Pittsburgh Cultural Trust
The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is a nonprofit arts organization formed in 1984 to promote economic and cultural development in Downtown Pittsburgh. The "Trust" has focused its work on a 14-square block section called the Cultural District, which comprises numerous entertainment and cultural venues and residential buildings. All together, the organization claims to oversee more than one million square feet of real estate, including commercial and residential buildings, making it one of the largest landowners downtown. In recent years the organization has had a contentious relationship with the city of Pittsburgh concerning the tax status for many of its properties, resulting in a case being heard by the state Supreme Court in 2011; as of February 2018, the PCT's president and CEO is J. Kevin McMahon. According to its 2016 "Report to the Community", PCT's net assets were valued at $120 million; the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust was founded in 1984 by H. J. Heinz II with the principal aim of restoring downtown Pittsburgh as a vibrant cultural destination.
Heinz and others, including William Rea and his son, U. S. Senator John Heinz, began with Pittsburgh's first renovated former movie palace, Heinz Hall; the PCT's first major project was the restoration of the former Stanley Theater. The Stanley Theater was designed by the firm of Hoffman & Henon and opened on February 27, 1928. Under the PCT's management, this theater underwent a $43 million restoration and reopened in 1987 as the 2,800-seat Benedum Center for the Performing Arts; that year, its partners presented an annual Broadway series in the Cultural District. The Byham Theater was another theater venue restoration project. Built in 1903 as the Gayety Theater, it included a stage and Vaudeville house, featured stars such as Ethel Barrymore, Gertrude Lawrence, Helen Hayes, it was renamed The Fulton in the 1930s. In 1990, the PCT refurbished the theater; the Byham family of Pittsburgh made a major naming gift for a 1995 renovation, it has been the Byham Theater since. In 1992, PCT opened its first visual arts project.
PCT purchased and refurbished a former XXX movie theater in 1995, re-opened the 194-seat theater as the Harris Theater, which screens independent and classic films. In 1999, the PCT's 650-seat O'Reilly Theater opened as the permanent home of the Pittsburgh Public Theater; the same year, the 23,000-square-foot Agnes R. Katz Plaza was unveiled; the theater features a 25-foot bronze fountain designed by sculptor Louise Bourgeois and the work of landscape architect Dan Kiley. During 1999, artists Robert Wilson and Richard Gluckman were selected by the PCT to create a series of public art projects in the Cultural District. In 2000, PCT established Shared Services, a consortium including the Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, Pittsburgh Public Theater, Pittsburgh Opera, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, August Wilson Center for African American Culture. Jack Heinz chose CEO, Carol Brown, she managed the organization from 1986 until 2000. In 2001, J. Kevin McMahon was named President and CEO.
In 2002, Pittsburgh Dance Council became a programming division of PCT. PCT opened Theater Square in 2003, a 330,000-square-foot complex including the 265-seat Cabaret at Theater Square, a parking garage, centralized box office and bar, the Carolyn M. Byham WQED 89.3 FM remote broadcast studio. That same year, First Night Pittsburgh became a program of the PCT. PCT presented the Quebec Festival and the inaugural Pittsburgh Festival of Firsts in 2004, it turned an adult bookstore at 812 Liberty Avenue into SPACE, a gallery showcasing regional artists’ work, purchased 937 Liberty Avenue to be utilized by local arts organizations as an office space and as a flexible performing and visual arts venue. 2004 was the first year the PCT organized a quarterly Gallery Crawl in the Cultural District, a free arts open house. In 2005, the PCT purchased the property that would become home to the James E. Rohr Building, the Trust Arts Education Center; the PCT presented the Australia Festival in 2007. The Pittsburgh International Children's Theater and Festival became a programming division of the PCT in 2008.
During that same year, the PCT presented the 2nd Pittsburgh International Festival of Firsts. In 2009, Three Rivers Arts Festival became a programming division of the PCT; as of 2010, the PCT's total revenue was publicly listed as $46 million. On April 18, 2012, Kenneth Milani resigned from the position of chairman of the PCT's board; the organization's Executive Committee accepted the resignation from Milan, chairman since 2005. Milani, the CEO of Highmark, had been charged in March 2012 with trespassing. Veronica Corpuz, spokesperson for the PCT, informed the media that the Executive Committee had appointed attorneys Carolyn Duronio and Chuck Queenan as Milani's interim replacement until a new chairman was found. Exhibitions held in the PCT's Wood Street Galleries feature new media artists from around the world. SPACE and 707 Penn promote local artists. Recent Wood Street Galleries exhibitions featured work by artists Bill Vorn and Louis-Philippe Demers; the PCT has seven public art projects on display year-round in Pittsburgh's Cultural District.
They include the following: Allegheny Riverfront Park located at the Allegheny riverfront, Rachel Carson Bridge
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Allegheny County Courthouse
The Allegheny County Courthouse in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is part of a complex designed by H. H. Richardson; the buildings are considered among the finest examples of the Romanesque Revival style for which Richardson is well known. The complex is bordered by wide thoroughfares named for city founders James Ross, John Forbes and James Grant; the current building, completed in 1888, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Richardson referred to it as his "great achievement". Pittsburgh's original courthouse, first occupied in 1794, was a wooden structure located on one side of Market Square; the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and from December 7, 1818, until 1841 the Western District of Pennsylvania held court sessions at Market Square. Land for a new courthouse was purchased in April 1834; this was a tract of land on Grant's Hill. Construction took place between 1836 and 1840; this court house was built with polished gray sandstone, quarried at Coal Hill, opposite Water Street along the Monongahela River.
The building was designed by John Chislett. The Greek Revival design included a domed cupola housing a rotunda 60 feet in diameter and 80 feet high; the building was completed in 1841. The building's second floor again served as the headquarters for both the Commonwealth Supreme Court Pittsburgh region and the Federal Western District, serving the latter until a new U. S. Customs House/Post Office opened on Fifth and Smithfield in 1853. Due to corrosion caused by coal smoke, the building deteriorated: the dressed surface of the facade dropped off, some of the cornices near the roof began to fall, the building had a scaly appearance. In its deteriorated state, it was a handsome structure. On May 7, 1882, a fire ruined the building. Subsequently, it was demolished; the third, present, courthouse was erected on the same spot. Following the destruction of the second courthouse, Allegheny County Commissioners decided to hold a competition to design a replacement; the winner of the competition was Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson and construction of the buildings was begun by the Norcross Brothers, Richardson's construction firm of choice, in 1884.
The design of the main building, which Richardson considered to be his finest, was innovative in that the building is built around an interior courtyard, thus allowing natural light and fresh air to reach most of the building. The courtyard is surrounded by four stories in three sides. A tower rises five stories from the courtyard's open side; as was the case with Richardson's buildings, the roof is steep with dormers placed at all the corners. A prison is connected to the courthouse via the "Bridge of Sighs"; the design was based on the Bridge of Sighs in Venice. The entire complex was built of large rusticated blocks of granite, with the entrance ways and windows topped with wide arches; this gives the building a heavy and dignified appearance. In the 1900s the street level in front of the building was lowered as part of a general re-grading of Pittsburgh. Richardson had anticipated this and courses of finished masonry had been buried underground, now to be revealed; this left the ceremonial entrance a full story above the street.
A grand stairway was built, but removed during street widening in the 1930s- the low arched doorways were extended downwards to street level, with the result that the visitor is not greeted by the grand entrance hall Richardson planned, but by the low corridors which were once the basement. Muralist Vincent Nesbert completed five murals for the building on its first floor in 1937: "Industry," "Justice," "Peace," "Fort Duquesne" and "The Battle of Grant's Hill."In 1973, the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1976, it was designated a National Historic Landmark; the design of the Allegheny County Courthouse has influenced buildings in many cities across America, such as Minneapolis City Hall, Altgeld Hall on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and James W. McLaughlin's Wayne County Courthouse in Richmond, Indiana. In 2007, the American Institute of Architects asked Harris Interactive to survey 2,000 people, who were shown 247 photographs of buildings and other structures in different categories chosen by 2,500 architects.
The Allegheny County Courthouse was ranked 35th overall on the list and above every other courthouse in the nation except the United States Supreme Court Building. Several big-budget films have portrayed the Courthouse. Striking Distance and Hoffa used interior shots, while Desperate Measures and The Next Three Days used both interior and exterior shots, with Boys on the Side and Mrs. Soffel featuring the Ross Street side of the complex and the "Bridge of Sighs"; the designs of Toronto City Hall, Minneapolis City Hall, the Milwaukee Federal Building and Altgeld Hall on the campus of the University of Illinois were influenced by the Allegheny County Courthouse. Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail Architectural Records, 1883-1948, AIS.1980.20, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh Smoke Control Lantern Slide Collection, University of Pittsburgh Archives Service Center, AIS.1978.22, Digital Research Library Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-610, "Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street, 420 Ross Street, Allegheny County, PA", 13 photos, 35 measured drawings, 3 data pages, 1 photo caption page "Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City," 5th edition, Stefan Lorant, Esselmont Books, LLC.
Pittsburgh, PA, 1999. Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Pilgrimage to H. H. Richardson, unpublished manuscript Och
Allegheny HYP Club
The Allegheny HYP Club is a private social club in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Located at 617-619 William Penn Place, it was built in 1894 and was added to the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks in 2002. On July 1, 1997 the club absorbed assets; the Pittsburgh Harvard-Yale-Princeton Club was formally founded on November 7, 1930. The club merged with the Three Rivers Stadium based Allegheny Club in 2002 after Allegheny had filed for bankruptcy protection. List of American gentlemen's clubs Duquesne Club Economic Club of Pittsburgh Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce Official Site
David L. Lawrence Convention Center
The David L. Lawrence Convention Center is a 1,500,000-square-foot convention and exhibition building in downtown Pittsburgh in the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is served by two exits on Interstate 579; the initial David L. Lawrence Convention Center was completed on the site on February 7, 1981, but as part of a renewal plan the new redesigned center was opened in 2003 and funded in conjunction with nearby Heinz Field and PNC Park, it sits on the southern shoreline of the Allegheny River. It is one of the first in the world, it is owned by the Sports & Exhibition Authority of Allegheny County. In the early 1970s a site on the opposite side of Downtown Pittsburgh was considered for a modern convention center, on the shores of the Monongahela River. On September 20, 1971 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania failed to approve that location, site work began on the present site as the city and county submitted it to the commonwealth on December 10, 1974. There was a proposal in mid-1974 to locate the center at the transitioning Penn Station.
The center had its ceremonial groundbreaking on June 8, 1977. On February 7, 1981 the original $35 million structure opened with a ribbon cutting ceremony by Mayor Richard Caliguiri, County Commissioner Tom Foerster and Governor Dick Thornburgh. After the Commonwealth approved funding for the redesigned center on February 3, 1999 Rafael Viñoly Architects, P. C. was chosen as the designer for the modern center on February 28, 1999. Viñoly along with Dewhurst MacFarlane & Partners and Goldreich Engineering P. C. constructed the $354 million riverfront landmark to contain 313,400 sq ft of exhibit space, 76,500 sq ft of additional exhibit space, a 31,610 sq ft ballroom, 51 meeting rooms, two 250-seat lecture halls and telecommunications capabilities and 4,500 sq ft of retail space. The architect, Viñoly, began the design with a goal in mind of achieving the status of a "green" building. In 2003, the building was awarded Gold Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification by the U. S. Green Building Council, making it the first such convention center in the U.
S. and the largest "green" building in the world. The current building replaced the former convention center of the same name, constructed in 1981; the old convention center lacked a ballroom. All of the old building was demolished to make way for the current structure, built on the same site; the building won the 2004 Supreme Award for structural engineering excellence from the Institution of Structural Engineers. The convention center is home to prominent conventions, such as Anthrocon, the Pittsburgh RV Show, Pittsburgh Boat Show, Pittsburgh Home and Garden Show and the acclaimed Pittsburgh International Auto Show; the center—though a structure of 2003 construction—chose to retain the name of the earlier convention center on the site completed in 1981 in honor of David Leo Lawrence. Lawrence was an American politician who served as the Democratic Governor of Pennsylvania from 1959 to 1963, only retiring because of the state's term limit of 1 per governor, he is to date the only mayor of Pittsburgh to be elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
He had been the longest tenured mayor of Pittsburgh and the primary force behind Pittsburgh's urban renewal projects including the Mellon Arena, Gateway Center, Fort Pitt Tunnel and Point State Park. He was Pennsylvania's first Catholic Governor, a major force in the national Democratic Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. Historians credit him with among other behind-the-scenes labors, leading a compromise at the 1944 National Democratic Convention that made Harry Truman president; as well as healing a divided national convention of 1960 that resulted in the John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson ticket, it is for these reasons as well as his work in the state and the city that he was dubbed "kingmaker" by party leaders. On February 13, 1982 a Car Expo Mercury display featuring a 130 lb. Leesburg, Florida cougar named Tom Tom mauled a 9 year old Upper St. Clair boy before Pittsburgh Police officers shot the animal dead; the boy survived after being treated at Allegheny General Hospital for several days.
On February 12, 2002, less than two weeks before the scheduled opening of the new center, a 165-ton truss, under construction collapsed, killing one and injuring two workers. The truss was part of the second phase of construction, scheduled for opening in 2003, did not delay the February 23 opening of phase one. On February 5, 2007, a section of concrete floor from the second floor loading dock collapsed under the weight of a tractor-trailer and fell onto the water feature area below. There were no injuries; the building remained closed until investigations by the contractors were completed on March 9, the fault was repaired, the convention center reopened. June 8, 1977: Groundbreaking at 10th Street and Ft. Duquesne Way. February 7, 1981: Ribbon cutting ceremony by Mayor Richard Caliguiri, County Commissioner Tom Foerster and Governor Dick Thornburgh as the 9 day Premier Expo kicks off free to the public with exhibits from the consulates of China, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
HJ Heinz and Westinghouse bringing two interactive talking robots to their displays and US Steel and Alcoa hosting large exhibits. April 13, 1982: Rev. Jerry Falwell October 8–11, 1982: The Pit
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
The Duquesne Club is a private social club in Pittsburgh, founded in 1873. The Duquesne Club was founded in 1873, its first president was John H. Ricketson; the club's present home, a Romanesque structure designed by Longfellow, Alden & Harlow on Sixth Avenue in downtown Pittsburgh, was opened in 1890. The building achieved landmark status from the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation in 1976, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995; the Club voted to admit women for the first time in its history in 1980. A health-and-fitness center was added in 1994, the Club was ranked as #1 City Club in America in 1997, an honor that would be repeated in 2001, 2003, 2006. In 2009, the Duquesne Club was ranked as the second best city club in the nation, behind the Union League Club of Philadelphia. Among notable guest to the club are U. S. Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Herbert Hoover, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton as well as Colin Powell, Polish leader Edward Gierek, Jungle James, Tars Cornish, Prince of Wales and Former Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.
As of 2007, membership at the Duquesne Club consisted of women. Though the Club does not discriminate in its selection of members, membership is by invitation from an existing member only. List of American gentlemen's clubs Economic Club of Pittsburgh Allegheny HYP Club Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce The Duquesne Club WTAE-TV feature on the Club kitchen on YouTube 1981 news feature