John Dawson Winter III, known as Johnny Winter, was an American musician, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and producer. Best known for his high-energy blues-rock albums and live performances in the late 1960s and 1970s, Winter produced three Grammy Award-winning albums for blues singer and guitarist Muddy Waters. After his time with Waters, Winter recorded several Grammy-nominated blues albums. In 1988, he was inducted into the Blues Foundation Hall of Fame and in 2003, he was ranked 63rd in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Johnny Winter was born in Beaumont, Texas, on February 23, 1944. Winter and younger brother Edgar were nurtured at an early age by their parents in musical pursuits, their father, Leland, MS native John Dawson Winter, Jr. was a musician who played saxophone and guitar and sang at churches, weddings and Rotary Club gatherings. Johnny and his brother, both of whom were born with albinism, began performing at an early age; when he was ten years old, the brothers appeared on a local children's show with Johnny playing ukulele.
His recording career began at the age of fifteen, when his band Johnny and the Jammers released "School Day Blues" on a Houston record label. During this same period, he was able to see performances by classic blues artists such as Muddy Waters, B. B. King, Bobby Bland. In the early days, Winter would sometimes sit in with Roy Head and the Traits when they performed in the Beaumont area, in 1967, Winter recorded a single with the Traits: "Tramp" backed with "Parchman Farm". In 1968, he released his first album The Progressive Blues Experiment, on Austin's Sonobeat Records. Winter caught his biggest break in December 1968, when Mike Bloomfield, whom he met and jammed with in Chicago, invited him to sing and play a song during a Bloomfield and Al Kooper concert at the Fillmore East in New York City; as it happened, representatives of Columbia Records were at the concert. Winter played and sang B. B. King's "It's My Own Fault" to loud applause and, within a few days, was signed to what was the largest advance in the history of the recording industry at that time—$600,000.
Winter's first Columbia album, Johnny Winter, was recorded and released in 1969. It featured the same backing musicians with whom he had recorded The Progressive Blues Experiment, bassist Tommy Shannon and drummer Uncle John Turner, plus Edgar Winter on keyboards and saxophone, Willie Dixon on upright bass and Big Walter Horton on harmonica; the album featured a few selections that became Winter signature songs, including his composition "Dallas", John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson's "Good Morning Little School Girl", B. B. King's "Be Careful with a Fool"; the album's success coincided with Imperial Records picking up The Progressive Blues Experiment for wider release. The same year, the Winter trio performed at several rock festivals, including Woodstock. With brother Edgar added as a full member of the group, Winter recorded his second album, Second Winter, in Nashville in 1969; the two-record album, which only had three recorded sides, introduced a couple more staples of Winter's concerts, including Chuck Berry's "Johnny B. Goode" and Bob Dylan's "Highway 61 Revisited".
At this time Johnny entered into an intimate, albeit short-lived affair with Janis Joplin, which culminated in a concert at New York's Madison Square Garden, where Johnny joined her on stage to sing and perform. Contrary to urban legend, Johnny Winter did not perform with Jimi Hendrix and Jim Morrison on the infamous 1968 Hendrix bootleg album Woke up this Morning and Found Myself Dead from New York City's the Scene club. According to Winter, "I never met Jim Morrison! There's a whole album of Jimi and Jim and I'm on the album but I don't think I am'cause I never met Jim Morrison in my life! I'm sure I never, never played with Jim Morrison at all! I don't know how that got started."Beginning in 1969, the first of numerous Johnny Winter albums was released which were cobbled together from fifteen singles he recorded before signing with Columbia in 1969. Many were produced by Roy Ames, owner of Home Cooking Records/Clarity Music Publishing, who had managed Winter. According to an article from the Houston Press, Winter left town for the express purpose of getting away from him.
Ames died on August 14, 2003, of natural causes at age 66. As Ames left no obvious heirs, the ownership rights of the Ames master recordings remains unclear; as Winter stated in an interview when the subject of Roy Ames came up, "This guy has screwed so many people it makes me mad to talk about him." In 1970, when his brother Edgar released a solo album Entrance and formed Edgar Winter's White Trash, an R&B/jazz-rock group, the original trio disbanded. Johnny Winter formed a new band with the remnants of the McCoys—guitarist Rick Derringer, bassist Randy Jo Hobbs, drummer Randy Z. To be called "Johnny Winter and the McCoys", the name was shortened to "Johnny Winter And", the name of their first album; the album included Derringer's "Rock and Roll, Hoochie Koo" and signaled a more rock-oriented direction for Winter. When Johnny Winter And began to tour, Randy Z was replaced with drummer Bobby Caldwell, their mixture of the new rock songs with Winter's blues songs was captured on the live album Live Johnny Winter And.
It included a new performance of "It's My Own Fault", the song
The LP is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch diameter, use of the "microgroove" groove specification. Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums. At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, played at 78 revolutions per minute, limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side; the new product was a 12- or 10-inch fine-grooved disc made of PVC and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. Only the microgroove standard was new, as both vinyl and the 33 1⁄3 rpm speed had been used for special purposes for many years, as well as in one unsuccessful earlier attempt to introduce a long-playing record for home use by RCA Victor.
Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous playing time, it allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings to be put on a single disc. Such collections, as well as longer classical music broken up into several parts, had been sold as sets of 78 rpm records in a specially imprinted "record album" consisting of individual record sleeves bound together in book form; the use of the word "album" persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent. The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone motion picture sound system, developed by Western Electric and introduced in 1926. For soundtrack purposes, the less than five minutes of playing time of each side of a conventional 12-inch 78 rpm disc was not acceptable; the sound had to play continuously for at least 11 minutes, long enough to accompany a full 1,000-foot reel of 35 mm film projected at 24 frames per second. The disc diameter was increased to 16 inches and the speed was reduced to 33 1⁄3 revolutions per minute.
Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same large "standard groove" used by 78s. Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge. Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces. By mid-1931, all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors. Syndicated radio programming was distributed on 78 rpm discs beginning in 1928; the desirability of longer continuous playing time soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack disc format. 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm discs playing about 15 minutes per side were used for most of these "electrical transcriptions" beginning about 1930.
Transcriptions were variously recorded inside out with an outside start. Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out and even-numbered sides outside-in so that the sound quality would match from the end of one side to the start of the next. Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play the next side in the sequence. Instead of a three-disc set having the 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6 manual sequence, or the 1–6, 2–5 and 3–4 automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer, broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1–4, 2–5 and 3–6; some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass and an extension of the high-end frequency response. Neither of these was a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings if the original radio audiences could not. Transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by 1932 pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing. Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late 1930s, vinyl was standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. Beginning in the mid-1930s, one-off 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm lacquer discs were used by radio networks to archive recordings of their live broadcasts, by local stations to delay the broadcast of network programming or to prerecord their own productions. In the late 1940s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but 16-inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early 1960s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming. Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late 1950s, in the 1960s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs.
Unless the quantity required was small, pressed discs were a more economica
James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix was an American rock guitarist and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music". Born in Seattle, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted in the U. S. trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division. Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville and began playing gigs on the Chitlin' Circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers' backing band and with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965, he played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after being discovered by Linda Keith, who in turn interested bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals in becoming his first manager. Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", "The Wind Cries Mary".
He achieved fame in the U. S. after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the U. S.. The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970, before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27. Hendrix was inspired musically by American roll and electric blues, he favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, was instrumental in popularizing the undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback. He was one of the first guitarists to make extensive use of tone-altering effects units, such as fuzz tone, wah-wah, Uni-Vibe in mainstream rock, he was the first artist to use stereophonic phasing effects in music recordings. Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: "Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source. Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began."Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously.
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year, in 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year. Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year; the Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Rolling Stone ranked the band's three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time. Jimi Hendrix had a diverse heritage, his paternal grandmother, Zenora "Nora" Rose Moore, was one-quarter Cherokee. Hendrix's paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix, was born out of an extramarital affair between a woman named Fanny, a grain merchant from Urbana, Ohio, or Illinois, one of the wealthiest men in the area at that time. After Hendrix and Moore relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia, had a son they named James Allen Hendrix on June 10, 1919.
In 1941 after moving to Seattle, Al met Lucille Jeter at a dance. Lucille's father was Preston Jeter, whose mother was born in similar circumstances as Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix. Lucille's mother, née Clarice Lawson, had African Cherokee ancestors. Al, drafted by the U. S. Army to serve in World War II, left to begin his basic training three days after the wedding. Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 1942, in Seattle. In 1946, Johnny's parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall. Stationed in Alabama at the time of Hendrix's birth, Al was denied the standard military furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth, he spent two months locked up without trial, while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his son's birth. During Al's three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son; when Al was away, Hendrix was cared for by family members and friends Lucille's sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding. Al received an honorable discharge from the U.
S. Army on September 1, 1945. Two months unable to find Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, home of a family friend named Mrs. Champ, who had taken care of and had attempted to adopt Hendrix. After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished, they both struggled with alcohol, fought when intoxicated. The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to hide in a closet in their home, his relationship with his brother Leon was precarious. In ad
Janis Lyn Joplin was an American rock and blues singer-songwriter, one of the most successful and known female rock stars of her era. After releasing three albums, she died of a heroin overdose at the age of 27. A fourth album, was released in January 1971, just over three months after her death, it reached number one on the Billboard charts. In 1967, Joplin rose to fame following an appearance at Monterey Pop Festival, where she was the lead singer of the little-known San Francisco psychedelic rock band Big Brother and the Holding Company. After releasing two albums with the band, she left Big Brother to continue as a solo artist with her own backing groups, first the Kozmic Blues Band and the Full Tilt Boogie Band, she appeared at the Festival Express train tour. Five singles by Joplin reached the Billboard Hot 100, including a cover of the Kris Kristofferson song "Me and Bobby McGee", which reached number 1 in March 1971, her most popular songs include her cover versions of "Piece of My Heart", "Cry Baby", "Down on Me", "Ball and Chain", "Summertime".
Joplin, a mezzo-soprano respected for her charismatic performing ability, was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. Audiences and critics alike referred to her stage presence as "electric". Rolling Stone ranked Joplin number 46 on its 2004 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and number 28 on its 2008 list of 100 Greatest Singers of All Time, she remains one of the top-selling musicians in the United States, with Recording Industry Association of America certifications of 15.5 million albums sold. Janis Lyn Joplin was born in Port Arthur, Texas, on January 19, 1943, to Dorothy Bonita East, a registrar at a business college, her husband, Seth Ward Joplin, an engineer at Texaco, she had two younger siblings and Laura. The family belonged to the Churches of Christ denomination, her parents felt. As a teenager, Joplin befriended a group of outcasts, one of whom had albums by blues artists Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, Lead Belly, whom Joplin credited with influencing her decision to become a singer.
She began singing blues and folk music with friends at Thomas Jefferson High School. Former Oklahoma State University and Dallas Cowboys Head Coach, Jimmy Johnson, was a high school classmate of Joplin. Joplin bullied in high school; as a teen, she became overweight and suffered from acne, leaving her with deep scars that required dermabrasion. Other kids at high school would taunt her and call her names like "pig," "freak," "nigger lover," or "creep." She stated, "I was a misfit. I read, I painted, I thought. I didn't hate niggers."Joplin graduated from high school in 1960 and attended Lamar State College of Technology in Beaumont, during the summer and the University of Texas at Austin, though she did not complete her college studies. The campus newspaper, The Daily Texan, ran a profile of her in the issue dated July 27, 1962, headlined "She Dares to Be Different." The article began, "She goes barefooted when she feels like it, wears Levis to class because they're more comfortable, carries her autoharp with her everywhere she goes so that in case she gets the urge to break into song, it will be handy.
Her name is Janis Joplin." While at UT she performed with a folk trio called the Waller Creek Boys and socialized with the staff of the campus humor magazine The Texas Ranger. Joplin cultivated a rebellious manner and styled herself after her female blues heroines and after the Beat poets, her first song, "What Good Can Drinkin' Do", was recorded on tape in December 1962 at the home of a fellow University of Texas student. She left Texas in January 1963, hitchhiking with her friend Chet Helms to North Beach, San Francisco. Still in San Francisco in 1964, Joplin and future Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen recorded a number of blues standards, which incidentally featured Kaukonen's wife Margareta using a typewriter in the background; this session included seven tracks: "Typewriter Talk", "Trouble in Mind", "Kansas City Blues", "Hesitation Blues", "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out", "Daddy, Daddy", "Long Black Train Blues", was released long after Joplin's death as the bootleg album The Typewriter Tape.
In 1963, Joplin was arrested in San Francisco for shoplifting. During the two years that followed, her drug use increased and she acquired a reputation as a "speed freak" and occasional heroin user, she used other psychoactive drugs and was a heavy drinker throughout her career. In May 1965, Joplin's friends in San Francisco, noticing the detrimental effects on her from injecting methamphetamine, persuaded her to return to Port Arthur. During that month, her friends threw her a bus-fare party so she could return to her parents in Texas. Five years Joplin told Rolling Stone magazine writer David Dalton the following about her first stint in San Francisco: "I didn't have many friends and I didn't like the ones I had."Back in Port Arthur in the spring of 1965, after Joplin's parents noticed her weight of 88 pounds, she changed her lifestyle. She avoided drugs and alcohol, adopted a beehive hairdo, enrolled as an anthropology major at Lamar University in nearby Beaumont, Texas. During her time at Lamar University, she commuted to Austin to sing solo, accompanying herself on acoustic guitar.
One of her
Canned Heat is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles in 1965. The group has been noted for its interpretations of blues material and for its efforts to promote interest in this type of music and its original artists, it was launched by two blues enthusiasts, Alan Wilson and Bob Hite, who took the name from Tommy Johnson's 1928 "Canned Heat Blues", a song about an alcoholic who had turned to drinking Sterno, generically called "canned heat", After appearances at the Monterey and Woodstock festivals at the end of the 1960s, the band acquired worldwide fame with a lineup consisting of Hite, Henry Vestine and Harvey Mandel, Larry Taylor, Adolfo de la Parra. The music and attitude of Canned Heat attracted a large following and established the band as one of the popular acts of the hippie era. Canned Heat appeared at most major musical events at the end of the 1960s, performing blues standards along with their own material and indulging in lengthy'psychedelic' solos. Two of their songs – "Going Up the Country" and "On the Road Again" – became international hits.
"Going Up the Country" was a remake of the Henry Thomas song "Bull Doze Blues", recorded in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1927. "On the Road Again" was a remake of the 1953 Floyd Jones song of the same name, based on the Tommy Johnson song "Big Road Blues", recorded in 1928. Since the early 1970s, numerous personnel changes have occurred, although the current lineup includes all three surviving members of the classic lineup: de la Parra and Taylor. For much of the 1990s and 2000s, de la Parra was the only member from the band's 1960s lineup, he wrote a book about the band's career, titled Living the Blues. Larry Taylor, whose presence in the band has not been steady, is the other surviving member from the earliest lineups. Mandel, Walter Trout and Junior Watson are among the guitarists who gained fame for playing in editions of the band. Canned Heat was started within the community of blues collectors. Bob Hite had been trading blues records since his early teens and his house in Topanga Canyon was a meeting place for people interested in music.
In 1965 some blues devotees there started rehearsals. The initial configuration comprised Bob Hite as vocalist, Alan Wilson on bottleneck guitar, Mike Perlowin on lead guitar, Stu Brotman on bass and Keith Sawyer on drums. Perlowin and Sawyer dropped out within a few days, so guitarist Kenny Edwards stepped in to replace Perlowin, Ron Holmes agreed to sit in on drums until they could find a permanent drummer. Another of Bob's friends, Henry Vestine, asked if he could join the band and was accepted while keeping Edwards on temporarily. Soon Edwards departed and at the same time Frank Cook came in to replace Holmes as their permanent drummer. Cook had substantial professional experience, having performed with such jazz luminaries as bassist Charlie Haden, trumpeter Chet Baker, pianist Elmo Hope and had collaborated with black soul/pop artists such as Shirley Ellis and Dobie Gray. Producer Johnny Otis recorded the band's first album in 1966 with the ensemble of Hite, Cook and Brotman. Otis ran the board for a dozen tracks, including two versions of "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Spoonful" by Willie Dixon, "Louise" by John Lee Hooker all from his studio off of Vine Street in Los Angeles.
Over a summer hiatus in 1966 Stuart Brotman left Canned Heat after he had signed a contract for a long engagement in Fresno with an Armenian belly-dance revue. Canned Heat had contacted Brotman, touting a recording contract which had to be signed the next day, but Brotman was unable to make the signing on short notice. Brotman would go on to join the world-music band Kaleidoscope with David Lindley, replacing Chris Darrow. Replacing Brotman in Canned Heat was Mark Andes, who lasted only a couple of months before he returned to his former colleagues in the Red Roosters, who adopted the new name Spirits Rebellious shortened to Spirit. After joining up with managers Skip Taylor and John Hartmann, Canned Heat found a permanent bassist in Larry Taylor, who joined in March 1967, he was a former member of The Moondogs and the brother of Ventures' drummer, Mel Taylor, had experience backing Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry in concert, recording studio sessions for The Monkees. In this format the band started recording in April 1967 for Liberty Records with Calvin Carter, the head of A&R for Vee Jay Records and had recorded such bluesmen as Jimmy Reed, John Lee Hooker.
They recorded "Rollin' and Tumblin'", backed with "Bullfrog Blues", this became Canned Heat's first single. The first official album, Canned Heat, was released three months in July 1967. All tracks were re-workings of older blues songs; the Los Angeles Free Press reported: "This group has it! They should do well, both live and with their recordings." Canned Heat fared reasonably well commercially. The first big live appearance of Canned Heat was at the Monterey Pop Festival on June 17, 1967. A picture of the band taken at the performance was featured on the cover of Down Beat Magazine where an article complimented their playing: "Technically, Vestine and Wi
Richard Pierce "Richie" Havens was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. His music encompassed elements of folk and rhythm and blues, he had an intense and rhythmic guitar style, played soulful covers of pop and folk songs, opened at the 1969 Woodstock Festival. Born in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, Havens was the oldest of nine children, he was of Native American descent on his father's side and of the British West Indies on his mother's. His grandfather was Blackfoot of the Montana/South Dakota area. Havens' grandfather and great-uncle joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, got off in New York City, ended up on the Shinnecock Reservation in Long Island. Havens' grandfather got married moved to Brooklyn; as a youth in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Havens began organizing his neighborhood friends into street corner doo-wop groups and, at age 16, was performing with the McCrea Gospel Singers. At age 20, Havens left Brooklyn. "I saw the Village as a place to escape to, in order to express yourself," he recalled.
"I had first gone there during the beatnik days of the 1950s to perform poetry I drew portraits for two years and stayed up all night listening to folk music in the clubs. It took a while before I thought of picking up a guitar." Havens' solo performances spread beyond the Village folk circles. After cutting two records for Douglas Records, he signed on with Bob Dylan's manager, Albert Grossman, landed a record deal with the Verve Folkways label. Verve released Mixed Bag in late 1966, which featured tracks such as "Handsome Johnny", "Follow", a cover of Bob Dylan's "Just Like a Woman". Havens released his first single, "No Opportunity Necessary", in 1967. By 1969, he had released five more albums. Something Else Again became his first album to hit the Billboard charts, it pulled Mixed Bag back onto the charts. Two of those albums were unauthorized "exploitation albums" released by Douglas Records: Electric Havens and Richie Havens Record. Havens' live performances earned widespread notice, his Woodstock appearance in 1969 catapulted him into stardom and was a major turning point in his career.
As the festival's first performer, he held the crowd for nearly three hours. In part, Havens was told to continue playing because many artists scheduled to perform after him were delayed in reaching the festival location with highways at a virtual standstill, he was called back for several encores. Having run out of tunes, he improvised a song based on the old spiritual "Motherless Child" that became "Freedom". In an interview with Cliff Smith, for Music-Room, he explained: "I'd played every song I knew and I was stalling, asking for more guitar and mic, trying to think of something else to play – and it just came to me... The establishment was foolish enough to give us all this freedom and we used it in every way we could." The subsequent Woodstock movie release helped. He appeared two weeks at the Isle of Wight Festival. Following the success of his Woodstock performance, Havens started his own record label, Stormy Forest, released Stonehenge in 1970; that year came Alarm Clock, which included the George Harrison-penned hit single, "Here Comes the Sun".
This was Havens' first album to reach Billboard's Top 30 Chart. Stormy Forest went on to release four more of his albums: The Great Blind Degree, Live On Stage and Mixed Bag II. Memorable television appearances included performances on The Ed Sullivan Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. On the latter program, the audience reacted with such enthusiasm that when the applause continued after the commercial break, Carson asked Havens to return the following night. Havens began acting during the 1970s, he was featured in the original 1972 stage presentation of The Who's Tommy, as Othello in the 1974 film Catch My Soul, in Greased Lightning alongside Richard Pryor, in Bob Dylan's Hearts of Fire. Havens devoted his energies to educating young people about ecological issues. In the mid-1970s, he co-founded the Northwind Undersea Institute, an oceanographic children's museum on City Island in The Bronx. That, in turn, led to the creation of the Natural Guard, an organization Havens described as "...a way of helping kids learn that they can have a hands-on role in affecting the environment.
Children study the land and air in their own communities and see how they can make positive changes from something as simple as planting a garden in an abandoned lot."In July 1978, he was a featured performer at the Benefit Concert for The Longest Walk, an American Indian spiritual walk from Alcatraz to Washington, DC affirming treaty rights, as a result of legislation, introduced to abrogate Indian treaties. During the 1980s and 1990s, Havens continued a world touring schedule and released albums; the release of 1993's Resume, The Best of Richie Havens, on Rhino Records, collected his late 1960s and early 1970s recordings. In 1982, he composed and performed a promotional slogan for NBC's 1982–83 television season, entitled We're NBC, Just Watch Us Now, he performed slogans for CBS and ABC, recorded commercials for Amtrak and in 1985, for Coca-Cola. Havens did corporate commercial work for Maxwell House Coffee, as well as sang "The Fabric of Our Lives" theme for the cotton industry. In 1982, he appeared at the UK's Glastonbury Festival, closing the show on the Sunda
Rhino Entertainment Company is an American specialty record label and production company founded in 1978. It is the catalog division for Warner Music Group, its current CEO is Mark Pinkus. Founded in 1978, Rhino was a novelty and reissue label during the 1970s and 1980s, it released compilation albums of pop, rock & roll, rhythm & blues successes from the 1950s through the 1980s, as well as novelty-song LPs and retrospectives of famous comedy performers, including Richard Pryor, Stan Freberg, Tom Lehrer, Spike Jones. Rhino started as a record shop on Westwood Boulevard, Los Angeles, in 1973, run by Richard Foos, became a record distributor five years thanks to the effort of then-store manager Harold Bronson, their early releases were novelty records. The difficulties involved in getting airplay and distribution for such material caused Foos and Bronson to take the label in other directions. One of Rhino's early artists was The Twisters, whose Los Angeles popularity far exceeded their album sales.
Rhino's mail-order catalogs and early LP labels featured the company's mascot character, a cartoon Elvis Presley rhinoceros wearing a black leather jacket named "Rocky", designed by bootleg cover artist William Stout, cartoonist Scott Shaw!. Some of the label's earliest successes with reissues were achieved by acquiring the rights to the White Whale Records catalog that included the Turtles. By the mid-1980s, most of Rhino's releases were reissues of released recordings licensed from other companies. For superior sound quality, audio mastering of the original tapes was done under the direction of Bill Inglot, the label's creative packaging made Rhino one of the most respected reissue record labels, receiving rave reviews from music collectors and historians. Rhino was quick to get into the compact disc market, releasing dozens of oldies CDs at the dawn of the CD age in 1984, their retrospective compact disc releases, such as those in the Billboard Top Hits series, are remastered to restore or improve upon the releases' original analog audio quality.
In the late 1980s, Rhino transitioned into a complete entertainment company specializing in home video reissues of television programs such as The Monkees, The Lone Ranger, The Transformers, Mystery Science Theater 3000, Ed Sullivan's Rock'n' Roll Classics collection, as well as compact disc releases of select artists and movie soundtracks. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the company continued to sign artists and release new music, on the main Rhino label and on subsidiary labels such as RNA and Forward. However, the company's artists tended to generate more critical acclaim than public interest. One exception was the success of "At This Moment" by Billy Vera & the Beaters, a 1981 song that went to the top of the U. S. Billboard charts in late 1986 after being featured in an episode of the hit NBC TV series Family Ties. In 1985, Rhino signed a six-year distribution agreement with Capitol Records. During 1989 Rhino and Capitol’s parent EMI made a deal to jointly acquire Roulette Records; when the distribution deal with Capitol ended in 1992, Rhino signed a new distribution deal with Atlantic Records, in turn Time Warner bought a 50 per cent stake in the record company.
In 1998, Time Warner bought the other half of Rhino. The Rhino Records retail store, part of the 50% sale in 1992 but which reverted to Foos after Time Warner bought out the remainder, closed in 2005, it is through this merger that the label has reissued material from such artists as the Monkees, Eric Burdon, Dannii Minogue, the Ramones, the Grateful Dead, Lake & Palmer, the Beach Boys, the Doobie Brothers, the Cars, Tom Paxton, Third Eye Blind, the Doors, Spirit of the West and most the Bee Gees. Rhino's soundtrack releases include Gone with the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, Easter Parade, North by Northwest, King Kong, Doctor Zhivago and Finian's Rainbow; the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. film soundtrack libraries are managed by Warner Bros.' in-house label subsidiary, WaterTower Music. In 1999, Rhino started the'Rhino Handmade' division of limited-edition releases available from their website. All Handmade deluxe editions were limited to about 3,000 copies or less, once sold out were not re-pressed.
In 2003, co-founders and longtime executives Richard Foos and Harold Bronson left Rhino due to frustration with the challenges of an competitive market. In fact, Time Warner's final vesting of its 100 percent ownership of the label, its subsequent'reorganization' of label staff, which did not stop at the former owners, were the major factors in their exits. Soon after, Foos inaugurated a new label, Shout! Factory, which began releasing dozens of CDs and videos mirroring the original early-1990s Rhino philosophy. In 2004, Time Warner spun off its music divisions and today Rhino is part of the newly organized Warner Music Gr