Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Route 15 (MTA Maryland)
Route 15 is a bus route operated by the Maryland Transit Administration in Baltimore and its suburbs. The line runs from Security Square Mall, Westview Mall, Windsor Hills, or Walbrook Junction through downtown Baltimore and northeast to Overlea, with selected peak hour express trips to Perry Hall; the main roads on which it operates include Security Boulevard, Windsor Mill Road, Forest Park Avenue, Poplar Grove Street, Edmondson Avenue, Saratoga Street, Gay Street, Belair Road, is one of the most used bus routes operated by the MTA. The bus route is the successor to 15 Gay Street streetcar lines. Route 15 is the successor to two streetcar lines, numbered in 1899: the west half of Route 4 on Bloomingdale Road and Edmondson Avenue and the east half of the original Route 15 on Gay Street and Belair Road; the Baltimore City Passenger Railway opened its Gay Street Line to Boundary Avenue on December 11, 1861, through-routed it with the Baltimore Street Line to West Baltimore as the Red Line. The line was equipped with cable traction on July 23, 1893, electrified in 1899..
An extension along Belair Road was built by the Central Passenger Railway in the late 1890s, branching off their Preston Street Line via Milton Avenue, the Baltimore and Bel Air Electric Railway opened an extension to Overlea. The North Baltimore Passenger Railway through-routed its Edmondson Avenue Line and Monument Street Line. An extension of the Edmondson Avenue Line was built north along Poplar Grove Street and Bloomingdale Road to Walbrook by the Baltimore and Powhatan Railway and west along Windsor Mill Road by the Gwynn Falls Railway, it was electrified in 1894. The numbers 15 and 4 were assigned to the two routes in 1899, it was not until December 31, 1935 that Route 4 was truncated to downtown, the portion on Monument Street became part of Route 6. Route 15 was split on May 9, 1948, when the Route 20 bus replaced both the Edmondson Avenue streetcar and the old Route 20 streetcar to Point Breeze. Route 4 was absorbed by Route 15 on September 18, 1954, on November 2, 1963 it was replaced by buses.
In 1966, Route 15 absorbed Route 35. The new full route of the line ran from Lorraine to Overlea. Expansions were made into the suburbs to accommodate future development. In 1915, bus service began between Overlea and Belair called "jitney buses." These operated for several years. MTA began providing service north of Overlea in 1973, when a new Route 15A was formed that provided express service between Kingsville and downtown along Belair Road; this line, in 1991, was renamed to Route 43, which provided service to White Marsh. Overall, service on Belair Road in Baltimore County was always limited, but in 1992, service on Route 43 line was provided as express trips on Route 15. The White Marsh branch was provided on Route 66 until that line was eliminated 7 months at which time a White Marsh branch was formed on Route 15. In 1998, due to low ridership, Kingsville service was shortened to Perry Hall, reduced to just seven trips daily on weekdays. In 2005, as part of the Greater Baltimore Bus Initiative, a comprehensive overhaul plan for the region's transit system, MTA proposed to eliminate all service north of Overlea.
This plan was not implemented. Some of the opposition came from a blind man. In 2007, service to White Marsh was improved. In 2003, due to the anticipated closure of the Forest Park Avenue bridge, Route 15 was modified in the Windsor Hills area. Buses, instead of operating through the Windsor Hills community, were diverted more directly on Windsor Mill Road, bypassing this area. A new Route 68 was formed to provide shuttle service between Walbrook Windsor Hills; this plan was intended to be temporary. In 2005, as part of the Greater Baltimore Bus Initiative, MTA proposed that both Routes 15 and 68 would be modified. Under this plan, Route 15 would have been combined with Route 91 and extended north from Walbrook Junction to Sinai Hospital. Route 68 would have been converted into a feeder bus that would have operated between Security Square Mall and the Mondawmin Metro Subway Station. Route 15 would no longer have operated west of Walbrook Junction, the streets of Windsor Hills would not have had any bus service.
Due to public outcry, these changes were not made. Protests included a 73-year-old man who complained that removing bus service from Forest Park Avenue and being forced to walk a greater distance to reach the nearest line could be life-threatening. On April 5, 2007, following the reopening of the Forest Park bridge, Route 68 was merged back into Route 15, Route 15 returned to its old route through Windsor Hills on all trips west of Walbrook Junction. In addition, White Marsh service on weekdays and Saturdays was increased to one bus an hour. In June 2011, all local service beyond Overlea was eliminated, but express service to Perry Hall continued as scheduled, White Marsh service replaced by an extension of Route 58. Route 15 bus outside Lexington Market Metro Station on Google Street View Route 15 map and schedule, effective July 3, 2011. Route 47
The Patapsco River mainstem is a 39-mile-long river in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river's tidal portion forms the harbor for the city of Baltimore. With its South Branch, the Patapsco forms the northern border of Maryland; the name "Patapsco" is derived from the Algonquian pota-psk-ut, which translates to "backwater" or "tide covered with froth." Captain John Smith was the first European to explore the river noting it on his 1612 map as the Bolus River. The "Red river", was named after the clay color, is considered the "old Bolus", as other branches were labelled Bolus on maps; as the river was not navigable beyond Elkridge, it was not a major path of commerce with only one ship listed as serving the northern branch, four others operating around the mouth in 1723. The Patapsco River is referred to as The River of History as it is regarded as the center of Maryland’s Industrial Revolution beginning in the 1770s. Milling and manufacturing operations abounded along the river throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries relying on water power generated by multiple small dams.
The nation’s first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's original main line was constructed in 1829 and ran west along the Patapsco Valley. Many old railroad bridges were constructed in the valley, most notably the Thomas Viaduct, still intact, the Patterson Viaduct, of which ruins remain. Flour mills and the hydropower dam, Bloede Dam, built in 1907, were powered by the river; the valley is prone to periodic flooding. Modern floods include the 1868 flood that washed away 14 houses and killed 39 people around Ellicott City. A 1923 flood topped bridges while in 1952, an eight-foot wall of water swept the shops of Ellicott City. A 1956 flood inflicted heavy damage at the Bartigis Brothers plant. In 1972, as a result of rainfall from the remnants of Hurricane Agnes, Ellicott City and the Old Main Line sustained serious damage; the July 2016 Maryland flood ravaged Main Street leaving two dead, followed just two years by a flash flood on May 27, 2018 that took the life of one rescuer. The mouth of the Patapsco River forms Baltimore harbor, the site of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812.
This is where Francis Scott Key, while aboard a British ship, wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner," a poem set to music as the national anthem of the United States. Today, a red and blue buoy marks the spot where HMS Tonnant was anchored; the Patapsco has a watershed area of 950 square miles. Through most of its length, the Patapsco is a minor river, flowing for the most part through a narrow valley; the last 10 miles, form a large tidal estuary inlet of Chesapeake Bay. The inner part of this estuary provides the harbor of Baltimore, composed of the Northwest Harbor and the Middle Branch including Thoms Cove; the Patapsco estuary is north of the Magothy River. The Patapsco River forms the harbor. Besides Baltimore, the river flows through Ellicott City and Elkridge; the Patapsco River mainstem begins at the confluence of the North and South Branches, near Marriottsville 15 miles west of downtown Baltimore. The 19.4-mile-long South Branch rises further west at Parr's Spring, where Howard County, Carroll and Montgomery counties meet.
The latter begins at elevation 780 feet on Parr's Ridge, just south of Interstate 70 and east of Ridge Road, two miles south of Mount Airy, Maryland. The South Branch Patapsco River traces the southern boundary of Carroll County and the northern boundary of Howard County; the first land record regarding Parr's Springs dates from 1744, when John Parr laid out a 200 acres tract he called Parr's Range. During the Civil War, Parr's Spring was a stop for the Army of the Potomac's Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg's cavalry, on June 29, 1863, while en route to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Parr's Spring was dug to form a 1.75 acres pond in the 1950's, filled by seven spring heads that form the headwaters of the South Branch of the Patapsco River. The North Branch flows 20.9 miles southward from its origins in Carroll County. Liberty Dam and its reservoir, located on the North Branch, is a major component of the Baltimore city water system. Patapsco Valley State Park extends along 32 miles of the Patapsco and its branches, encompassing a total of 14,000 acres in five different areas.
The river cuts a gorge 100–200 feet deep within the park, which features rocky cliffs and tributary waterfalls. Bloede's Dam,a hydroelectric dam built in 1906, was located on the Patapsco River within the Park, it was a nearly complete barrier to anadromous fish passage. Although a fish ladder was installed in 1992, it blocked five of six native fish species trying to run upstream to spawn. Impetus to remove Bloede's Dam began in the 1980s when nine drowning deaths occurred, to restore fish passage to a large portion of the Patapsco River watershed. Dam demolition began on September 12, 2018, opening the fishery and creating a rocky rapid for kayaking. Two dams upstream of Bloede's Dam and Union, were removed in 2010; the removal of Bloede's Dam leaves Daniels Dam, 9 miles upstream, as the last remaining dam along the mainstem Patapsco River. Removal of Bloede's Dam in September, 2018 opened up 65 miles of the Patapsco River watershed which will restore spawning runs of at least six species of native anadromous fish: alewife, blueback herring, American shad (Alosa sapid
Catonsville is a census-designated place in Baltimore County, United States. The population was 41,567 at the 2010 census; the community lies to the west of Baltimore along the city's border. Catonsville contains the majority of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, a major public research university with close to 14,000 students. Before European colonists settled in present-day Catonsville, the area was occupied by the Piscataway tribe; these Native Americans had good relations with the first European settlers in the area, but wars and diseases caused their population to decline. The remainder of the tribe’s population dispersed. In the early 1700s, colonists settled in the area, roads were built; the first of these settlements in the present-day Catonsville area was Johnnycake Town, settled in the 1720s. Johnnycake Town was named after the kind of cornbread sold to travelers at the local tavern. Although Johnnycake Town has since disappeared from maps, its main roads and Rolling Road, still exist today.
Rolling Road was used to transport tobacco from plantations south to the Patapsco River on horse-drawn wagons. In 1787, the Ellicott family built a road, called the Frederick Turnpike, to transport goods from their flour mill, Ellicott Mills, to the Baltimore harbor; the turnpike was built just south of. Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, owned land next to the newly built road, he instructed Richard Caton, to develop the area along the road. He gave his name to the community and called it “Catonville”, although the name was changed to “Catonsville” in the 1830s. For decades, the village remained as a quiet farming community. Businesses sprang up along the Frederick Turnpike to cater to travelers traveling from Ellicott City to the Baltimore harbor. Catonsville served as a layover stop for the travelers, the town grew and developed; the pleasant surroundings attracted wealthy Baltimorean merchants, eager to escape the summer heat, built large Victorian and colonial summer homes there.
Many of these homes still stand today. Starting in 1862, horsecar services connected Catonsville to Baltimore, in 1884, the Catonsville Short Line railroad was built, providing 8 roundtrip trains to Baltimore daily; this allowed people to live in commute to work in Baltimore. Commuter traffic exploded in the 1890s with the construction of electric streetcar lines and fancy housing developments. Catonsville had become one of the first commuter suburbs in the United States. Baltimore had tried to annex Catonsville, their last attempt was in 1918. Homes of all sizes were being constructed until the 1950s when much of land around the Frederick Turnpike had been converted into housing. A new and modern business district opened along the newly built Baltimore National Pike, north, but parallel to the older Frederick Turnpike. Catonsville was made quite famous during the 1968 protest by the "Catonsville Nine", during which draft records were burned by Catholic anti-war activists. In 2002, the Maryland legislature issued a proclamation declaring Catonsville to be "Music City, Maryland", because of the concentration of musical retail stores and educational facilities in the area.
Life Sounds Great is a series of compilation albums highlighting Catonsville musicians. In 2007, Money' magazine ranked Catonsville the 49th best place to live in the United States and the third best in Maryland and Virginia. Catonsville is located at 39°16′26″N 76°44′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 14.0 square miles, all of it land. It is centered along Frederick Road the main road from Baltimore leading to points west. Johnnycake Road and Academy Road form the northeastern borders of Catonsville. Catonsville is bordered by Woodlawn to the north, Baltimore to the east, by Arbutus to the southeast, by Ilchester to the southwest, by Ellicott City to the west. In addition to Frederick Road, Interstate 695 services Wilkens Avenue, Edmondson Avenue and the Baltimore National Pike via Exits 12, 14 and 15 with the latter two thoroughfares converging in Baltimore City to the east; the main north-south roads in the area are Ingleside Avenue and Bloomsbury Avenue.
Catonsville is a terminus of the Short Line Railroad Trail. The Maryland Transit Administration provides bus service to the Catonsville area via the Purple CityLink route with service to Downtown Baltimore, LocalLink routes 37 and 77, Express BusLink 150 to Columbia. MARC Train provides commuter train service at the nearby Halethorpe station in Arbutus. Major north-south routes in Catonsville include: Interstate 695 traveling south to north from Glen Burnie to Towson. Interstate 195 traveling east to west from southern Catonsville to BWI Airport. Maryland Route 166 traveling north to south from Frederick Road to Relay. North Rolling Road continues north of Frederick Road to Old Court Road in Randallstown. Major east-west routes in Catonsville include: Interstate 70 traveling east to west from Security Boulevard-Cooks Lane to Frederick. U. S. Route 40 east to west from Baltimore to Ellicott City. Maryland Route 144 traveling east to west from Irvington to Ellicott City. Maryland Route 372 traveling east to west from Southwestern Boulevard to Rolli
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Lorraine Park Cemetery Gate Lodge
The Lorraine Park Cemetery Gate Lodge is a historic gatehouse located near Woodlawn, Baltimore County, United States. It is a 1 1⁄2-story, Queen Anne–style stone-and-frame building designed by Baltimore architect Henry F. Brauns, constructed in 1884. Adjacent to the house are wrought-iron Lorraine Cemetery gates; the Lorraine Park Cemetery Gate Lodge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Lorraine Park Cemetery Gate House, Baltimore County, including photo from 1984, at Maryland Historical Trust
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government