The Nushagak River is a river in southwest Alaska, United States. It begins in the Alaska Range and flows southwest 450 km to Nushagak Bay, an inlet of Bristol Bay, east of Dillingham, Alaska; the Mulchatna River is a major tributary. Other navigable tributaries include the King Salmon River. Jet-boats are used to access these tributaries and the upper Nushagak; the Iowithla River and the Kokwok River are smaller tributaries. The villages of Portage Creek, Ekwok and New Stuyahok are on the river; the town of Dillingham is on Nushagak Bay. The Nushagak River is downstream of the proposed Pebble Mine, whose tailings storage lake would sit at the headwaters of the Koktuli River, one of the Nushagak's tributaries. Villages on the Nushagak are among the major opponents of the proposal. Five species of Pacific salmon spawn in its tributaries. Commercial and sport fishing are important in the area. Most notable is the annual run of king salmon. Rainbow trout, northern pike, burbot and Arctic char are present in the Nushagak.
It is estimated that over 50% of the world's production of wild salmon is harvested in the Nushagak River and the Bristol Bay area. List of Alaska rivers Nushagak, Alaska Photos from the Nushagak River Pebble Mine Photos and Information Ekwok Alaska Airport & US Post Office on the Nushagak River
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, in Brazil. The term is used in the Australian state of Victoria; the equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar under state rather than federal administration. Local government entities below state level may maintain parks, e.g. regional parks or county parks. In general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; as of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, according to the National Association of State Park Directors.
There are some 739 million annual visits to the country's state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail, 217,367 campsites, 8,277 cabins and lodges across U. S. state parks. The largest state park system in the United States is Alaska State Parks, with over 100 sites encompassing 3.3 million acres. Many states include designations beyond "state park" in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, state nature reserves; some state park systems include historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, established in 1885; however several public parks or maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a public park since 1825, although it did not gain the title "State Park" until 1931. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the federal government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890.
In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its northern forests as "The State Park" but, needing money, sold most of it to lumber companies within 20 years. The first state park with the designation of "state park" was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, first a national park before being transferred to the state of Michigan. Many state park systems date to the 1930s, when around 800 state parks across the country were developed with assistance from federal job creation programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration. List of U. S. state parks Wilderness preservation systems in Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development." Wisconsin Magazine of History: 184-204. In JSTOR Landrum, Ney C; the State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. "Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp: 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. "The State Park Movement: 1864-1933.
"When Forests Trumped Parks: The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950." Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp: 203-224
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is a U. S. National Monument and National Preserve, consisting of the region around the Aniakchak volcano on the Aleutian Range of south-western Alaska; the 601,294-acre monument is one of the least-visited places in the National Park System due to its remote location and difficult weather. The area was proclaimed a National Monument on December 1, 1978, established as a National Monument and Preserve on December 2, 1980; the National Monument encompasses the preserve 464,118 acres. Visitation to Aniakchak is the lowest of all areas of the U. S. National Park System, according to the NPS, with only 100 documented recreational visits in 2017. Most visitors fly into Surprise Lake inside Aniakchak Crater, but the frequent fog and other adverse weather conditions make landing in the lake difficult, it is possible to fly into the nearby village of Port Heiden and proceed overland to the Aniakchak Crater. The core of the national monument lands encompasses the 6-mile wide Aniakchak Crater.
The high point on the caldera rim is Aniakchak Peak. The lake within the caldera, Surprise Lake, is the source of the Aniakchak River. Multiple rivers within the caldera flow into Surprise Lake to form it. In addition to Surprise Lake, the other prominent feature inside the caldera is Vent Mountain, the site of the most recent eruption within the caldera; the preserve lands flank the monument on either side. Subsistence hunting is allowed in both the monument and preserve, sport hunting is allowed in the preserve; the region was unexplored until the 1920s, when exploration for oil brought reports of an un-described volcano. A moderate eruption in 1931 forming Vent Mountain resulted in significant publicity, spurring studies to declare the region a national monument, it was not until 1978 that a monument was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter under the Antiquities Act. The monument and preserve were established within their final boundaries in 1980 with the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act.
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is located about 450 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, on the Alaska Peninsula. It is not accessible by road, except from Port Heiden, a nearby village, only to the outer flanks of the caldera; the only ways to reach the monument are by floatplane to lakes Surprise Lake, or sheltered coastal waters, or by boat or airplane to coastal towns near preserve lands followed by overland or overwater traverse. There are no permanent facilities in the monument and the NPS does not require visitor registration. Visitor services are provided by the interagency King Salmon Visitor Center in King Salmon, shared with Lake Clark National Park, Katmai National Park and Preserve, other National Park Service and U. S. Fish and Alaska local and state agencies; the monument adjoins the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge on its northeast and southwest sides. Monument lands amount to 137,000 acres, preserve lands 465,000 acres; the national monument is centered on the 6-mile diameter crater of ancient Mount Aniakchak, destroyed and the resulting crater formed during a caldera collapse event about 3,700 years ago.
The original mountain, about 7,000 feet tall, collapsed into its magma chamber, leaving an approximate 3,300-foot deep summit crater. The monument and surrounding preserve include the volcanic feature, the wild Aniakchak River, the Bristol Bay coastal habitat, portions of the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Prominent features within Aniakchak crater include the Gates and Vent Mountain; the monument and preserve include four major physiographic regions. The monument is centered on the mountains of the Aleutian Aniakchak Crater; the volcano's caldera presents an active volcanic and geothermal landscape and Surprise Lake, the source of the Aniakchak River. Extending outward from the mountains are the glacially altered river valleys; the coastline region extends for 52 miles along the southeastern side of the peninsula where it faces the Pacific Ocean. The mountain spine of the Aleutian Range consists of uplifted mountains of moderate height, reaching 2,500 metres; the mountain environment is predominantly alpine tundra.
Superimposed on the mountain chain are a series of volcanoes, the largest of, the remnant of Mount Aniakchak, now collapsed into its caldera, the floor of which lies about 1,100 feet above sea level. The caldera was once filled by a crater lake that covered about 50% of the crater; the caldera wall was breached, leading to a catastrophic flood as the lake drained. Its remnant is the source of the Aniakchak River; the river valley zones are subdivided into northwestern areas. On the southeast side, the rivers fall steeply through volcanic ash deposits where vegetation has recolonized the areas devastated by the volcano's eruption. On the northwest side, the rivers are more sloped and the land is boggy with lush vegetation; the southeast coastal region is indented, with coastal cliffs and islands. Three large bays are the remnants of earlier volcanic craters; the two larger bays are Aniakchak and Amber Bays, the smaller is Kejulik Bay. All have
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve is an American national park in southwest Alaska, about 100 miles southwest of Anchorage. The park was first proclaimed a national monument in 1978 established as a national park and preserve in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; the park includes many streams and lakes vital to the Bristol Bay salmon fishery, including its namesake Lake Clark. A wide variety of recreational activities may preserve year-round; the park protects rainforests along the coastline of Cook Inlet, alpine tundra, glacial lakes, major salmon-bearing rivers, two volcanoes, Mount Redoubt and Mount Iliamna. Mount Redoubt is active, erupting in 1989 and 2009; the wide variety of ecosystems in the park mean that all major Alaskan animals and marine, may be seen in and around the park. Salmon sockeye salmon, play a major role in the ecosystem and the local economy; the Kvichak River is the world's most productive watershed for sockeye salmon. Large populations of brown bears are attracted to feed on the spawning salmon in the Kijik River and at Silver Salmon Creek.
Bear watching is a common activity in the park. No roads lead to the park which can only be reached by boat or small aircraft floatplanes; the major settled area in the park and preserve is Port Alsworth on Lake Clark. Five other settlements are within the park, populated by Dena'ina natives. Prior to the park's establishment, isolated cabins were scattered around the region, the most well-known belonging to Richard Proenneke, whose films documenting his solitary life at Twin Lakes were made into Alone in the Wilderness in 2003. Lake Clark was proclaimed a national monument by President Jimmy Carter using the Antiquities Act on December 1, 1978. Lake Clark's status was changed to national park and preserve in 1980 by Congress, about two-thirds was designated wilderness. While both sport and subsistence hunting are permitted in the national preserve lands, only subsistence hunting by local residents is permitted within the national park. Lake Clark National Park and Preserve covers 4,030,015 acres at the base of the Alaska Peninsula in southcentral Alaska, about 100 miles southwest of Anchorage.
Of the total area, about 2,637,000 acres lie in 1,400,000 acres in the preserve. The park and associated national preserve extend from the Cook Inlet across the Chigmit Mountains and the Neacola Mountains, on the northern end of the Aleutian Range, on into the Alaska interior. Lake Clark is the largest lake in the park, on the southwest corner of the park; the national preserve lands adjoin park lands on the west, offering both subsistence and sport hunting, in contrast to parklands, where only subsistence hunting by local residents is allowed. The extreme southwest section of the preserve includes Alaskan Native corporation lands, which are not open to the public. Most of the park section is designated as wilderness; the eastern part of the park near the Cook Inlet includes two active volcanoes, Mount Redoubt and Mount Iliamna. A third, Mount Spurr, is just outside the park to the east; the chief river in the park is the Kvichak River. Another large river, the Tlikakila River, runs across the park from its source at Summit Lake to Lake Clark, emerging from the lake and the park as the Newhalen River.
The park is not accessible by roads. Access is by air taxi or by boat along the Cook Inlet coast and Lake Clark. Since much of the movement in the area is by air, the mountains present a significant barrier to air traffic. Lake Clark Pass, at 1,050 feet provides a way through the mountains by air at low elevation, is the main route between Anchorage and western Alaska; the main inhabited place in the park is Port Alsworth on Lake Clark, with a Park Service visitor center and a number of operated lodges. Air taxis make regular trips between outside communities. Other private lodges are scattered around the park; the park has four main physiographic regions. The upthrust granite Chigmit Mountains connect the Alaska Range to the Aleutian Range. Superimposed on these mountains and little to the east of the main range are the two stratovolcanoes, Redoubt 10,197 feet high, Iliamna at 10,016 feet. Glaciers have altered the mountains, carving cirques and U-shaped valleys into the range, which end abruptly on the east at the steep coast in deep bays or in outwash flats.
On the west the glaciers have cut enough to create lakes, dammed by terminal moraines at their downstream ends. Lake Clark, the largest, is the sixth largest lake in Alaska, 42 miles long; the park includes a variety of unrelated rocks. The core of the Chigmit Mountains is a granite pluton forced upwards by the collision of the Pacific plate and the North American plate. Rocks in coastal areas are sedimentary in origin, contain abundant fossils. Volcanic rocks intrude through these native rocks. Redoubt is the park's active volcano. 10,197 feet high, about 10 kilometres in diameter and with a volume of about 30 to 35 cubic kilometers, the stratovolcano rises through the Chigmit batholith. It has a 1.8-kilometre wide summit crater. The Drift Glacier flows through a gap in the rim. Redoubt's most recent active phase began on December 1989, with ash eruptions; the ash clouds affected air traffic, causing all four engines to fail on KLM Flight 867 when it passed overhead at 25,000 feet. The 747 was able to safely return to Anchorage.
Four other airplanes were damaged in the same event, which brought greater awareness of the hazards associated with high-altitude volcanic ash. Redoubt was quiet aft
Noatak National Preserve
Noatak National Preserve is a United States National Preserve in northwestern Alaska, established to protect the Noatak River Basin. The Noatak River system, located just north of the Arctic Circle, is thought to be the last remaining complete river system in the United States that has not been altered by human activities; the roadless basin was proclaimed a United States National Monument in 1978 and a National Preserve in 1980 through the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Noatak National Preserve borders Kobuk Valley National Park on the south and borders Gates of the Arctic National Park on the east. Unlike the national parks that it borders, sport hunting is allowed in Noatak National Preserve; the preserve includes the transition zone from boreal forest to tundra near the southern edge of the preserve. The Noatak Basin is a transition zone for plants and animals between Arctic and subarctic environments; the lower portion of the Noatak valley has areas of boreal forest, but most vegetation is low-growing tundra species.
Alpine tundra occurs at high elevation, moist tundra, the most common condition, supports cottongrass, Labrador tea, mountain alder, dwarf birch and other tundra species at lower elevations. Boggy areas support bog rosemary and salmonberry. Wildlife of the Noatak tundra includes Alaskan moose, grizzly bears, black bears, wolf packs, Arctic foxes, Dall's sheep, vast herds of caribou numbering more than 230,000 individuals, a variety of birds. Larger birds include Canada geese, tundra swans, white-fronted geese and common, yellow-billed and Pacific loons. Predatory birds include rough-legged hawks and golden eagles; the central feature of the preserve is the Noatak River, is a breeding ground for a variety of commercially important fish. The most widespread salmon species is chum, pink and sockeye salmon are found as well. Several kinds of trout are found in deep lakes, with Arctic char and Arctic grayling the most common salmonids in the preserve. Burbot are found, as are nelma or sheefish, an important species for subsistence fisheries.
The Brooks Range has existed since Cretaceous time, is composed of shales and chert, with intrusions of igneous rocks from more recent volcanism. The valleys are composed of limestone and siltstone, with deposits of sand, gravel and clay. During the Wisconsonian glaciation the area as incompletely covered by ice, with higher regions glaciated. Permafrost exists in higher regions. Since Noatak is a national preserve, both subsistence hunting by local residents and sport hunting by outsiders are permitted in the preserve. If Noatak was a national park, only subsistence hunting would be allowed. Float trips on the Noatak River are a popular way to see the preserve. However, most trips on the Noatak River take place high on the river in Gates of the Arctic National Park from Twelve Mile Creek to Lake Matcherak. Longer trips can continue through the preserve, although the lower river's braided stream presents difficulties beyond Noatak village. There are a few rapids on the river of Class II+, although most of the river is Class I or Class II.
Float trip season runs from July, when the river thaws, to September. Biting insects are most prevalent in July; the 6,569,904-acre preserve extends westward from Gates of the Arctic National Park along the Brooks Range to the north and the Baird Mountains to the south, enclosing the valley of the Noatak River. It is bordered to the north by the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska; the lower valley of the Noatak is not part of the preserve, separating the preserve from Cape Krusenstern National Monument on the coast. The southeast corner of the preserve runs to the coastline at Hotham Inlet; the distance from the headwaters in Gates of the Arctic National Park to Noatak, Alaska is about 3,540 miles. Land ownership within the preserve is federal, with 289,973 acres owned by native corporations or under easements; the entire preserve is above the Arctic Circle. Summer weather can have high temperatures of 70 to 80 °F; the climate is more maritime and temperate on the western side of the park, with harsher, more extreme conditions in the east.
Archaeological investigations of the Noatak Valley have found artifacts at sites outside of the preserve. Little has been found within the preserve boundaries. A site just outside the preserve has been dated to 11,700 years before present. Discoveries at Bering Land Bridge National Preserve imply human occupation as far back as 13,000 years ago. Similar extrapolation from sites at Cape Krusenstern and at Onion Portage in the Kobuk Valley imply occupation in times. In historical times the Naupaktomiut portion of the Inupiat people lived in the lower Noatak valley and the Noatagmuit occupied the middle and upper valley. Hunters from the area of Kotzebue and the Kobuk valley visited the Noatak valley as well. Archaeological remains indicate the presence of villages at lake shores in the preserve during the 1600s, which are believed to have been disrupted by disease-induced population decline brought about by contact with Europeans; the lower Noatak was first explored in 1850 by men from the British survey ship HMS Plover.
More surveys took place in 1885. Prospectors arrived in 1898 as a consequence of the Klondike gold rush. In the early 1900s nearly all of the remaining people in the valley concentrated at Noatak. Noatak National Monument was proclaimed on December 1, 1978 by President Jimmy Carter using his authority under the Antiquities Act. Carter took the action after the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Ac