Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In Britain, cranberry may refer to the native species Vaccinium oxycoccos, while in North America, cranberry may refer to Vaccinium macrocarpon. Vaccinium oxycoccos is cultivated in central and northern Europe, while Vaccinium macrocarpon is cultivated throughout the northern United States and Chile. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right, they can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Cranberries are low, creeping vines up to 2 meters long and 5 to 20 centimeters in height; the flowers are dark pink, with distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees; the fruit is a berry, larger than the leaves of the plant. It is edible, but with an acidic taste that overwhelms its sweetness. In 2016, 98% of world production of cranberries resulted from the United States and Chile.
Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to turkey at Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom, at Christmas and Thanksgiving dinners in the United States and Canada. There are three to four species of cranberry, classified into two sections: Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccusVaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America, it has small 5–10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems; the fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavor. Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus occurs in northern North America, northern Europe and northern Asia, differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being more triangular, the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos.
Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus native to northern North America across Canada, eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger, 10–20 mm long, in its apple-like taste. Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccoidesVaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, in eastern Asia. Cranberries are related to bilberries and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium; these differ in having bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed, woodier stems, forming taller shrubs. Some plants of the unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes called "highbush cranberries". Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey; the name, derives from the German, first named as cranberry in English by the missionary John Eliot in 1647.
Around 1694, German and Dutch colonists in New England used the word, cranberry, to represent the expanding flower, stem and petals resembling the neck and bill of a crane. The traditional English name for the plant more common in Europe, Vaccinium oxycoccos, originated from plants with small red berries found growing in fen lands of England. In North America, the Narragansett people of the Algonquian nation in the regions of New England appeared to be using cranberries in pemmican for food and for dye. Calling the red berries, the Narragansett people may have introduced cranberries to colonists in Massachusetts. In 1550, James White Norwood made reference to Native Americans using cranberries. In James Rosier's book The Land of Virginia there is an account of Europeans coming ashore and being met with Native Americans bearing bark cups full of cranberries. In Plymouth, there is a 1633 account of the husband of Mary Ring auctioning her cranberry-dyed petticoat for 16 shillings. In 1643, Roger Williams's book A Key Into the Language of America described cranberries, referring to them as "bearberries" because bears ate them.
In 1648, preacher John Elliott was quoted in Thomas Shepard's book Clear Sunshine of the Gospel with an account of the difficulties the Pilgrims were having in using the Indians to harvest cranberries as they preferred to hunt and fish. In 1663, the Pilgrim cookbook appears with a recipe for cranberry sauce. In 1667, New Englanders sent to King Charles ten barrels of cranberries, three barrels of codfish and some Indian corn as a means of appeasement for his anger over their local coining of the Pine Tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb had a banquet in his house, serving wild turkey with sauce made from wild cranberries. In the 1672 book New England Rarities Discovered author John Josselyn described cranberries, writing: Sauce for the Pilgrims, cranberry or bearberry, is a small trayling plant that grows in salt marshes that are overgrown with moss; the berries are of a pale yellow color, afterwards red, as big as a cherry, some round, others oval, all of them hollow with sower as
St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota)
The St. Croix River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 169 miles long, in the U. S. states of Minnesota. The lower 125 miles of the river form the border between Minnesota; the river is a National Scenic Riverway under the protection of the National Park Service. A hydroelectric plant at St. Croix Falls supplies power to the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area; the St. Croix River rises in the northwestern corner of Wisconsin, out of Upper St. Croix Lake in Douglas County, near Solon Springs 20 miles south of Lake Superior, it flows south to Gordon southwest. It is joined by the Namekagon River in northern Burnett County, where it becomes wider. A few miles downstream the St. Croix meets the boundary between Minnesota and Wisconsin, which it demarcates for another 130 miles until its confluence with the Mississippi River. Other major tributaries include the Kettle River, Snake River, Sunrise River joining from the west, the Apple River, Willow River, Kinnickinnic River joining from the east.
Just below Stillwater, Minnesota the river widens into Lake St. Croix, joins the Mississippi River at Prescott, Wisconsin 20 miles southeast of St. Paul, Minnesota; the St. Croix River was one of the original eight rivers to have significant portions placed under protection by the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968; the upper reaches of the river in Wisconsin below the St. Croix Flowage, 15 miles downstream from its source, as well as the Namekagon River, are protected as the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; the free-flowing nature of the river is interrupted only by a hydroelectric dam operated by the Northern States Power Company at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin; the lower 27 miles below the dam, including both sides of the river along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, were protected as part of the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; this area includes the Dalles of the St. Croix River, a scenic gorge located near Interstate Park, south of St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Although the addition of an interstate bridge connected to MN Highway 36 was objected to by residents, nearby communities, conservation groups, the National Park Service, construction of the bridge was authorized by amending the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.
Light and noise pollution are concerns of those opposed to the bridge, who cites the original act that kept such activity to the south along the Interstate 94 corridor. The St. Croix Crossing bridge was completed in August 2017; the St. Croix River Association is a watershed-wide non-profit advocating for conservation throughout the watershed. Founded in 1911 as an all-volunteer citizens group, it has evolved into a staffed, mature nonprofit organization and official "friends group" of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, its mission is to protect and celebrate the St. Croix River and its watershed. Father Louis Hennepin wrote in 1683, from information provided by Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut: "There is another River which falls... into the Meschasipi... We named it The River of the Grave, or Mausoleum, because the Savages buried there one of their Men..., bitten by a Rattlesnake." In the original French, this is translated as "Rivière Tombeaux". Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's 1688 map recorded a "Fort St. Croix" on the upper reaches of the river.
The name "Rivière de Sainte-Croix" was applied to the river sometime in 1688 or 1689, this more auspicious name supplanted Father Hennepin's earlier designation. On Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi by Guillaume Delisle and on A Map of North America by John Blair, the St. Croix River—more what was known as the east branch of the St. Croix River —is shown as the Ouasisacadeba, a French representation of the Dakota name for the St. Croix River. On the 1778 Mitchell Map, the river is titled "Ouadeba", which represents the Dakota watpá meaning "river"; the upper portion of river—originally called the north branch of the St. Croix River—was known to the Ojibwa as Manoominikeshiinh-ziibi. Downstream of its confluence with the Namekagon, the Ojibwa renamed the river as Gichi-ziibi or Okijii-ziibi At the time of European settlement of the valley and Ojibwe were engaged in a long and deadly war with each other; the portion of the river below the confluence with Trade River is called Jiibayaatig-ziibi in the Ojibwe language, reinforcing the earlier "Rivière Tombeaux" name in their language.
On Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin by John Farmer, the St. Croix River is shown as the "Chippewa River". However, by 1843, Joseph Nicollet's Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River reinforced the name provided by Franquelin's 1688 map; the river is the result of geologic forces going back 1.1 billion years. At that time, the Mid-Continent Rift rendered the middle of North America apart, creating a volcanic zone; the lava spewed forth cooled into hard basalt. That basalt is. About 500 million years ago, a shallow sea covered the area, laying down layers of sand and minerals that make up much of the sandstone bluffs now seen along the river. In the last 20,000 years, glaciers have scraped the landscape and released torrents of meltwater, which carved the St. Croix River's course; the river has been home to people for thousands of years. A bison kill site in May Township, Washington County, Minnesota is believed to be about 4,000 years old. An Oneota village from about 1200 A.
D. has been studied
Polk County, Wisconsin
Polk County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,205, its county seat is Balsam Lake. The county was created in 1853. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 956 square miles, of which 914 square miles is land and 42 square miles is water. Burnett County - north Barron County - east Dunn County - southeast St. Croix County - south Washington County, Minnesota - southwest Chisago County, Minnesota - west Amery Municipal Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. L. O. Simenstad Municipal Airport. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the 2000 census, there were 41,319 people, 16,254 households, 11,329 families residing in the county; the population density was 45 people per square mile. There were 21,129 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.64% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 1.06% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races.
0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.4% were of German, 18.6% Norwegian, 11.3% Swedish, 5.5% Irish and 5.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 16,254 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. Amery St. Croix Falls Lewis Arnold Franz Brasz, a prominent painter and printmaker was born in Polk County on July 19, 1888 George A. Nelson — the 1936 candidate for Vice President of the United States of the Socialist Party of America was born in rural Polk County and was a dairy farmer there.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Wisconsin Prentice, Worthy A. Reminiscences of Early Pioneer Days in Polk County. Balsam Lake, Wis,: Polk County Ledger, n.d.. Polk County website Polk County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Polk County Economic Development Corporation Polk County Tourism
Wisconsin Highway 70
State Trunk Highway 70 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. It runs east–west in northern Wisconsin from a shared terminus with WIS 101 at US 2 and US 141 near Florence to a connection with Minnesota State Highway 70 at the St. Croix River 5 miles west of Grantsburg in Burnett County, it serves the communities of Grantsburg, Siren and the resort areas of Minocqua and Eagle River along its route. WIS 70 is the third most northern route to completely cross Wisconsin, stretching from Minnesota to within 4 miles of the Michigan border. STH-70 began in 1917 as a 10-mile route along its present alignment from Grantsburg easterly to STH-35 at Mud Hen Lake, west of Siren. By 1921, the STH-70 designation had made its way all the way east to STH-32 in Eagle River, although the portion from Draper to Woodruff was not yet up to state trunk highway standards and thus was not signed as such on that stretch; that gap was filled by 1924. In 1929, the Grantsburg bridge was completed and STH-70 was extended westerly from Grantsburg to the new toll bridge over the St Croix River at the Minnesota state line.
In 1933, Minnesota designated a similarly-numbered highway west away from the bridge into their state. 1933 saw the extension of STH-70 from Eagle River northeasterly via Phelps to end at the Michigan state line 26 miles northeast of Eagle River. In 1947, STH-70 was removed from the Eagle River-through-Phelps alignment and onto a more easterly routing to STH-55 south of Alvin. In 1949, STH-70 was extended farther to the east via its present corridor through Tipler to Florence; the Tipler-to-Florence stretch had just been brought into the state highway system as STH-193 two years earlier. According to a local road map, sometime before 1968 WI 70 ran up Sawyer County Trunk EE and Price County Trunk E into Park Falls, it ran south concurrently with Wisconsin Highway 13 to Fifield, where it turned east somewhat along its current alignment
Tilia americana is a species of tree in the family Malvaceae, native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick, southwest to northeast Oklahoma, southeast to South Carolina, west along the Niobrara River to Cherry County, Nebraska. Common names include American American linden; the tree has never prospered there, being prone to dieback. The American basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 18 to 37 m exceptionally 39 m with a trunk diameter of 1–1.5 m at maturity. It grows faster than many North American hardwoods twice the annual growth rate of American beech and many birch species. Life expectancy is around 200 years, with flowering and seeding occurring between 15 and 100 years, though seed production may start as early as 8 years; the crown is domed, the branches spreading pendulous. The bark is gray to light brown, with narrow, well defined fissures; the roots are large and spreading. The twigs are smooth, reddish-green, becoming light gray in their second year dark brown or brownish gray, marked with dark wart-like excrescences.
The winter buds are stout, ovate-acute, deep red, with two bud scales visible. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, ovate to cordate, unequal at the base, 10–15 cm long and broad, with a long, slender petiole, a coarsely serrated margin and an acuminate apex. Bean noted that enormous leaves measuring 38 cm or 15 in long by 25 cm or 10 in wide appear on thick, succulent shoots, they open from the bud conduplicate, pale green, downy. The fall color is yellow-green to yellow. Both the twigs and leaves contain mucilaginous sap; the flowers are small, yellowish-white, 10–14 mm in diameter, arranged in drooping, cymose clusters of 6–20 with a whitish-green leaf-like bract attached for half its length at the base of the cyme. They are perfect, with five sepals and petals, numerous stamens, a five-celled superior ovary. Flowering is in early to mid summer; the fruit is a small, downy and dry cream-colored nutlet with a diameter of 8–10 mm. American basswood is dominant in the sugar maple–basswood forest association, most common in western Wisconsin and central Minnesota, but occurs as far east as New England and southern Quebec in places that have mesic soil with high pH.
It has minor occurrence in many other forest cover types. Its flowers provide abundant nectar for insects; the seeds are eaten by chipmunks and squirrels. Rabbits and voles eat the bark, sometimes girdling young trees; the leaves serve as food for caterpillars of various Lepidoptera. The ribbed cocoon maker species Bucculatrix improvisa has not been found on other plants; this species is susceptible to adult Japanese beetles that feed on its leaves. The American basswood can be propagated by cuttings and grafting as well as by seed. Propagated plants grow in a rich soil, but are susceptible to many pests; the American basswood is known for being one of the most difficult native North American trees to propagate from seed, as they not only have a low viability rate, but develop an hard seed coating that may delay germination for up to two years. If planting them, it is recommended to gather the seeds in early autumn and sow them before they dry out and form a coating; this will allow germination to occur immediately.
Overall, seeds are not a major part of the tree's reproductive strategy and it instead spreads by self-coppicing. All juvenile basswoods coppice readily, old trees will sprout from the stump if cut; the American basswood is recommended as an ornamental tree when the mass of foliage or a deep shade is desired. It is planted on the windward side of an orchard as a protection to young and delicate trees, it is cultivated at least as far north as Alaska. The foliage and flowers are both edible, it is a beneficial species for attracting pollinators as well. Bees produce excellent honey with a mildly spicy flavor from its blossoms. Cultivars include'Nova','Duros', the pyramidal'Frontyard' and the conic-crowned'Redmond'; the wood is sometimes nearly white or faintly tinged with red. It has a poor steam-bending classification, it can take stains and polish without difficulty and it planes, glues and nails well. It is sold under the name basswood, but is sometimes confounded with tulip-wood and called white-wood, is used in the manufacture of wooden-ware, wagon boxes and furniture.
It has a density of 0.4525. The wood is considered odorless; this makes it valuable in the manufacture of wooden-ware, cheap furniture, bodies of carriages. The inner bark is tough and fibrous, used in the past for making ropes, it is a common wood for use in the production of solid-body electric guitars, where it is considered an analogue for aspen and poplar, because it is light and resonant, though it is used for guitars that will be pa
Burnett County, Wisconsin
Burnett County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,457, its county seat is Siren, with the majority of county governmental services located at the Burnett County Government Center. The county was created in 1856 and organized in 1865. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 880 square miles, of which 872 square miles is land and 58 square miles is water. Saginaw Lake is located in the county, south of the Namekagon River. Douglas County – northeast Washburn County – east Barron County – southeast Polk County – south Chisago County, Minnesota – southwest Pine County, Minnesota – west Highway 35 Highway 48 Highway 70 Highway 77 Highway 87 Burnett County Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. Grantsburg Municipal Airport enhances county service. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the census of 2000, there were 15,674 people, 6,613 households, 4,503 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile.
There were 12,582 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.25% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 4.45% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.9 % were of 15.4 % Swedish, 12.8 % Norwegian and 6.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 6,613 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.80. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 28.40% from 45 to 64, 20.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. Burnett County is one of only three Wisconsin counties, it is the only Wisconsin county to have villages but no cities. Grantsburg Siren Webster Danbury Burnett County Airport National Register of Historic Places listings in Burnett County, Wisconsin USS Burnett County Peet, Ed. L. Burnett County, Wisconsin: A Pamphlet Descriptive of Northern Wisconsin in General and of Burnett County in Detail. Grantsburg, Wis.: Burnett County Board of Immigration, 1902. Burnett County government website Burnett County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Brief History of Burnett County Fort Folle Avoine Historical Park
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed