The London Wall was the defensive wall first built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the River Thames in what is now London and subsequently maintained until the 18th century. It is now the name of a road in the City of London running along part of the course of the old wall between Wormwood Street and the Rotunda junction where St. Martin's Le Grand meets Aldersgate Street; until the Middle Ages, the wall defined the boundaries of the City of London. Although the exact reason for the wall's construction is unknown, the wall appears to have been built in the late 2nd or early 3rd century; this was around 80 years after the construction in 120 AD of the city's fort, whose north and west walls were thickened and doubled in height to form part of the new city wall. It continued to be developed until at least the end of the 4th century, making it among the last major building projects undertaken by the Romans before the Roman departure from Britain in 410.
Reasons for its construction may have been connected to the invasion of northern Britain by Picts who overran Hadrian's Wall in the 180s. It may be linked to the political crisis that emerged in late 2nd century when the governor of Britain Clodius Albinus was consolidating his power after claiming the right of succession as Roman emperor. After a struggle with his rival, Septimius Severus, Albinus was defeated in 197 AD at the Battle of Lugdunum; the economic stimulus provided by the wall and Septimius's subsequent campaigns in Scotland improved Londinium's financial prosperity in the early 3rd century. The wall's gateways coincided with their alignment to the British network of Roman roads; the original gates, clockwise from Ludgate in the west to Aldgate, in the east were: Ludgate, Cripplegate and Aldgate. Aldersgate, between Newgate and Cripplegate, was added around 350 AD.. The length and size of the wall made it one of the biggest construction projects in Roman Britain; the completed wall, which had gateways and defensive ditches, was built from Kentish ragstone, brought by barge from quarries near Maidstone.
It was 2 mi long enclosing an area of about 330 acres. It was 2.5 m to 3 m wide and up to 6 m ) high. The ditch or fossa in front of the outer wall was up to 5 m wide. There were at least 22 towers spaced about 64 m apart on the eastern section of the wall. After Londinium was raided on several occasions by Saxon pirates in the late 3rd century, construction of an additional riverside wall began in 280 AD. With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Londinium ceased to be the capital of Britannia although Romano-British culture continued in the St Martin-in-the-Fields area until around 450. However, the defences must have retained some of their former formidable strength because the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that the Romano-British retreated back to London after their bloody defeat at the battle of Crecganford at the hands of Hengist and Horsa, leaders of the Saxon invaders. From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed in the same area to the west of the old abandoned Roman city.
But by about 680, London had revived sufficiently to become a major Saxon port. However, the upkeep of the wall was not maintained and London fell victim to two successful Viking assaults in 851 and 886 AD. In 886 AD the west-Saxon king, Alfred the Great, formally agreed to the terms of the Danish warlord, concerning the area of political and geographical control, acquired by the incursion of the Vikings. Within the eastern and northern part of England with its boundary stretching from London to Chester, the Scandinavians would establish Danelaw. In the same year, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls; this was part Alfred's policy of building an in-depth defence of the Kingdom of Wessex against the Vikings as well as creating an offensive strategy against the Vikings who controlled Mercia. The Burghal Hidage of Southwark was created on the southbank of the River Thames during this time.
The city walls of London were repaired as the city grew until about 950 when urban activity increased dramatically. A large Viking army that attacked the London burgh was defeated in 994. By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester had been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, it was developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."The size and importance of London led to the redevelopment of the city's defences. During the early medieval period – following the Norman Conquest of England – the walls underwent substantial work that included crenellations, additional gates and further towers and bastions. Aside from the seven City Wall gates and the four bars, there are the 13 water-gates on the Thames where goods were unloaded from ships.
These include Bridge Gate. Additionally there were pedestrian-only gates such as Tower Gate and the postern gate at the Tower of London; as London continued to grow throughout the medieval period, urban development grew beyond the city walls. This expansion led
City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. The City is the historic core of the much wider metropolis of Greater London, with an ancient and sui generis form of local government, which avoided the many local government reforms elsewhere in the country in the 19th and 20th centuries. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two council bodies: the now ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council; the wards are a survival of the medieval governmental system that allowed small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City, they had their boundaries changed in 2003, to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, the most senior official or representative in the ward; the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years.
They now customarily retire at 70, the same retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen. One of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year; the Lord Mayor holds many ancient positions and privileges. The Lord Mayor continues to be the alderman of their ward during and after their term of office, though there is a period of purdah whilst in office, during this period their appointed deputy will take their role within the ward; the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one; this is an ancient elected office, now ceremonial, in that they accompany their alderman on the eight high ceremonial occasions in the City's civic calendar and in attending to call to order the wardmote, an annual meeting in each ward of electors and officials.
These should not be confused with the beadles of the livery companies of the City, who are employees of them. The ward's alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the common councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor. There are ward clubs, which are similar to residents' associations found elsewhere in the country, but because these have membership open to those without an electoral qualification in the ward they have become social clubs as part of the City's general civic social life along with the guilds and liveries. There are twenty-two of these. Confusingly, there is a'United Wards Club', formed before many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, based at the Guildhall, though wards can appoint an honorary ward clerk in addition; the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, the chief executive of the Corporation.
Particular churches, livery halls and other historic buildings and institutions are associated with specific wards, such as St Paul's Cathedral with Castle Baynard ward, Vintners' Hall with Vintry ward, the insurance markets with Lime Street ward, London Bridge with Bridge ward. Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these connected places from their wards, but that boundary review and the current review do take into account of these historic/traditional connections; the City of London Police use the wards in their day-to-day neighbourhood policing, as well as in recording crime and other statistics, with each ward having a constable assigned, known as the Ward Constable, with the larger wards having Assistant Ward Constables in addition. In 1322 it was settled that an assembly consisting of two people elected from each ward would create ordinances for the whole City; the Common Council as we know it today, as a representative body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the City's guilds no longer elected members.
The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, but is today fixed at 100. Each ward was divided into precincts; as the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased. The precincts have now been abolished; the wards are ancient and their number has only changed three times since their creation in time immemorial. Their number was stated as 24 in the year 1206. In 1394 Farringdon was divided into Farringdon Without. In 1550 the ward of Bridge Without was created south of the river, with the ward of Bridge becoming Bridge Within; these two wards were merged into the present-day Bridge ward. Thus the number of wards was 24 prior to 1394, 25 from 1394 to 1550 26 from 1550 to 1978, has been 25 since 1978; the words "Without" and "Within" indicate whether the ward fell outside or within the London Wall, though only Farringdon and Bridge have been split into separate wards in this way (Bridge Without
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
88 Wood Street
88 Wood Street is a commercial skyscraper in London, located on Wood Street in the City of London. The architect was the Richard Rogers Partnership, now known as Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, the director in charge was Graham Stirk; the building was constructed between 1993 and 2001. The 18-storey structure has an office space of 33,000 m2. "Positive Reinforcement" in Estates Gazette, by Jeremy Melvin. November 14, 1998. "Building Review – 88 Wood Street, London EC2 – Rogers Returns: Fourteen years after the Lloyd's building, Richard Rogers Partnership" in Building by Martin Spring. January 24, 2000. Media related to 88 Wood Street at Wikimedia Commons 88 Wood Street on the Great Buildings website 88 Wood Street on the Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners website
The London Encyclopaedia
The London Encyclopaedia, first published in 1983, is a 1100-page historical reference work, on the United Kingdom's capital city, London. The encyclopaedia covers the Greater London area; the first edition of the encyclopaedia was compiled over a number of years by antiquarian bookseller Ben Weinreb and by the historian Christopher Hibbert and was subsequently revised in 1993, 1995, 2008. It has around 5,000 articles, supported by two indices - one general and one listing people, each of about 10,000 entries - and is published by Macmillan. In 2012, an app was developed by Heuristic-Media, released as London—A City Through Time. Toby Evetts and Simon Reeves, partners in Heuristic-Media, discussed the development of the app with The Guardian in 2013, describing how 4,500 entries had to be plotted onto a guide map by hand; the encyclopaedia builds on a number of earlier publications, including: Survey of London by John Stow, 1598. The Survey of London — a multi-volume publication originated in 1894 by Charles Robert Ashbee, adopted first by the London County Council the Greater London Council, now domiciled with English Heritage.
Handbook for London by Peter Cunningham, 1849. London Past and Present by Wheatley and Peter Cunningham, 1891; the Encyclopaedia of Oxford – edited by Christopher Hibbert A London Encyclopaedia – a general encyclopaedia published in London in 1829 The Survey of London at British History Online
Cripplegate was a gate in the London Wall and a name for the region of the City of London outside the gate. The area was entirely destroyed in the Blitz of World War II and today it is the site of the Barbican Estate and Barbican Centre; the name is preserved in the church of St Giles-without-Cripplegate, in the Cripplegate ward of the City, in a small road named Cripplegate Street which lies to the north of the site of the Wall between Viscount Street and Bridgewater Street. The ward of Cripplegate straddles the former line of the Wall and the old gate, remains divided into "Within" and "Without" parts, with a beadle and a deputy appointed for each part. Since the 1994 and 2003 boundary changes, most of the ward is Without, with the ward of Bassishaw having expanded into the Within area. In 1068, a burial site in Cripplegate, where Jewin Street now stands, was the only place in England where Jews were permitted to be buried; those living elsewhere in the country were forced, at great expense and inconvenience, to bring their dead there.
In 1555, John Gresham endowed the new Gresham's School in Norfolk with three tenements in the parish of St. Giles Without Cripplegate, including'The White Hind' and'The Peacock'. During the Second World War the Cripplegate area, a centre of the rag trade, was destroyed and by 1951 the resident population of the City stood at only 5,324, of whom 48 lived in Cripplegate. Discussions began in 1952 about the future of the area, the decision to build new residential properties was taken by the Court of Common Council on 19 September 1957; the area was reopened as the Barbican Estate in 1969. Following a boundary change in 1994, the Golden Lane Estate was transferred from Islington to the City, so Cripplegate is today the most populous of the four residential wards of the City, with a population of 2,782; the origins of the gate's name are unclear. One theory, bolstered by a mentioning of the gate in the fourth law code of Æthelred the Unready and a charter of William the Conqueror from 1068 under the name "Crepelgate", is that it is named for the Anglo-Saxon word crepel, meaning for a covered or underground passageway.
Another unsubstantiated theory suggests. The name of the nearby medieval church of St Giles-without-Cripplegate lends credence to this suggestion as Saint Giles is the patron saint of cripples and lepers. Cripplegate is one of the 25 ancient wards of the City of London, each electing an alderman to the Court of Aldermen and commoners to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City are eligible to stand. In the early 12th century, the area was referred to as Alwoldii, the name of the current alderman; the early records are unreliable as regards who the Aldermen were, but from 1286 there is a more reliable list of Aldermen available. The modern City of London spreads across a square mile of land and remains divided into 25 geographic areas, or'Wards'. Four of these Wards, are described as'Residential' as they contain the vast majority of all City residents; the Ward of Cripplegate provides part of the Northern edge of the City and stretches from just below Old Street, down to London Wall at its Southern tip, where it meets the Ward of Bassishaw.
To the West is the Ward of Aldersgate and on the Eastern edge is Coleman Street. The 2003 Ward Boundary Review recommended some significant changes for a number of Wards and these were implemented in 2013; the Cripplegate Ward boundary used to extend a great deal further South, all the way down to Cheapside in fact. The Ward was home to the Livery Halls of 6 Worshipful Companies and now only one remains; each Ward is represented by an assembly called the'Court of Common Council'. This consists of 25 Alderman; the number of Councilmen allocated to each particular Ward is based on the size of the electorate and where Cripplegate used to warrant 12 members of Council it is now reduced to 9. The Ward is promoted by the Cripplegate Ward Club. Founded in 1878, The Cripplegate Ward Club is a social organisation, encouraging its members to take an interest in the Civic affairs of the City, while supporting appeals and charitable activities. Cripplegate is among the busiest of the 20+ Ward Clubs in the City of London, with a varied programme of events throughout the year.
Further information about the Cripplegate Ward Club and the history of Cripplegate can be found on their website. Current elected representatives in Cripplegate are David Graves, Mark Bostock, David Bradshaw, Mary Durcan, Vivienne Littlechild, Susan Pearson, William Pimlott, Stephen Quilter and John Tomlinson. In the 2017 City-wide Common Council elections, the Labour Party won two seats in Cripplegate ward with local residents Mary Durcan and William Pimlott making Labour gains; the Labour Party won a record total of five seats on the Common Council in March 2017 winning two seats in Portsoken, two seats in Cripplegate ward and one seat in Aldersgate ward. The foundation dates its origins to the donation of £40 "to provide trousers for local people" on 2nd April 1500; however it was only in 1891 that various local trusts were consolidated into the Cripplegate Foundation by the London Parochial Charities Act. Between 1896 and 1973 the foundation ran the Cripplegate Institute. From 1 April 2008 the area of benefit was expanded to include Islington.
John Gilbert is the chair of the foundation, having been on the board of governors since 2005. The Cripplegate Savings Bank was established in 1819 as a joint stock bank, then