Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after California; as of 2017, the population was 5,211,263. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. More than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook County's population is larger than that of 28 individual U. S. states, the combined populations of the seven smallest states. There are 135 incorporated municipalities or wholly within Cook County, the largest of, Chicago, home to 54% of the population of the county; that part of the county which lies outside the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships. Geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area, it shares the state's Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County. Including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water.
Land-use in Cook County is urban and densely populated. Cook County is included in the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is surrounded by. Cook County was created on January 15, 1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly, it was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook, one of the earliest and youngest statesmen in Illinois history. He served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the state's first Attorney General. In 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County; the government of Cook County is composed of the Board of Commissioners, other elected officials such as the Sheriff, State's Attorney, Board of Review, Assessor, Circuit Court judges, Circuit Court Clerk, as well as numerous other officers and entities. Cook County is the only home rule county in Illinois; the Cook County Code is the codification of Cook County's local ordinances. Cook County's current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle.
The Circuit Court of Cook County, an Illinois state court of general jurisdiction is funded, in part, by Cook County, accepts more than 1.2 million cases each year for filing. The Cook County Department of Corrections known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation; the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the court, is the first juvenile center in the nation and one of the largest in the nation. The Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation. In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord. Ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges, 48 lawyers, 8 policemen, 10 deputy sheriffs, 8 court officials, a state legislator; the Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of this system: Jr.. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, along with over 30 clinics.
The Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county. These thoroughfares are composed of major and minor arterials, with a few local roads. Although the County Department of Transportation was instrumental in designing many of the expressways in the county, today they are under the jurisdiction of the state; the Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of Commissioners acts as its Board of Commissioners. The district is a belt of 69,000 acres of forest reservations surrounding the city of Chicago; the Brookfield Zoo and the Chicago Botanic Garden are located in the forest preserves. Cook County is the fifth-largest employer in Chicago. In March 2008, the County Board increased the sales tax by one percent to 1.75 percent. This followed a quarter-cent increase in mass transit taxes. In Chicago, the rate increased to 10.25 percent, the steepest nominal rate of any major metropolitan area in America.
In Evanston, sales tax reached Oak Lawn residents pay 9.5 percent. On July 22, 2008, the Cook County board voted against Cook County Commissioner's proposal to repeal the tax increase. In 2016, Cook County joined Chicago in adopting a $13 hourly minimum wage. Cook County Board chairman John Daley called the wage hike "the moral and right thing to do." In June 2017, nearly 75 home rule municipalities passed measures opting themselves out of the increase. The county has more Democratic Party members than any other Illinois county and it is one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. Since 1932, the majority of its voters have only supported a Republican candidate in a Presidential election three times, all during national Republican landslides–Dwight Eisenhower over native son Adlai Stevenson II in 1952 and 1956, Richard Nixon over George McGovern in 1972. Since the closest a Republican has come to carrying the county was in 1984, when Ronald Reagan won 48.4 percent of the county's vote.
The 1970 Illinois Constitution allows the party controlling the state legislature to redraw voting districts. The Democrats won complete control of state government in 2003. S. House of Repre
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Darien is a city in DuPage County, Illinois, USA. The population was 22,086 at the 2010 census. A south-western suburb of Chicago, Darien was named after a town in Connecticut; the first people to settle in Darien came from New England via the Erie Great Lakes. Among the first to arrive was the Andres Neiman family, they settled along an old stagecoach line in 1835. Andres served as Justice of the Peace, Town Clerk, Dog Catcher, County Commissioner, he established the Andres Inn, near what is the intersection of Lemont Road and I-55. Andres named the area "Cass."Andres and Father Beggs built the First Cass Church, a log cabin design. The church's cemetery, located west of where the church stood, can still be seen today; the church was used as a school house. Elisha and Eliza Smart settled in Darien in 1838 with their 10 children. Elisha joined the Gold Rush and left for California, returning seven years as a rich man, he bought more land and donated it, on which a new Cass Church was built in 1870.
John and Hannah Oldfield came to Cass in 1850. Mr. Oldfield increased his land holdings to 2,000 acres. In 1881, a man named; the factory was moved or closed. Martin Madden was an Irish immigrant, he became a member of the Chicago City Council and was elected to the House of Representatives and served in the United States Congress. In 1903, Mr. Madden built a home to look like the White House in Washington D. C. he called it Castle Eden. Today Castle Eden is part of the Aylesford Retreat Center of the Carmelite Fathers. A group of German Lutherans from Europe came to the area near 67th and Clarendon Hills Road in 1859, they laid out the cemetery behind the church. Today the cemetery is still located at Clarendon Hills Road. In 1899, a new church was built on the northeast corner of 75th Street; the Church was located where the Taco Buona Beef Restaurant now stand. In 1969, the second church was torn down and the present St. John's Lutheran Church was built west of Cass and north of 75th Street. A school was built on the northwest corner of Cass and 75th street in 1860.
It was the first Lace School. It burned down in 1924, was replaced with the present building, it is now a museum, open on the first Sunday of each month from 2:00pm to 4:00pm. By 1890, the Village of Lace was established; the important location at that time was the triangle bordered by Cass Avenue, Plainfield Road and 75th Street. It was called "The Point"; the Point included General Store, Blacksmith Shop and the office of Dr. Roe. A Post Office had been established at The Point in 1884; the future city of Darien was part of the Lace and Cass communities. Residents of the Marion Hills, Brookhaven and Hinsbrook subdivisions wanted to incorporate as a single city; when the incorporation committee reached an impasse on an acceptable name for the new city, acting mayor Sam Kelly suggested the name "Darien". He had visited Darien and found it to be a pleasant and attractive community. Today, Darien is known as "A Nice Place to Live". Darien in Illinois is pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
According to the 2010 census, Darien has a total area of 6.303 square miles, of which 6.18 square miles is land and 0.123 square miles is water. Darien's City Hall used to be underground until 1994, when it was lifted up. Now only 75% is underground. Darien's City Hall is surrounded on three sides by the village of Downers Grove. Darien is bordered by the cities of Downers Grove, Woodridge and Willowbrook, it has easy access to the three major thoroughfares crossing Chicago's southwest suburbs: Interstate 55, Interstate 355, Interstate 294; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,860 people, 8,735 households, 6,455 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,782.7 people per square mile. There were 8,929 housing units at an average density of 1,477.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.10% White, 0.97% African American, 0.11% Native American, 9.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population.
There were 8,735 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $78,122, the median income for a family was $95,332. Males had a median income of $70,580 versus $46,352 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,795. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the po
Regional Transportation Authority (Illinois)
The Regional Transportation Authority is the financial and oversight body for the three transit agencies in northeastern Illinois. RTA serves Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry and Will counties; the RTA Board consists of 16 directors, with 5 appointed by the Mayor of Chicago, 4 by the members of the Cook County Board elected outside of Chicago, one by the Cook County Board President, one each by the County Board Chairman of the five collar counties. The Chairman of the RTA Board is the 16th member, is appointed with the concurrence of 11 of the other RTA Board members, including at least 2 each from Chicago, suburban Cook County, the collar counties, respectively; the chief executive officer is the executive director, appointed by the Chairman with the concurrence of 11 of the other directors. The RTA system provides nearly 2 million rides per day, making it the third largest public transportation system in North America; the RTA provides several services to the public, including the RTA Travel Information line at 836-7000 from all Chicago area area codes, an automated Trip Planner, "try transit" advertising.
The RTA has the authority to enter into agreements to provide service between points within the metropolitan region and outside of its territory, including into Indiana and Wisconsin. RTA was created after a referendum in 1974. In 1973, CTA had instituted its first major service cuts, several suburban bus companies, including Evanston Bus Company and Glenview Bus Company had ceased operations, forcing Evanston to make arrangements with CTA and Wilmette to start a municipal service; the Rock Island and Milwaukee Road were facing financial distress, which would lead to their eventual bankruptcy, the Illinois Central was petitioning the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase commuter fares, on the basis that the cost of operating its commuter train system was a burden on interstate commerce. While several suburbs had organized Mass Transit Districts to purchase equipment for the carriers with federal financial assistance, the Rock Island was still operating old equipment that it could not replace.
In an attempt to deal with these problems in the six-county area, the RTA was established, with some taxing powers, to provide financial support through grants to the CTA and suburban mass transit districts, purchase of service agreements with the private bus and rail operators. In 1983, after a financial crisis, the RTA taking over several private bus companies and the Rock Island and Milwaukee Road lines, the RTA Act was amended to create the Suburban Bus Division, now known as Pace, the Commuter Rail Division, now known as Metra. RTA's role changed, so that it is now responsible for reviewing the operating and capital plans and expenditures of the Service Boards, developing an annual budget and program as well as a five-year plan, distributing sales tax receipts to the Service Boards, in accordance with a statutory formula. However, RTA no longer provides service directly, as the Service Boards have the authority to determine the level and kind of public transportation to be provided, to establish fares.
RTA entered into purchase of service agreements with carriers, but the 1983 amendment gives the Service Boards the power to enter into those agreements with transportation agencies. The 1983 legislation imposed the requirements that the level of fares must be sufficient, in the aggregate, to equal 50 percent of the cost of providing transportation, that the RTA Board inform each Service Board, as part of the budget process, of its required recovery ratio for the next fiscal year. In 2004, the CTA, projecting a $55 million funding shortfall in its 2005 budget, called for a "long term funding solution," involving a change to the sales tax distribution formula in the RTA Act. In response, the Illinois General Assembly appropriated $54 million to cover the cost of CTA's paratransit service for 2005. An amendment to the RTA Act made the RTA responsible for the funding, financial review and oversight of all ADA paratransit services, effective July 1, 2005, transferred responsibility for operating or providing for the operation of paratransit service to Pace starting July 1, 2006, thereby relieving the CTA of that responsibility.
The General Assembly directed the Illinois Auditor General to audit the RTA and the Service Boards, as part of its review of the funding issue. The Auditor General's preliminary report, while agreeing that public funding was insufficient to support the level of transit services, said that the legislature must address other issues, including underfunded pensions, high salaries and the lack of strong, centralized planning, resulting in several of the service boards competing for customers in the same areas, the Auditor General calling for "an end to the transit agencies fighting each other for customers and federal funding for pet projects that may not fit into an overall regional transit plan."The RTA approved 2007 Service Board budgets premised on the assumption that "a new funding source would be identified in 2007 to meet the funding requirements of budget." Nonetheless, the CTA budget recognized, "Without this new funding source, CTA will be forced to cut service." With no legislative action by August, 2007, CTA and Pace announced proposals for service cuts, popularly known as "Doomsday Plans," to be implemented September 16.
The September plans were postponed. A new Doomsday date was set for November 4, but, avoided when the Governor engineered a transfer of capital funds. Again, the legislature having failed to pass a transit bill, the three service boards pr
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Money is a magazine, published by Meredith Corporation. Its first issue was published in October 1972 by Time Inc, its articles cover the gamut of personal finance topics ranging from investing, saving and taxes to family finance issues like paying for college, credit and home improvement. It is well known for its annual list of "America's Best Places to Live." The magazine, along with Fortune, was a partner with sister cable network CNN in CNNMoney.com, an arrangement made after the discontinuation of the CNNfn business news channel in 2004. In 2014, following the spin-off of Time Inc. the magazine's publisher, from CNN parent Time Warner, Money launched its own website, Money.com. Official website
Naperville is a city in DuPage and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located 28 miles west of Chicago, Naperville was founded in 1831 and developed into the fifth-largest city in Illinois; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 141,853, estimated to have increased to 147,682 by 2017. In a 2010 study assessing cities with populations exceeding 75,000, Naperville was ranked as the wealthiest city in the Midwest and the eleventh wealthiest in the nation, it was ranked among the nation's safest cities by Business Insider. Naperville was voted the second-best place to live in the United States by Money magazine in 2006 and it was rated first on the list of best cities for early retirement in 2013 by Kiplinger. In 2015, it was named as one of the most educated large cities in America with populations over 50,000. In July 1831, Joseph Naper arrived at the west bank of the DuPage River with his family and friends to found what would be known as Naper's Settlement. Among those original settlers were Naper's wife Almeda Landon, his brother John with wife Betsy Goff, his sister Amy with husband John Murray, his mother Sarah.
Their arrival followed a nearly two-month voyage across three Great Lakes in the Naper brothers' schooner, the Telegraph. On the journey were several families who remained in the settlement that would become Chicago, including that of Dexter Graves, memorialized in Graceland Cemetery by the well-known Lorado Taft statue "Eternal Silence". By 1832, over one hundred settlers had arrived at Naper's Settlement. Following the news of the Indian Creek massacre during the Black Hawk War, these settlers were temporarily displaced to Fort Dearborn for protection from an anticipated attack by the Sauk tribe. Fort Payne was built at Naper's Settlement, the settlers returned and the attack never materialized; the Pre-Emption House was constructed in 1834, as the Settlement became a stage-coach stop on the road from Chicago to Galena. Reconstructions of Fort Payne and the Pre-Emption House stand as part of Naper Settlement outdoor museum village, established by the Naperville Heritage Society and the Naperville Park District in 1969 to preserve some of the community's oldest buildings.
In 1855 Sybil Dunbar came to Naperville as its first recorded black female resident. A commemorative marker honoring her was placed in the cemetery in 2015. After DuPage County was split from Cook County in 1839, Naper's Settlement became the DuPage county seat, a distinction it held until 1868. Naper's Settlement was incorporated as the Village of Naperville in 1857, at which time it had a population of 2,000. Reincorporation as a city occurred in 1890. In 1887, Peter Edward Kroehler established the Kroehler Manufacturing Company's factory in Naperville along the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy tracks. Kroehler Manufacturing became the world's largest furniture manufacturer, a major employer in Naperville; the company closed the Naperville factory in 1978. In 1987, the site was redeveloped into upscale commercial and apartment properties, as Fifth Avenue Station. On April 26, 1946, Naperville was the site of one of the worst train disasters in Chicago history. Two Chicago and Quincy Railroad trains, the Advance Flyer and the Exposition Flyer, collided'head to tail' on a single track just west of the Loomis Street grade crossing.
The accident killed 45 and injured 127 passengers and/or crew members. This event is commemorated in a metal inlay map of Naperville on the southeast corner of the Nichols Library's sidewalk area. In 2012, author Chuck Spinner published The Tragedy at the Loomis Street Crossing which details the tragedy and gives the stories of the 45 persons who perished. On April 26, 2014, a memorial entitled Tragedy to Triumph was dedicated at the train station; the sculpture by Paul Kuhn is dedicated not only to the crash victims but to the rescuers at the site. A predominantly rural community for most of its existence, Naperville experienced a population explosion beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s and 1990s, following the construction of the East-West Tollway and Interstate 355, it has nearly quadrupled in size as the Chicago metropolitan area's urban sprawl brought corporations and wealth to the area. The March 2006 issue of Chicago magazine cites a mid-1970s decision to make and keep all parking in downtown Naperville free to keep downtown Naperville "alive" in the face of competition with Fox Valley Mall in Aurora and the subsequent sprawl of strip shopping malls.
Parking meters were taken down, parking in garages built in the 1980s and 1990s is free, parking is still available on major thoroughfares during non-peak hours. Naperville marked the 175th anniversary of its 1831 founding in 2006; the anniversary events included concerts and a balloon parade. According to the 2010 census, Naperville has an area of 39.323 square miles, of which 38.77 square miles is land and 0.553 square miles is water. Portions of the city of Naperville drain to the West Branch of the DuPage River within DuPage County. In the flood of 1996, downtown businesses in the City of Naperville incurred significant damage. Overall, Forest Preserve District ownership of a large amount of property along the West Branch has minimized development in flood plains and has helped reduce the damages from overbank flooding that have occurred in the county's more developed watersheds. Naperville borders the communities of Warrenville, Lisle