Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is the pre-eminent professional competition of Australian rules football. Through the AFL Commission, the AFL serves as the sport's governing body, is responsible for controlling the laws of the game; the league was founded as the Victorian Football League as a breakaway from the previous Victorian Football Association, with its inaugural season commencing in 1897. Comprising only teams based in the Australian state of Victoria, the competition's name was changed to the Australian Football League for the 1990 season, after expanding to other states throughout the 1980s; the league consists of 18 teams spread over five of Australia's six states. Matches have been played in all states and mainland territories of Australia, as well as in New Zealand and China to promote the sport abroad; the AFL season consists of a pre-season competition, followed by a 23-round regular season, which runs during the Australian winter. The team with the best record after the home-and-away series is awarded the "minor premiership."
The top eight teams play off in a four-round finals series, culminating in the AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground each year. The grand final winner is termed the "premiers", is awarded the premiership cup; the current premiers are the West Coast Eagles. The Victorian Football Association was established in 1877 and went on to become Victoria's major Australian rules football competition. During the 1890s, an off-field power struggle occurred between the VFA's stronger and weaker clubs, the former seeking greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a head in 1896 when it was proposed that gate profits, which were always lower in matches involving the weaker clubs, be shared amongst all teams in the VFA. After it was intimated that the proposal would be put to a vote, six of the strongest clubs—Collingwood, Fitzroy, Geelong and South Melbourne—seceded from the VFA, invited Carlton and St Kilda to join them in founding a new competition, the Victorian Football League.
The remaining VFA clubs—Footscray, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne and Williamstown—were given the opportunity to compete as a junior sides at a level beneath the VFL, but rejected the offer and remained for the 1897 VFA season. The VFL's inaugural season occurred in 1897, it made several innovations early on to entice the public's interest, including an annual finals tournament, rather than awarding the premiership to the team with the best record through the season. Although the VFL and the VFA continued to compete for spectator interest for many years, the VFL established itself as the premier competition in Victoria. In 1908, the league expanded to ten teams, with Richmond crossing from the VFA and University Football Club from the Metropolitan Football Association. University, after three promising seasons, finished last each year from 1911 until 1914, including losing 51 matches in a row; as a result, the club withdrew from the VFL at the end of 1914. Beginning sporadically during the late 1890s and from 1907 until World War I, the VFL premier and the premier of the South Australian Football League met in a playoff match for the Championship of Australia.
South Australia's Port Adelaide was the most successful club of the competition winning three titles during the period along with an earlier victory. In 1925, the VFL expanded from nine teams to twelve, with Footscray and North Melbourne each crossing from the VFA. North Melbourne and Hawthorn remained weak in the VFL for a long period. Although North Melbourne would become the first of the 1925 expansion sides to reach a Grand Final in 1950 it was Footscray that adapted to the VFL with the most ease of the three clubs, by 1928 were well off the bottom of the ladder. Between the years of 1927 and 1930, Collingwood became the first, only VFL team, to win four successive Premierships. In 1952, the VFL hosted ` National Day'. Matches were played at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Brisbane Exhibition Ground, North Hobart Oval, Albury Sports Ground and Victorian country towns Yallourn and Euroa. Footscray became the first of the 1925 expansion teams to win the premiership in 1954. Melbourne became a powerhouse during the 1950s and early 1960s under coach Norm Smith and star player Ron Barassi.
The club contested seven consecutive grand finals from 1954 to 1960, winning five premierships, including three in a row from 1955 to 1957. Television coverage began with direct telecasts of the final quarter permitted. At first, several channels competed through broadcasting different games. However, when the VFL found that television was reducing crowds, it decided that no coverage was to be allowed for 1960. In 1961, replays were introduced although direct telecasts were permitted in Melbourne. In 1959, the VFL planned the first purpose built mega-stadium, VFL Park, to give it some independence from the Melbourne Crick
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
North Melbourne Football Club
The North Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Kangaroos or less formally the Roos, the Kangas or North, is the fourth oldest Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League and is one of the oldest sporting clubs in Australia and the world. It is based at the Arden Street Oval in the inner Melbourne suburb of North Melbourne, but plays its home matches at the nearby Docklands Stadium; the club's mascot is a grey kangaroo, its use dates from the middle of the 20th century. The club is unofficially known as "The Shinboners", a term which dates back to its 19th-century abattoir-worker origins; the club's motto is Victoria amat curam, Latin for "Victory Demands Dedication". In two aspects North Melbourne stands second to none. One is the loyalty of its supporters; the other is the determination to carry on, despite its disadvantages. In the face of adversity, which might well have broken the spirit of most men, we find that from the earliest days there were always enthusiasts to fight for North Melbourne.
North Melbourne Football Club originated in the year 1869, when a football team was formed for local cricketers desiring to keep fit over the winter months. One thought is that the club was connected to the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club, now the St Mary's Anglican Church North Melbourne, whose colours – blue and white – are reflected in the North Melbourne's colours today; the association between the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club and the establishment of the North Melbourne Football Club is believed to have been an informal gathering to play some competitive sport. Information on the club's first match is limited, but it is known that it took place in Royal Park, which served as the club's home ground until 1882; the ball used in the match was purchased by a local resident called Tom Jacks, who sold some roofing iron to pay for it. James Henry Gardiner is considered the founder of the club, he continued an active role with North Melbourne until his death in 1921. Regular premiership matches of Australian Football commenced in Victoria in 1870.
Although North Melbourne was a part of this, it was classed as a "junior club". The Australasian noted them as being "one of the best of many junior clubs"; the club continued graduating to senior ranks in 1874 finishing 4th. Along with the promotion, the club adopted its first uniform of white horizontal stripes. In 1876 North Melbourne disbanded and many of its player and members joined Albert-park, giving the club such a strong North Melbourne character that many described it as "Albert-park cum North Melbourne". In 1877, the club was re-established as a stand-alone club under the new name of "Hotham". Football took a giant step forward in 1877, with the formation of Victoria's first colonial football league, the VFA. Hotham were prime movers in establishing this league and were afforded a place in light of their previous contributions to Australian Football; the 1880s marked the emergence of the modern identity today. In 1882, the club amalgamated with the Hotham Cricket Club and moved into the North Melbourne Recreation Reserve, which remains the home of the club today.
The joint venture was aimed at affecting improvements at the Hotham Cricket Ground, the name of the Reserve at the time. Four years the club adopted the traditional uniform of blue and white vertical stripes at the insistence of the VFA, who wanted a visible contrast between Geelong's and Hotham's uniforms; the third significant development occurred in 1888 with the club returning to its original name of the North Melbourne Football Club. This followed the name of the local area reverting from Hotham to North Melbourne; the 1880s saw the club develop a penchant for inter-colonial travel with trips to Tasmania and South Australia. Hotham found itself well represented at the first inter-colonial representative game in 1879 with four players from the club gaining selection for Victoria; the VFA grew to 13 senior clubs in the 1890s. Led by Geelong and Essendon, the largest clubs of the VFA formed their own break away league, the Victorian Football League, in 1896. Despite finishing 6th in 1896, North Melbourne was not invited to the breakaway competition.
The main reasons for being excluded were: North had not won a premiership yet, thus was not considered a powerful club The industrialisation of the locality had drained the club's income streams The club had a strong reputation for hooliganism from their fans There was a lot of bad blood between Collingwood and North following a torrid engagement in the previous season Essendon felt threatened by the proximity of North Melbourne A court case against the North Melbourne Cricket Club had damaged the Football Club's statusNorth continued on in the depleted VFA, emerging as a powerhouse, finishing 2nd in 1897, 1898 and 1899. In 1903, after 34 years of competing, the club won its first premiership, defeating Richmond in the final; the club became back to back premiers in 1904 after Richmond forfeited the grand final due to the appointment of an umpire whose performance when the two teams met earlier in the year was criticised by Richmond players and officials. North merged with fellow VFA football club West Melbourne in 1907, which at the time had lost its home ground.
The joint venture saw a chance of promotion, the club applied for admission to the more prestigious VFL in 1908, but Richmond and University were admitted instead. North was kicked out of the VFA during the 1907/08 offseason as a result of applying to join the VFL, before the local community reestablished the North Melbourne Football Club under a new committee enabling the club to play in the VFA in the 1908 season; the reformation of the Club necessitated a
Adelaide Football Club
The Adelaide Football Club, nicknamed the Crows, is a professional Australian rules football club that competes in the Australian Football League. The club is based in Adelaide, South Australia, playing its home matches at Adelaide Oval; the club has its training and administration base at Football Park in West Lakes, where it played home matches between 1991 and 2013. The club song is "The Pride of South Australia", to the tune of the Marines' Hymn; the Crows were formed in 1990 to be the'state team' to represent South Australia in the AFL. They were owned by the South Australian National Football League, before gaining independence, they played their first season in 1991. They won both the 1997 and 1998 Grand Finals, have appeared in 15 finals series in their 28-year history; the club is co-captained by Taylor Walker and Rory Sloane and coached by Don Pyke. Walker was appointed captain prior to the 2015 season, While Sloane joined Walker as co-captains at the beginning of the 2019 season while Pyke permanently succeeded the late Phil Walsh as head coach in October 2015.
After the VFL was renamed the AFL for the 1990 season, the SANFL clubs unanimously resolved, in May 1990, that a team would not be entered into the AFL until season 1993. The AFL refused to accept this, revised negotiations with individual clubs Port Adelaide and Norwood. Two months the Port Adelaide Football Club reached terms of agreement with the AFL to enter a team into its competition in season 1991; the other nine SANFL clubs reacted and entered into litigation in an endeavour to halt Port's bid. As the terms offered were more favourable than offered, talks were resumed. On 19 September 1990, the AFL approved the bid for a new South Australian club to enter to the league, rather than a single existing SANFL club; the Adelaide Crows played their first season in the AFL in 1991. Inaugural coach Graham Cornes and captain Chris McDermott led Adelaide to a respectable ninth place out of 15 in the league, with 10 wins and 12 losses and a percentage of 89.44. Adelaide's first AFL game was against Hawthorn on Friday 22 March at their home ground, Football Park.
The Crows defeated the eventual premiers by a hefty 86-point margin, winning 24.11 to 9.15. The club reached its first finals series in the 1993 AFL season losing to Essendon in the preliminary final; the year 1997 marked the entry of Port Adelaide. The Crows finished fourth to qualify for its first finals series since 1993, hosted fifth-placed West Coast in the First Elimination Final. In the first final to be played at Football Park, the Crows won 14.15 to 9.12. The next week, Adelaide benefited from the finals system in use at the time and hosted the higher ranked Geelong, who had finished two places above the Crows but were forced to play away due to losing the previous week to North Melbourne; the Crows won narrowly in a controversial match, where a clear forward 50 mark to Geelong's Leigh Colbert during a critical stage of the third quarter was not awarded by field umpire Grant Vernon. Final scores: Adelaide 11.10 to Geelong 9.14. This set up an away Preliminary Final against the Western Bulldogs at the MCG.
Despite losing Coleman Medallist Tony Modra, who had kicked 84 goals for the season, to an ACL injury in the first quarter and trailing by 31 points at half time, the Crows kicked four unanswered goals in the last quarter to record a two-point victory, 12.21 to 13.13, with Darren Jarman kicking a goal to put Adelaide in front with less than two minutes remaining. This allowed the Crows to qualify for their first AFL Grand Final, to be played against St Kilda at the MCG a week later. St Kilda, chasing just their second premiership in VFL/AFL history, were warm favourites to win the Grand Final, having come first in the minor round and won both of their finals by margins of 46 and 31 points, against an Adelaide side without Tony Modra, Mark Ricciuto and goalsneak Peter Vardy due to injury. However, the Crows again overcame a half-time deficit, kicking 14 second-half goals to win by 31 points, 19.11 to 13.16. Darren Jarman kicked six goals, five of which came in the last quarter, whilst utility Shane Ellen kicked a career-best five and Troy Bond kicked four.
Andrew McLeod, who gathered 31 possessions across half-back and in the midfield, won the Norm Smith Medal for the best player on-field in the Grand Final. The win is arguably one of the finest moments in South Australian sporting history. Few expected the Crows to defend their premiership the following year. Adelaide struggled in close matches during the 1998 AFL season; the Crows were well beaten by Melbourne in the qualifying final at the MCG by 48 points, at the time, looked far from a premiership threat. Since season 2000, a loss in the finals by a team outside the top four would result in instant elimination, but the Crows benefited from a quirk in the McIntyre finals system, in use during the 90's and still progressed to the second week, drawn to play a semi final against the Sydney Swans at the SCG; the Crows bounced back from their disappointing first finals loss and recorded a comprehensive upset 27 point win against the Swans in the wet, which set up a Preliminary Final rematch against the Western Bulldogs.
Despite going into the match as underdogs, the Crows played some of their best football of the year to soundly beat the Dogs by 68 points - 24.17 to 13.15. It was a complete contrast to the thriller that took place the previous year, with Matthew Robran kicking six goals an
Football Park known commercially as AAMI Stadium, was an Australian rules football stadium located in West Lakes, a western suburb of Adelaide, the state capital of South Australia, Australia. It was built in 1973 by the South Australian National Football League and opened in 1974; until the end of the 2013 AFL season, it served as the home ground of the Adelaide Football Club and the Port Adelaide Football Club. It hosted all SANFL finals from 1974 to 2013. Prior to its demolition completed in March 2019, it had a seating capacity of 51,240. Ground was broken for Football Park in 1971, giving the SANFL its own venue after years of playing out of the Adelaide Oval, controlled by the South Australian Cricket Association. Due to ongoing conflicts with the SACA, the SANFL had wanted to leave Adelaide Oval and into their own home stadium for a number of years settling on the undeveloped swampland at West Lakes in 1970; the stadium hosted its first football game on 4 May 1974, an SANFL match between Central District and North Adelaide.
The first goal was kicked by North Adelaide's Barry Hearl, but Central District won the game defeating North Adelaide by 30 points. Intended to have a capacity of around 80,000, Football Park was standing room only in the outer with bench seating in the main grandstand and ended up with a capacity of 62,000. Bench seating was added to the stadium's bowl section, the concourse roof was finished in 1982, by which time the grounds capacity had settled to around 55,000; the new roof gave the outer of the ground a limited number of under cover seats, as well as opening up more space for advertising boards. Television screens showing the games in progress at the ground are in place under the concourse roof, as well as in the members area. After long-term negotiations with the State Government and the local council, as well as local residents, the SANFL started building the ground's four light towers in late 1983; these were finished by early 1984, with all night games in Adelaide moving from the suburban grounds to league headquarters for the next 16 years.
Following the Adelaide Crows joining the AFL in 1991, being joined by Port Adelaide in 1997, new corporate "superboxes" were built on top of the southern concourse, stretching from the scoreboard around to the members grandstand. The following year the stadium got its first video superscreen, although the old scoreboard located above the tunnel in the south-east corner remained in place as the main scoreboard. After years of speculation, Football Park's members grandstand was extended in 2001 with the opening of the new Northern Stand, opening up 7,000 new seats; the new grandstand was fitted with individual plastic seats, the rest of the stadium was brought into line with this in 2004, seeing an end to the unpopular aluminum bench seating, dropping capacity to 51,240. In addition to football, Football Park has hosted cricket matches, including the Kerry Packer-run World Series Cricket competition of the late 1970s when the upstart competition was shut out of major grounds such as the Adelaide Oval.
The stadium has hosted International rules football games between Australia and Ireland, as well as being used for rock concerts. Football Park hosted a National Soccer League game during the early-mid 1990s; the record football crowd at Football Park was 66,897 when Sturt defeated Port Adelaide in the 1976 SANFL Grand Final, though police believe the attendance figure was closer to 80,000. To avoid a crush, spectators were allowed on the field between the boundary line and the fence, thousands were turned away by the police as the house full signs went up. Adelaide and Port Adelaide played their last home games at Football Park in 2013, with both clubs moving to the Adelaide Oval in 2014; the record Showdown attendance at Football Park was recorded at Showdown XIX on 10 September 2005 when 50,521 saw the Crows defeat the Power by 83 points in the 2005 First Semi Final. A pre-season match was played at the ground between the two sides in March 2015, in what was the last official event to be held at the ground.
Adelaide still use the playing surface as its primary training round, have their administrative facilities based next to the oval. Major artists held concerts at Football Park, including ABBA, Neil Diamond, Alice Cooper, Dire Straits, Electric Light Orchestra, U2, The Rolling Stones, Elton John with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra on 21 November 1986 and Robbie Williams. Bon Jovi performed at Football Park in December 2013. One Direction performed at Football Park in February 2015. After it was built, Football Park underwent several additions including: In 1982 the outer concourse was completed during the SANFL season giving a limited number of permanent undercover seats for the general public; the stadium was converted to an all-seater stadium with the installation of aluminium bench seating on the outer's lower deck, concrete terraces. This reduced capacity at the time from 62,000 to around 55,000. In 1984 the Light Towers were installed; the first game played under lights at the stadium was an Escort Cup match which saw South Adelaide defeat Glenelg 10.9 to 7.8.
The game was Glenelg champion Peter Carey's 300th game of SANFL league football. To appease the local residents, night games at Football Park had a 10:30pm curfew. In 1985 alcohol was banned from the seats. Alcohol could only be consumed in the bar areas. In 2009, this ban was removed. In 1997 the stadium opened new corporate
South Australian Register
The Register the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, South Australian Register, was South Australia's first newspaper. It was first published in London in June 1836, moved to Adelaide in 1837, folded into The Advertiser a century in February 1931; the newspaper was the sole primary source for all information about the settlement and early history of South Australia. It documented shipping schedules, legal history and court records at a time when official records were not kept. According to the National Library of Australia, its pages contain "one hundred years of births, marriages, building history, the establishment of towns and businesses and social comment". Issues published between 22 June 1839 and 31 December 1900 are available online, via Trove; the Register was conceived by Robert Thomas, a law stationer, who had purchased for his family 134 acres of land in the proposed South Australian province after being impressed by the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The first issue, appeared in London on 18 June 1836 with his friend and partner, George Stevenson, as editor.
Thomas embarked for South Australia aboard the Africaine that year, arriving on 10 November 1836 with his family and equipment to set up a printing plant. It was six months before the first colonial edition of The Register was printed on 3 June 1837 in a small mud hut on Town Acre No. 56 in Hindley Street, near what is now named Register Place. From the start, the paper asserted a independent stance. Stevenson's style was provocative, making himself and The Register several enemies, his opposition to Colonel William Light's choice of site for the new capital and J. H. Fisher as Resident Commissioner, led them and others to found the Southern Australian in direct competition with The Register; the paper's antagonism of Governor Gawler led to The Register losing government business notably the South Australian Government Gazette. The printers Thomas & Co. had disengaged themselves from editorial content in June 1839 in a vain attempt to protect their monopoly and lost about £1,650 a year. His protest that he was authorised by the British Government to do its printing failed and, insolvent, he sold the paper for £600 to James Allen in 1842, as Stevenson withdrew from journalism.
Thomas published the weekly Adelaide Chronicle and South Australian Literary Record. John Stephens, who had in 1843 founded The Adelaide Observer, in 1845 purchased The Register. Anthony Forster became part owner in 1848. Forster's share was taken over by Joseph Fisher in 1853 sold to John Howard Clark in 1865; the paper, having been printed sporadically became weekly in June 1838 and twice-weekly from February 1843. By 1840, The Register employed a staff of 21 and had reached a circulation of 900. On 1 January 1850, it became a daily publication, three years the paper was bought back by Thomas's son William Kyffin Thomas as part of South Australia's first media syndicate with Anthony Forster, Edward William Andrews and Joseph Fisher, they purchased its weekly sister publication, The Adelaide Observer, established the Evening Journal which morphed into The Journal, which became The News. The Register outlasted many competitors throughout its long history, holding a monopoly on the market at various stages, but it met its match in The Advertiser.
The Advertiser, founded in 1858, first emerged as a serious challenger to the paper in the 1870s. The defining move which swung Adelaide readership from the conservative Register to the more egalitarian Advertiser was the latter's dramatic price reduction from 2d. to 1d. and hiring an army of canvassers, on commission, to peddle the paper. The Register was slow to respond, the Advertiser started putting its circulation figures on the masthead. By the time the Register cut its price; the Advertiser bought out The Register and closed it down in February 1931 after the Great Depression had reduced its fortunes, forcing it to become pictorial. Details are from an article marking the 50th anniversary of its first publication in South Australia and from 1886 the article "Sketch of the History of the Register" except where noted. 1836 Vol. 1 No. 1 printed in London by Clowes and Sons for Robert Thomas and George Stevenson on 18 June Proclamation of South Australian printed for government on 30 December.
1837 The press was moved to Acre 37 Hindley Street just west of Morphett Street on 1 June. The South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register Vol 1, issue 2 appears, dated 3 June 1837. Although subscribers were promised weekly publication, subsequent issues were published on 8 July, 29 July, 12 August, 16 September, 4 October, 19 October, 11 November. Price at this time was 6d. per issue. 1838? Robert's son William Kyffin Thomas, aged 16, began work for the paper. 1839 Government retracted Thomas's right to publish Government Gazette on 15 June. The paper was henceforth
The Charles Brownlow Trophy, better known as the Brownlow Medal, is awarded to the "best and fairest" player in the Australian Football League during the home-and-away season, as determined by votes cast by the officiating field umpires after each game. It is the most prestigious award for individual players in the AFL, it is widely acknowledged as the highest individual honour in the sport of Australian rules football. The medal was first awarded by the Victorian Football League, it was created and named in honour of Charles Brownlow, a former Geelong Football Club footballer and club secretary, VFL president, who had died in January 1924 after an extended illness. Although the award is spoken of the "best and fairest", the award's specific criterion is "fairest and best", reflecting an emphasis on sportsmanship and fair play, as the 1924 somewhat illuminated citation expressly states: Mr. Edward Greeves Geelong Football ClubTHE CHARLES BROWNLOW TROPHYDear Sir, On behalf of the Victorian Football League, we desire to place on permanent record the appreciation of your excellent play during the Season 1924.
You were selected as the fairest and best player and we have pleasure in presenting the accompanying Gold Medal in recognition of those sterling qualities. Trusting that you will be long spared to interest yourself in the adancement of the Game. We are, yours sincerelyW. Baldwin Spencer, M. E. Green, E. L. Wilson The VFL was the last of the four major mainland leagues to strike an award for league best and fairest: the SANFL's Magarey Medal had been awarded since 1898, while the WAFL's Sandover Medal and the VFA's Woodham Cup had been struck more recently. Over time, all of these awards have migrated towards similar rules regarding eligibility, but for the change of the monogram from VFL to AFL in 1990, the design and size of the medallion itself has remained unchanged from that of 1924. To determine the best player, the three field umpires confer after each home-and-away match and award 3 votes, 2 votes and 1 vote to the players they regard as the best, second best and third best in the match respectively.
On the awards night, the votes from each match are tallied, the player or players with the highest number of votes is awarded the medal. The current voting system has been used for the vast majority of Brownlow Medal counts. There have been different voting systems for short periods in the past: until 1930, only one vote was cast in each game; this was changed to the current 3–2–1 system after the 1930 season saw three players tied on four votes apiece. Since the rules were changed in 1980, if two or more eligible players score the equal highest number of votes, each wins a Brownlow medal. Prior to 1980, if two or more players were tied, a single winner was chosen on a countback: up to 1930, the winner was the player who had played the fewest games. With these considerations, these countbacks failed to separate Des Fothergill and Herbie Matthews, who tied for the medal in 1940; the league decided to keep the original award replica medals to the two winners. In 1989, the eight players who since the inception of the award had tied on votes but lost on a countback were awarded retrospective medals.
The fairest component of the medal is achieved by making ineligible any player, suspended by the AFL Tribunal during the home-and-away season. An ineligible player cannot win the Brownlow Medal, regardless of the number of votes he has received. A player remains eligible for the Brownlow Medal under the following circumstances: if he is suspended during the finals or pre-season; the application of the ineligibility criteria has remained consistent throughout the history of the award, with some subtle changes. For example, from 2005 until 2014, whether or not a player was ineligible was based on the penalty determined by the Tribunal's Match Review Panel before applying adjustments based on a player's good or bad record, or for accepting an early guilty plea or a player's existing good record – meaning that a player could be ineligible based on an infringement, worthy of a one-game suspension, but still avoid suspension by taking an early guilty plea on the charge. Since 2015, the criteria has been based upon whether or not the player is suspended during the season.
Umpires cast their votes for each game independent of eligibility criteria of the players. Prior to 1991, votes could not be awarded to a player in a match in which he was reported, but this rule was eliminated in 1991 so that a player would not be disadvantaged if he would have gained votes in a match in which he was reported but cleared by the tribunal. On three occasions, an ineligible player has tallied the highest number of Brownlow votes: In 1996, Core