Platypodinae is a weevil subfamily in the family Curculionidae. They are important early decomposers of dead woody plant material in wet tropics, they are sometimes known as pinhole borers. Tribus: Mecopelmini MecopelmusTribus: Platypodini Austroplatypus – Baiocis – Carchesiopygus – Costaroplatus – Crossotarsus – Cylindropalpus – Dendroplatypus – Dinoplatypus – Doliopygus – Epiplatypus – Euplatypus – Megaplatypus – Mesoplatypus – Myoplatypus – Neotrachyostus – Oxoplatypus – Pereioplatypus – Peroplatypus – Platyphysus – Platypus – Teloplatypus – Trachyostus – Treptoplatypus – TriozastusTribus: Schedlariini SchedlariusTribus: Tesserocerini Diapodina - Tesserocerina Ambrosia beetle
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Ptinidae is a family of beetles in the superfamily Bostrichoidea. There are 2,200 described species in Ptinidae worldwide; the family includes spider beetles and deathwatch beetles. There are three main groups in the superfamily Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae and Ptinidae; these have undergone frequent changes in hierarchical classification since their inception. They have been treated as a single family, three independent families, the two families Bostrichidae and Anobiidae, or the two families Bostrichidae and Ptinidae. More recent literature treats these as the two families Bostrichidae and Ptinidae, with Anobiidae a subfamily of Ptinidae. Spider beetles are so named; some species have long legs, antennae that can seem like an additional pair of legs, a body shape that may appear superficially like that of a spider. Deathwatch beetles are named because of a clicking noise that two species tend to make in the walls of houses and other buildings; this clicking noise is designed to communicate with potential mates, but has caused fear of impending death during times of plague and sickness.
The larvae of a number of Ptinidae species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". Several species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture, house structures and dried food products; the deathwatch beetles Xestobium rufovillosum, Hemicoelus carinatus, Hemicoelus gibbicollis are economically significant pests, damaging flooring and other timber in housing. The "furniture beetle", Anobium punctatum, is a species, found emerging from in-home wood furnishings; the "drugstore beetle", Stegobium paniceum, is known to infest a variety of stored materials, including bread, cereal, prescription drugs, strychnine powder, packaged foods, Egyptian tombs. The "Cigarette beetle," Lasioderma serricornea, is a widespread and destructive pest of harvested and manufactured tobacco. Damage and economic losses from Lasioderma serricornea infestations were estimated by the USDA to be 0.7% of the total warehoused tobacco commodity in 1971. List of Ptinidae genera
Bookworm is a popular generalization for any insect, said to bore through books. True book-borers are uncommon. Two types of moths, the common clothes moth and the brown house moth, will attack cloth bindings. Leather-bound books attract various beetles, such as the larder beetle, drugstore beetle and the larva of the black carpet beetle. Larval deathwatch beetles and common furniture beetles will tunnel through paper. A major book-feeding insect is the paper louse; these are tiny, soft-bodied wingless psocopterans, which feed on microscopic molds and other organic matter found in ill-maintained works, although they will attack bindings and other book parts, making the booklouse not a true louse. By the 20th century, modern bookbinding materials thwarted much of the damage done to books by various types of book-boring insects. Booklouse Woodworm "John Francis Xavier O'Conor, Facts about bookworms: their history in literature and work in libraries "Bookworms: The Most Common Insect Pests of Paper in Archives and Museums".
Dr. John V. Richardson Jr. PhD. "Timber Borers – Anobium & Lyctus Borers" "Study on integrated pest management for libraries and archives" – prepared by Thomas A Parker for the General Information Programme and UNISIST
Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae, which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead or stressed trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont; the fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, extracts nutrients from it, concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery. Ambrosia fungi are poor wood degraders, instead utilize less demanding nutrients; the majority of ambrosia beetles colonize xylem of dead trees, but some attack stressed trees that are still alive, a few species attack healthy trees. Species differ in their preference for different parts of trees, different stages of deterioration, in the shape of their tunnels. However, the majority of ambrosia beetles are not specialized to any taxonomic group of hosts, unlike most phytophagous organisms including the related bark beetles.
One species of ambrosia beetle, Austroplatypus incompertus exhibits eusociality, one of the few organisms outside of Hymenoptera and Isoptera to do so. Until ambrosia beetles have been placed in independent families Scolytidae and Platypodidae, they are in fact some of the most derived weevils. There are about 3,000 known beetle species employing the ambrosia strategy. Ambrosia beetles are an ecological guild, but not a phylogenetic clade; the ambrosia habit is an example of convergent evolution, as several groups evolved the same symbiotic relationship independently. The highest diversity of ambrosia beetles is in the tropics. In the Paleotropical region, hundreds of species of Xyleborini and Platypodinae are the main agent initiating dead wood decomposition. In the Neotropics and Xyleborini are joined by the scolytine tribe Cortylini. Compared to the diversity in the tropics, ambrosia beetle fauna in the temperate zone is rather limited. In the Nearctic region it is dominated by a few species from Cortylini and Xyloterini.
In the Palearctic ecozone, significant groups are Xyloterini and Xyleborini, joined by Scolytoplatypodini in the Far East. Beetles and their larvae graze on mycelium exposed on the gallery walls and on bodies called sporodochia, clusters of the fungus' spores. Most ambrosia beetle species don't ingest the wood tissue. Following the larval and pupal stage, adult ambrosia beetles collect masses of fungal spores into their mycangia and leave the gallery to find their own tree. A few dozen species of ambrosia fungi have been described in the polyphyletic genera Ambrosiella, Raffaelea and Dryadomyces, Entomocorticium. Many more species remain to be discovered. Little is known about the specificity of ambrosia fungi. Ambrosia fungi are thought to be dependent on transport and inoculation provided by their beetle symbionts, as they have not been found in any other habitat. All ambrosia fungi are asexual and clonal; some beetles are known to acquire fungal inoculum from fungal gardens of other ambrosia beetle species.
During their evolution, most scolytid and platypodid weevils became progressively more or less dependent on fungi co-habiting dead trees. This evolution had various outcomes in different groups: Some phloem-eating bark beetles are vectors of phytopathogenic fungi, which in some cases contribute to tree death; the extent to which fungal pathogenicity benefits the beetles themselves is not at all trivial and remains disputed. Many of phloem-feeding bark beetles use phloem-infesting fungi as an addition to their diet; some phloeophages became dependent on such a mixed diet and evolved mycangia to transport their symbionts from maternal trees to newly infested trees. These beetles are called mycophloeophages. Ambrosia beetles and ambrosia fungi are thus only one end of the spectrum of the weevil-fungus association, where both the beetle and the fungus became dependent on each other; the vast majority of ambrosia beetles colonize dead trees, have minor or no economic effect. A few species are able to colonize living stressed trees.
A few species are able to attack live and healthy trees, those can reach epidemic proportions in non-native, invaded regions. Beetle species that colonize lumber, such as sawlogs, green lumber, stave-bolts cause region-specific economic loss from the pinhole and stained-wood defects caused by their brood galleries. In Northern USA and Canada, conifer logs are attractive to Trypodendron lineatum during the spring swarming flight. Previous studies showed that short log sections become attractive more than corresponding long logs. Laurel wilt disease Forest pathology Euwallacea fornicatus Xyleborus glabratus Images and information on the Ambrosia Symbiosis at the University of Florida; the MSU HISL database contains a worldwide species list of Xyleborini, a major group of ambrosia beetles, from the Catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae of S. L. Wood and D. E. Bright ] A USDA-sponsored information resource and key to the world genera of Xyleborini American Bark and Ambrosia Beetles More information on ambrosia beetle social behaviour and fungiculture on Farewell to taco topping?
The effects of the Redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease Ambrosia beetles on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Platypus spp. ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus cras
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby; the western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of West Papua. At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975; this followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen, it became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world, it is one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres. There are 851 known languages in the country. Most of the population of more than 8 million people lives in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.
The country is one of the world's least explored and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund. Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth-fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011. Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015. Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations at the Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s. Nearly 40 per cent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital. Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming, their social lives combine traditional religion including primary education.
These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society" and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. The nation is an observer state in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN since 1976, has filed its application for full membership status, it is the Commonwealth of Nations. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago, they were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration. Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. A major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC; this has been correlated with the introduction of pottery and certain fishing techniques.
In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became part of the staples. Portuguese traders had introduced it to the Moluccas; the far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture and societies. Sweet potato supplanted the previous staple and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. Although by the late 20th century headhunting and cannibalism had been eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers. In 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, missionary Harry Dauncey found 10,000 skulls in the island's long houses, a demonstration of past practices. According to Marianna Torgovnick, writing in 1991, "The most documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties and Seventies, still leave traces within certain social groups."Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Menezes and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century.
Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence; the word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. "New Guinea" was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country for some decades, beginning in 1884, as a colony named German New Guinea. In 1914 after the outbreak of World War I, Australian forces landed and captured German New Guinea in a small military campaign and occupied it throughout the war.
After the war, in which Germany and the Central Pow
The wharf borer, Nacerdes melanura, belongs to the insect order Coleoptera, the beetles. They belong to the family Oedemeridae, which are known as false blister beetles. Wharf borers are present in all the states of the USA except for Florida, it takes about a year to develop from an egg to an adult. The insect is called the'wharf borer' because the larval stage of this insect is found on pilings and timbers of wharves along coastal areas; the adult beetles can be identified via a black band across the end of both elytra. In addition, wharf borers can be distinguished from other members of the family Oedemeridae via the presence of a single spur on the tibia of the forelegs, the distance between both eyes. Eggs are oviposited on rotten wood where larvae burrow to feed on rotten wood. Adults do not depend on stored energy reserves accumulated during the larval stage, they are considered to be a pest because they damage wood used in building infrastructures. The female of this beetle will lay eggs in any damp, decaying timber, attacked by fungus.
The eggs are creamy white in colour curved with tapered ends. The larvae creamy white, is equipped with brown mandibles, ready to bore into the timber and feed on the wood; the adult insects are around 10–12 mm in length, yellowish to reddish orange in colour, with a long slender body and antennae half of its body length. The adult beetles can emerge from under the floor of buildings in quite large numbers, causing the occupants to think they may be being invaded by cockroaches; the beetles themselves are quite harmless. They may be distinguished from cockroaches by the black band across the end of both elytra. Another distinguishing feature is the three raised longitudinal lines on each wing case - a feature common to all beetles in the family Oedemeridae. There are only seven species of this family in the UK. In general, in size and form they resemble; this is a cosmopolitan species. They can be found anywhere where there is moist and decaying wood, such as wharf timbers that are submerged by a tidal flow river, for example near the River Thames.
A survey by Pitman et al. revealed the wharf borer to be widespread in temperate countries. There were samples recorded in Australia, New Zealand, France and Canada. Pitman et al. further noted that wharf borers are widespread in the UK and Wales, with a few records in Scotland, but neither adults nor larvae were found in Ireland. This beetle is thought to be a native of the Great Lakes region of North America and has been reported to cause much damage to dock timber in this region. However, others believed that they were introduced to the New World from Europe by the lumber trade or by driftwood. There is still uncertainty in the scientific literature about the origin of the wharf borer. Wharf borer adults may be present in different types of habitats but larvae are always restricted to damp, rotten wood. Buried pieces of wood may harbor the insects, it was said that there was an increase in numbers of this insect in London following the Second World War, when masses of timber became buried under the ground following bomb blasts.
They were found beneath the floor of gasoline stations and telegraph poles. Like all beetles, the wharf borer undergoes complete metamorphosis; the development time from egg to adult is about 12 months, adults tend to emerge around June to late August in the U. K. Eggs are deposited on wood surfaces. Egg longevity is reported to be 5–11 days. First instar larvae burrow about 1 cm beneath the surface of the wood after hatching, where soft-rot type degradation is evident; the larval stage is reported to last from up to 2 months to 2 years, during which time larvae digest cellulose and hemicellulose. Larvae produce the enzyme cellulase, which enables them to feed on rooting wood, similar to many wood-boring Coleopterans. Tunnels formed by larvae during burrowing through the wood can be 30 cm long. A certain head capsule size must be attained for larvae to pupate, which takes about 8.5 months to attain. The cream white Pupae are reported to last 6–17 days, the exact amount of time being influenced by temperature and relative humidity.
At the onset of pupation, the abdomen is reduced and the head loses its prognathous form. After 3 days, the eyes start to be pigmented, followed by the mandibles at six days and the elytra at nine days. Pupae are capable of moving the abdomen from side to side. Adults are short-lived, non-feeding, free-living, able to fly, can locate wood via olfactory cues, they emerge from the resting pupal stage between May and September, though are more observed in June. Adults live for about 2–10 days under laboratory conditions, during which time they mate and lay eggs. Females are not substrate specific. Wharf borers are known to infest softwood. Temperature influences development of eggs, eggs only develop within the range 20-30 °C; the upper temperature limit for eggs to hatch is 30-35 °C. This may explain the absence of the wharf borer in tropical climates. Relative humidity influences egg development, with the lower threshold being 20-40%. Females lay eggs at temperatures. Temperature is the most important factor that influences the development of the pupa.
Relative humidity and photoperiods do not adversely affect development. It is important to note. In fact, lower temperatures increase the time for the larvae to attain the required head capsule size for pupation by virtue of a reduced metabol