central Java province faces the Java Sea, Central Java includes offshore islands such as Karimun Jawa Islands in the north, and Nusakambangan in the southwest. Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, the average temperature in Central Java is between 18–28 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity varies between 73–94 percent.
While a high level of humidity exists in most low-lying parts of the province, the highest average annual rainfall of 3,990 mm with 195 rainy days was recorded in Salatiga. The geography of Central Java is regular with small strips of lowlands near the northern and southern coast with mountain ranges in the centre of the region, to the west lies an active stratovolcano Mount Slamet, and further east is the Dieng Volcanic Complex on Dieng Plateau. Southeast of Dieng lies the Kedu Plain, which is bordered to the east side by the volcanoes of Mount Merapi. South of Semarang, lies Mount Ungaran, and to the north-east of the city lies Mount Muria on the most northern tip of Java, to the east near the border with East Java lies Mount Lawu, where its eastern slopes are in the East Java province. Due to its volcanic history, volcanic ash makes Central Java highly fertile agriculture land. Paddy fields are extensive, except in the southeastern Gunung Kidul region partly due to the concentration of limestone.
The largest rivers are the Serayu in the west, which empties into the Indian Ocean, on the eve of the World War II in 1942, Central Java was subdivided into 7 residencies which corresponded more or less with the main regions of this area. These residencies were Banjoemas, Pekalongan and Djapara-Rembang plus the so-called Gouvernement Soerakarta, after the local elections in 1957 the role of these residencies were reduced until they finally disappeared. Nowadays Central Java is divided into 29 regencies and 6 cities and these contemporary regencies and cities can further be subdivided into 565 districts. These districts are subdivided into 7,804 rural communes or villages and 764 urban communes. Java has been inhabited by humans or their ancestors since prehistoric times, in Central Java and the adjacent territories in East Java remains known as Java Man were discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch anatomist and geologist Eugène Dubois
The Tang dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a point in Chinese civilization. Its territory, acquired through the campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family, who seized power during the decline, the dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea, Japan. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office.
This civil order was undermined by the rise of military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era, it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of Chinas most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, there was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works. The adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asias first simultaneous kingship, there were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became an influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, Buddhism would be persecuted by the state, subsequently declining in influence, although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish.
This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage, which includes the Tang poet Li Bai, the Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tangs Xianbei mother Duchess Dugu. He had prestige and military experience, and was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his equally militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Changan, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, and acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Emperor Gong of Sui. On the news of Emperor Yangs murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18,618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang
Klaten is a regency in Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is the city of the same name, Klaten borders on Boyolali Regency in the North, Sukoharjo Regency and Wonogiri Regency in the East, and Special Region of Yogyakarta to the South and West. Candi Prambanan, one of the biggest Hindu structures in Indonesia, is in the regency, the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake damaged the area, located near to the active Mount Merapi volcano in central Java. The 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi had a impact on Klaten. A few of the victims who were affected by the eruption came from the district of Klaten, the volcanic eruptions were so loud they caused panic and a rush for residents to seek refuge. The landscape is covered with rainfed croplands, residential areas. The climate is classified as a Tropical Monsoon, with a tropical moist forest biozone, the soil in the area is high in nitosols, soil with deep, clay-enriched lower horizon with shiny ped surfaces. Average temperature varies little from month to month, October is warmest with an average temperature of 31.3 °C at noon.
August is coldest with a temperature of 20.2 °C at night. The wet season has a peak around January. The dry season centers around the month of July, which has the most sunshine, the regional government of Klaten was established on 28 October 1950. It is divided into 26 Kecamatan,391 Villages, and 10 Kelurahan, the area includes tourist sites, places of interest, traditional arts, traditional events and handicraft centers. Deles Indah Nature, is located in the slope of Mount Merapi, jombor swamp, is located in Krakitan Village of Bayat Subdistrict. Nilo and Ponggok Water source, is located in a area of Janti, Janti Village, Polanharjo subdistrict. Ki Ageng Pandanaran Graveyard in Paseban Village, Bayat Subdistrict, official website twitter account for information and community in Klaten Photos around Klaten Forum Komunitas dan Komunikasi Warga Klaten
The Medang or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries. It was based in Central Java, and in East Java, established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty. During most of its history, the kingdom seems to rely heavily on agricultural pursuit, especially extensive rice farming, according to foreign sources and archaeological findings, the kingdom seems to be well populated and quite prosperous. The kingdom had developed a society, they had a well developed culture and had achieved a degree of sophistication. The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation, the history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, and the classical Javanese civilisation.
The native Javanese most often refer to their lands and country simply as Jawi, the only foreign source mentioning Medang was found from the Philippines inscription, dated 822 saka. There are no written records that have survived in Java except numbers of prasasti written on stones or copper plates. These inscriptions most often recorded the political and religious deeds of the rulers, some local legends and historical records, written on lontar — most often dated from period — might provides data and source to reconstruct the historical event. The kingdom is mentioned in the myth of Dewi Sri and Aji Saka and this is probably the remnant of native Javanese vague collective memory of the existence of an ancient kingdom called Medang. Stone inscriptions, most common are mentioning about the foundation and funding of temples, which report on the political and religious deeds of the kings, or stating their lineage. The most notable are the Canggal, Kalasan and Balitung charter, bas reliefs in a series of temple walls with depictions of life in the palace, temple, ship and the everyday lives of the population.
The most notable are the bas reliefs found on Borobudur and Prambanan temple, native manuscripts, mentioning about the story of kings, their deeds and exploits, that somehow corrugated with accounts mentioned in stone inscriptions. The notable example is the Carita Parahyangan and chronicles of foreign diplomats and travellers, mainly from Chinese and Arab sources. Initially, the kingdom was identified only through its location Yawadvipa as mentioned in Canggal inscription, the inscription mentioned Rakai Mataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya. This is based on the locations where numbers of candi were discovered in. The etymology of the name Mataram derived from a Sanskrit term for mother, the name Medang appear in East Javanese inscriptions such as Anjukladang inscription and Minto Stone, Paradah inscription and some inscriptions discovered in Surabaya. As the result, historians tends to identify the Eastern Java period of this kingdom as Medang to differ it with its earlier Central Java period of Mataram
An umbrella or parasol is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole. It is designed to protect a person against rain or sunlight, the word umbrella typically refers to a device used for protection from rain. The word parasol usually refers to a designed to protect from the sun. Often the difference is the used for the canopy, some parasols are not waterproof. Umbrella canopies may be made of fabric or flexible plastic and parasols are primarily hand-held portable devices sized for personal use. The largest hand-portable umbrellas are golf umbrellas, another distinction can be made between manually operated umbrellas and spring-loaded automatic umbrellas which spring open at the press of a button. Hand-held umbrellas have some type of handle, either a wooden or plastic cylinder or a bent crook handle, Umbrellas are available in a range of price and quality points, ranging from inexpensive, modest quality models sold at discount stores to expensive, finely made, designer-labeled models.
The collapsible/folding umbrella, the predecessor to the modern umbrella. These Chinese umbrellas were internally supported with bendable, retractable, an umbrella may be called a brolly, rainshade, gamp, or bumbershoot. The word parasol is a combination of para, meaning to stop or to shield, parapluie similarly consists of para combined with pluie, which means rain. Hence, a parasol shields from sunlight while a parapluie shields from rain, the word umbrella evolved from the Latin umbella or umbra, meaning shaded or shadow. In Britain, umbrellas were sometimes referred to as gamps after the character Mrs. Gamp in the Charles Dickens novel Martin Chuzzlewit, Mrs. Gamps character was well known for carrying an umbrella. Brolly is a word for umbrella, used often in Britain, New Zealand, South Africa. Bumbershoot is a fanciful Americanism from the late 19th century, in all written records, the oldest reference to a collapsible umbrella dates to the year 21 AD, when Wang Mang had one designed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage.
The 2nd-century commentator Fu Qian added that this collapsible umbrella of Wang Mangs carriage had bendable joints which enabled them to be extended or retracted. A 1st century collapsible umbrella has since recovered from the tomb of Wang Guang at Lelang Commandery in the Korean Peninsula, illustrated in a work by Harada. However, the Chinese collapsible umbrella is perhaps a concept that is yet centuries older than Wangs tomb. An even older source on the umbrella is perhaps the ancient book of Chinese ceremonies, called Zhou Li, dating 2400 years ago, which directs that upon the imperial cars the dais should be placed
The kris is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron. The kris is famous for its wavy blade, although many have straight blades as well. A kris can be divided into three parts, blade and sheath and these parts of the kris are objects of art, often carved in meticulous detail and made from various materials, precious or rare types of wood, or gold or ivory. A kriss aesthetic value covers the dhapur, the pamor, and tangguh referring to the age, depending on the quality and historical value of the kris, it can fetch thousands of dollars or more. Both a weapon and spiritual object, kris are considered to have an essence or presence, considered to possess magical powers, with some blades possessing good luck. Legendary kris that possess supernatural power and extraordinary ability were mentioned in traditional folktales, such as those of Empu Gandring, Taming Sari, in 2005, UNESCO gave the title Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity to the kris of Indonesia.
In return, UNESCO urged Indonesia to preserve their heritage, the word kris derives from the Old Javanese term ngiris which means to slice, wedge or sliver. Kris is the frequently used spelling in the West, but keris is more popular in the daggers native lands. Two notable exceptions are the Philippines, where it is usually called kalis or kris, and Thailand, Other spellings used by European colonists include cryse, criss and creese. Kris history is traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Southeast Asia. It is believed that the earliest kris prototype can be traced to Dongson bronze culture in Vietnam circa 300 BC that spread to parts of Southeast Asia. Another theory is that the kris was based on daggers from India, some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the bas-reliefs of Borobudur and Prambanan temple. However, Raffles study of the Candi Sukuh states that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit, East Java.
The scene in bas relief of Sukuh Temple in Central Java, dated from 15th century Majapahit era, shows the workshop of a Javanese keris blacksmith. The scene depicted Bhima as the blacksmith on the forging the metal, Ganesha in the center. The wall behind the blacksmith displays various items manufactured in the forge and these representations of the kris in the Candi Sukuh established the fact that by the year 1437 the kris had already gained an important place within Javanese culture. In Yingyai Shenglan—a record about Zheng Hes expedition —Ma Huan describes that all men in Majapahit, from the king to commoners, the daggers are made entirely of steel with intricate motifs smoothly drawn. The handles are made of gold, rhinos horn or ivory carved with a depiction of human or demon and this Chinese account reported that public execution by stabbing using this type of dagger is common
The temple compound is located approximately 17 kilometres northeast of the city of Yogyakarta on the boundary between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces. The temple compound, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Hindu temple site in Indonesia and it is characterized by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu architecture, and by the towering 47-metre-high central building inside a large complex of individual temples. Prambanan attracts many visitors from around the world, the Prambanan temple is the largest Hindu temple of ancient Java, and the first building was completed in the mid-9th century. It was likely started by Rakai Pikatan as the Hindu Sanjaya Dynastys answer to the Buddhist Sailendra Dynastys Borobudur, the construction of this massive Hindu temple signifies that the Medang court had shifted its patronage from Mahayana Buddhism to Shaivite Hinduism. A temple was first built at the site around 850 CE by Rakai Pikatan and expanded extensively by King Lokapala, according to the Shivagrha inscription of 856 CE, the temple was built to honor Lord Shiva, and its original name was Shiva-grha or Shiva-laya.
According to the Shivagrha inscription, a water project to change the course of a river near Shivagrha Temple was undertaken during the construction of the temple. The river, identified as the Opak River, now runs north to south on the side of the Prambanan temple compound. Historians suggest that originally the river was curved further to east and was deemed too near to the main temple, the project was done by cutting the river along a north to south axis along the outer wall of the Shivagrha Temple compound. The former river course was filled in and made level to create a space for the temple expansion. Some archaeologists propose that the statue of Shiva in the garbhagriha of the temple was modelled after King Balitung, serving as a depiction of his deified self after death. The temple compound was expanded by successive Mataram kings, such as Daksa and Tulodong, Prambanan served as the royal temple of the Kingdom of Mataram, with most of the states religious ceremonies and sacrifices being conducted there.
At the height of the kingdom, scholars estimate that hundreds of brahmins with their disciples lived within the wall of the temple compound. The urban center and the court of Mataram were located nearby, in the 930s, the court was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. An eruption of Mount Merapi volcano, located north of Prambanan in central Java and that marked the beginning of the decline of the temple. It was soon abandoned and began to deteriorate, the temples collapsed during a major earthquake in the 16th century. Although the temple ceased to be an important center of worship, the statues and the ruins become the theme and the inspiration for the Loro Jonggrang folktale. As a result, the locals developed tales and legends to explain the origin of temples, infused with myths of giants, and a cursed princess. They gave Prambanan and Sewu a wondorous origin, these were said in the Loro Jonggrang legend to have created by a multitude of demons under the order of Bandung Bondowoso
Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used