Coaldale, Bedford County, Pennsylvania
Coaldale is a borough in Bedford County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. As of the 2010 census the borough population was 161; the post office serving Coaldale is called Six Mile Run. Coaldale is located in northeastern Bedford County at 40°10′4″N 78°12′58″W, it is surrounded by Broad Top Township and sits in the valley of Six Mile Run, a tributary of the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River. It is 26 miles northeast of Bedford, the county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.03 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 146 people, 57 households, 42 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,960.0 people per square mile. There were 70 housing units at an average density of 1,419.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.63% White, 0.68% African American, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.74% of the population. There were 57 households, out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were non-families.
19.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.86. In the borough the population was spread out, with 28.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $25,167, the median income for a family was $25,521. Males had a median income of $26,500 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $10,072. There were 20.5% of families and 20.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 8.6% of under eighteens and 18.2% of those over 64
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
East St. Clair Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania
East St. Clair Township is a township in Bedford County, United States; the population was 3,048 at the 2010 census. The Osterburg Covered Bridge and Snooks Covered Bridge were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980; the township is located in northwestern Bedford County. It is bordered to the north by King Township, to the northeast by South Woodbury Township, to the east by Bedford Township, to the southwest by Napier Township, to the west by West St. Clair Township, at its northernmost point by Lincoln Township, it does not include the borough of St. Clairsville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 34.1 square miles, of which 33.9 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 0.45%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,123 people, 1,198 households, 894 families residing in the township; the population density was 92.3 people per square mile. There were 1,406 housing units at an average density of 41.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.43% White, 0.51% African American, 0.03% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.26% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 1,198 households, out of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.6% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.04. In the township the population was spread out, with 26.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $34,847, the median income for a family was $38,429. Males had a median income of $28,776 versus $20,170 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,211.
About 6.6% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Cumberland Valley Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania
Cumberland Valley Township is a township in Bedford County, United States. The population was 1,597 at the 2010 census; the township is located in southern Bedford County in the Cumberland Valley, a narrow Appalachian valley bounded by Wills Mountain to the west and Evitts Mountain to the east. Evitts Creek, a tributary of the North Branch Potomac River, flows southwards through the valley, U. S. Route 220 runs through the center of the valley as well. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 60.2 square miles, of which 59.7 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles, or 0.98%, is water. Harrison Township Bedford Township Colerain Township Southampton Township Londonderry Township Allegany County, Maryland A portion of the Buchanan State Forest and portions of the Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 48 and Number 104 are located in the township; as of the census of 2000, there are 1,494 people, 596 households, 448 families residing in the township. The population density is 9.7/km².
There are 710 housing units at an average density of 4.6 persons/km². The racial makeup of the township is 99.13% White, 0.07% African American, 0.00% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.20% from two or more races. 0.27% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 596 households, out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.6% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.7% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.91. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.4 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $35,268, the median income for a family was $40,060. Males had a median income of $29,926 versus $21,023 for females; the per capita income for the township was $17,768. About 6.7% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over
Hyndman is a borough in Bedford County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 910; the first known settler in the area was Samuel Waters, who lived near Wills Creek and built a bridge across it before 1800. About 1800, Jacob Burkett and Amos Raley started a boat-building business at the settlement called Bridgeport. Boats were needed to float grain down to Maryland. In 1850, Enoch Cade opened a store, in 1865 a one-room school was opened. Samuel Miller began laying out a town on his land north of the creek. In 1871 the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad first came through the town going from Cumberland to Pittsburgh, the Bedford and Bridgeport Railroad was built from Mt. Dallas to Cumberland. In September 1877 the town was incorporated, in December of that year the town was renamed Hyndman in honor of the B&O's Connellsville Division Railroad Superintendent E. K. Hyndman; the first elected officials were Chief Burgess S. M. Wilhelm and Council members J. W. Madore, W. S. Mullin, Samuel Miller, Henry Miller.
Early industries included the manufacturing of bricks and limestone. In 1889 the National Bank of South Pennsylvania was opened in Hyndman. In 1905 the bank failed, it was purchased by J. J. Hoblitzell. In 1892 the Hyndman Water Company was completed, in 1893 the electric plant opened, the telephone exchange was begun in 1906, in 1927 a fire company was organized. A major fire in late December 1949 burned out Hyndman's business center – of frame building construction – before it was brought under control. In August 2017, a 33-car train derailment sparked fires that resulted in evacuation of most of the town's residents for several days. Hyndman is located in southwestern Bedford County at 39°49′16″N 78°43′17″W, it is surrounded by Londonderry Township. The borough sits in the valley of Wills Creek, which breaks through Savage Mountain and Little Allegheny Mountain to the west and turns south at Hyndman to flow towards Maryland. Little Wills Creek joins Wills Creek in the eastern part of the borough.
Wills Mountain rises to the east. Pennsylvania Route 96 passes through the borough as Pennsylvania Avenue, it leads north 19 miles to Schellsburg and south 7 miles to the Maryland line, from where it is 7 miles farther to Cumberland. According to the United States Census Bureau, Hyndman has a total area of 0.53 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 3.11%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,005 people, 413 households, 296 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,849.6 people per square mile. There were 448 housing units at an average density of 824.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.11% White, 0.60% Native American, 0.50% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. There were 413 households, out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families.
26.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.94. In the borough the population was spread out, with 24.2% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 21.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $27,700, the median income for a family was $34,792. Males had a median income of $28,917 versus $21,750 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $15,865. About 7.7% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over
Schellsburg is a borough in Bedford County, United States. The population was 338 at the 2010 census. Schellsburg was so named after John Schell who founded the community. John Schell's grandfather Michael Schell first arrived in Philadelphia from the Palatinate by way of Rotterdam in 1727, after which more family members arrived in 1732 and again in 1738. In 1732 when he returned with other members of his family, Michael Schell purchased a substantial tract of land where he settled with his family in the Perkiomen Valley northwest of Philadelphia, an area in Upper Hanover Township known as East Greenville, in what was Philadelphia County and became Montgomery County in 1760; the adjoining community of Hillegassville was named after its founder Johann Frederick Hillegass. His granddaughter Elizabeth Barbara Hillegass married John Schell, Jr., born in 1725 at the family homestead granted to his father John Schell, Sr. the youngest son of Michael Schell who died in 1770. At an early age, John Schell, Jr. became possessed of considerable means after his patriotic service in the Revolutionary War and his father's death in 1777.
For many years he traveled extensively on business through Bedford County, western Pennsylvania and Kentucky, admitted as a state in 1792. He was impressed by the climate and fertile soil in Kentucky, decided to remove there and select land to establish his own community for his family and friends. In the spring of 1800, John Schell and his family, consisting of his wife, eight young children and his widowed mother, left their home in Montgomery County and traveled west; when they arrived at the Ohio River, he realized that it would be unsafe for his family to traverse the river by boat due to the Indians. He returned through Napier Township in Bedford County and decided instead to settle in what is the present location of Schellsburg. On May 1, 1800, John Schell purchased large tracts of land of more than 1,500 acres, which were divided into farms and given to each of his sons with an equivalent in money and land to his daughters, his own homestead was constructed on property located outside the town of Schellsburg.
John Schell generously donated land for schools and town lots and granted parcels to the town and its citizens. In 1808 he laid out the town lots, developed the community and provided impetus for construction of the nearby turnpike as its first president. After he settled in Bedford County and neighbors in Montgomery County followed and settled in the area and the immediate vicinity. Schellsburg was incorporated as the second borough of Bedford County in 1838; the town was designated as the Schellsburg Historic District in 2001 and included on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of the town's rich architectural heritage of buildings constructed of log and stone in the 19th century. The first church in Schellsburg was Union Church, it is the oldest church structure in Bedford County. John Schell died in 1825, his wife in 1842, they are buried next to each other in the cemetery which encircles the church, surrounded by generations of family members who followed them. Now known as the Old Log Church, it was included on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005 as the Chestnut Ridge and Schellsburg Union Church and Cemetery.
It was rededicated during the Bicentennial celebration on June 24, 2006. During the celebration, a Founder's Stone was dedicated and placed at the grave of John Schell, further distinguished by a DAR marker and flag to commemorate his service in the Revolutionary War. In 1889, citrus magnate John A. Snively was born in Schellsburg. On November 22, 1964, Schellsburg made national news with "the first... four-way merger in the history of religion in the United States" when the United Church of Schellsburg held services for a congregation made up of the town's Presbyterian, Lutheran and United Church of Christ members. Schellsburg is located in western Bedford County at 40°2′55″N 78°38′38″W, it is bordered to the south by Shawnee State Park. U. S. Route 30, the Lincoln Highway, passes through the borough, leading east 9 miles to Bedford, the county seat, west 86 miles to Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania Route 96 crosses Route 30 in the center of town, leading north to New Paris and Pleasantville and south through Shawnee State Park to Manns Choice.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Schellsburg has a total area of 0.25 square miles, all of it land. Schellsburg lies on the southeast flank of Chestnut Ridge, a doubly plunging anticline of the Devonian Onondaga Formation and Old Port Formation; the contact of the Onondaga formation with the overlying Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group passes through the town. All the rocks dip to the southeast; as of the census of 2000, there are 316 people, 129 households, 91 families residing in the borough. The population density is 793.6 people per square mile. There are 148 housing units at an average density of 371.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough is 98.42% White, 0.32% Native American, 1.27% from two or more races. 0.32% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There are 129 households, out of which 27.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.1% are married couples living together, 3.9% have a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% are non-families.
24.8% of all households are made up of individuals, 14.7% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.45 and the average family size is 2.86. In the borough the population is spread out, with 21.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18