David Cyril Eric Swarbrick was an English folk musician and singer-songwriter. He has been described by Ashley Hutchings as "the most influential fiddle player bar none" and his style has been copied or developed by every British and many world folk violin players who have followed him, he was one of the most regarded musicians produced by the second British folk revival, contributing to some of the most important groups and projects of the 1960s, he became a much sought-after session musician, which led him throughout his career to work with many of the major figures in folk and folk rock music. A member of Fairport Convention from 1969, he is credited with assisting them to produce their seminal album Liege & Lief which initiated the British folk rock movement. This, his subsequent career, helped create greater interest in British traditional music and was influential within mainstream rock. After 1970 he emerged as Fairport Convention's leading figure and guided the band through a series of important albums until its disbandment in 1979.
He played in a series of smaller, acoustic units and engaged in solo projects. He maintained a massive output of recordings and a significant profile and made a major contribution to the interpretation of traditional British music. Born in 1941 in New Malden, now in Greater London, his family moved to Linton, near Grassington, North Yorkshire, where he learned to play the violin. In the late 1940s the family moved to Birmingham, where he attended Birmingham College of Art in the late 1950s, with the intention of becoming a printer. After winning a talent contest with his skiffle band playing guitar, he was introduced to Beryl and Roger Marriott, influential local folk musicians; the Marriotts took him under their wing and Beryl discovering that he had played the violin classically up until the skiffle craze encouraged him to switch back to the fiddle and he joined the Beryl Marriott Ceilidh Band. He joined the Ian Campbell Folk Group in 1960 and embarked on his recording career, playing on one single, three EPs and seven albums with the group over the next few years.
He contributed to the BBC Radio Ballads series on recordings with the three most important figures in the British folk movement of the time A. L. Lloyd, Ewan MacColl, MacColl's wife Peggy Seeger, as well as part of several collections to which the Ian Campbell Group contributed. From 1965 he began supporting him on his eponymous first album; the association was such a success that Second Album, gave them equal billing. They produced another four regarded recordings between 1967 and 1968, including Byker Hill, whose innovative arrangements of traditional songs made it one of the most influential folk albums of the decade. Swarbrick played on albums by Julie Felix, A. L. Lloyd and on the radio ballads, became the most regarded interpreter of traditional material on the violin and one of the most sought-after session musicians. In 1967, Swarbrick released his first solo album Rags and Airs, with guests Martin Carthy and Diz Disley, which has since become a benchmark for generations of folk fiddlers.
It was as a session musician that Swarbrick was called in by Joe Boyd, the manager of rising folk rock group Fairport Convention, in 1969, to undertake some overdubs on the Richard Thompson-penned track "Cajun Woman". Fairport had decided to play a traditional song "A Sailor's Life", which Swarbrick had recorded with Carthy in 1969, he was asked to contribute violin to the session; the result was an eleven-minute mini-epic that appeared on the 1969 album Unhalfbricking and which marked out a new direction for the band. Subsequently, Swarbrick was asked to join the group and was the first fiddler on the folk scene to electrify the violin. Martin Carthy recalled that Swarbrick had been indecisive about joining, telling Carthy: "I just played with this guy Richard and I want to play with him for the rest of my life." Together, now with Swarbrick co-writing with Richard Thompson "Crazy Man Michael", they created the groundbreaking album Liege & Lief. His energetic and unique fiddle style was essential to the new sound and direction of the band, most marked on the medley of four jigs and reels that Swarbrick arranged for the album and which were to become an essential part of every subsequent Fairport performance.
Before the album was released, key members of the band, founder Ashley Hutchings and singer and songwriter Sandy Denny left, Swarbrick stayed on with the band full-time, excited by the possibilities of performing traditional music in a rock context. His greater maturity, knowledge of folk song and personality meant that he soon emerged as the leading force in the band and continued to be so for the next decade, encouraging the band to bring in Dave Pegg, another graduate of the Ian Campbell Folk Group, on bass. However, Swarbrick was beginning to suffer the hearing problems that would dog the rest of his career; the first album of this new line-up, Full House, although not as commercially successful as Liege & Lief, sold well, remains regarded. Like Liege & Lief it contained interpretations of traditional tunes, including the epic "Sir Patrick Spens" and another instrumental arranged by Swarbrick, "Dirty Linen", but contained songs jointly penned by Swarbrick and guitarist Richard Thompson, including what would become their opening live song "Walk Awhile", the nine-minute long anti-war anthem "Sloth".
The partnership produced another three songs on Full House. However, the fruitful
Jethro Tull (band)
Jethro Tull are a British rock band formed in Blackpool, Lancashire, in 1967. Playing blues rock, the band developed their sound to incorporate elements of hard and folk rock to forge a progressive rock signature; the band is led by vocalist/flautist/guitarist Ian Anderson, has featured a revolving door of lineups through the years including significant members such as guitarists Mick Abrahams and Martin Barre, keyboardist John Evan, drummers Clive Bunker, Barriemore Barlow, Doane Perry, bassists Glenn Cornick, Jeffrey Hammond, John Glascock, Dave Pegg. The group first achieved commercial success in 1969, with the folk-tinged blues album Stand Up, which reached No. 1 in the UK, they toured in the UK and the US. Their musical style shifted in the direction of progressive rock with the albums Aqualung, Thick as a Brick and A Passion Play, shifted again to hard rock mixed with folk rock with Songs from the Wood and Heavy Horses. Jethro Tull have sold an estimated 60 million albums worldwide, with 11 gold and five platinum albums among them.
They have been described by Rolling Stone as "one of the most commercially successful and eccentric progressive rock bands". The last works as a group to contain new material were released in 2003, though the band continued to tour until 2011. Anderson said Jethro Tull were finished in 2014; the current band line-up includes musicians who have been members of Anderson's solo band since 2012. The band began a world tour on 1 March 2018. Ian Anderson, Jeffrey Hammond and John Evan, who would become members of Jethro Tull, attended grammar school together in Blackpool. Anderson was born in Dunfermline and grew up in Edinburgh before moving to Blackpool in January 1960. Evans had become a fan of the Beatles after seeing them play "Love Me Do" on Granada Television's Scene at 6:30. Though he was an accomplished pianist, he decided to take up the drums, as it was an instrument featured in the Beatles' line-up. Anderson had acquired a Spanish guitar and taught himself how to play it, the pair decided to form a band.
The pair recruited Hammond on bass. The group played as a three piece at local clubs and venues, before Evans became influenced by Georgie Fame and the Animals and switched to organ, recruiting drummer Barrie Barlow and guitarist Mike Stevens from local band the Atlantics. By 1964 the band had recruited guitarist Chris Riley and developed into a six-piece blue-eyed soul band called the John Evan Band. Evans had shortened his surname to "Evan" at the insistence of Hammond, who thought it sounded better and more unusual; the group recruited Johnny Taylor as a booking agent and played gigs further afield around northwest England, playing a mixture of blues and Motown covers. Hammond subsequently quit the band to go to art school, he was replaced by Derek Ward by Glenn Cornick. Riley quit and was replaced by Neil Smith; the group recorded three songs at Regent Sound Studios in Denmark Street, London in April 1967, appeared at The Marquee club in June. In November 1967, the band moved to the London area.
They signed a management deal with Terry Ellis and Chris Wright and replaced Smith with guitarist Mick Abrahams, but realised that supporting a 6-piece band was financially impractical, the group split up. Anderson and Cornick decided to stay together, recruiting Abrahams' friend Clive Bunker on drums and becoming a British blues band. Cornick recalled that although Evan left, the band said he was welcome to rejoin at a date; as the only member not having nearby family, Anderson lived in a bed-sit "on the verge of starvation" and worked as a cleaner for the Luton Ritz Cinema to pay the rent. Jethro Tull formed on 20 December. At first, the new band had trouble getting repeat bookings and they took to changing their name to continue playing the London club circuit, names which included "Navy Blue", "Ian Henderson's Bag o' Nails", "Candy Coloured Rain". Anderson recalled looking at a poster at a club and concluding that the band name he didn't recognise was his. Band names were supplied by their booking agents' staff, one of whom, a history enthusiast christened them "Jethro Tull" after the 18th-century agriculturist.
The name stuck because they happened to be using it the first time a club manager liked their show enough to invite them to return. They recorded a session with producer Derek Lawrence, which resulted in the single "Sunshine Day"; the B-side "Aeroplane" was an old John Evan Band track with the saxophones mixed out. It was released in February 1968 on MGM Records, miscredited to "Jethro Toe". Anderson has since questioned the misnomer as a way to avoid paying royalties; the more common version, with the name spelled is a counterfeit made in New York. Anderson met Hammond while in London and the two renewed their friendship, while Anderson moved into a bedsit in Chelsea with Evan. Hammond became the subject of several songs, beginning with their next single, "A Song for Jeffrey"; because he was living in a cold bedsit, Anderson bought a large overcoat to keep him warm, along with the flute, it became part of his early stage image. It was around this time that Anderson purchased a flute after becoming frustrated with his inability to play guitar as well as Abrahams, because their managers thought he should remain a rhythm guitarist, with Abrahams becoming the front man.
I didn't want to be just another third-
Dave Pegg is an English multi-instrumentalist and record producer a bass guitarist. He is the longest-serving member of the pre-eminent British folk rock band Fairport Convention and has been bassist with a number of important folk and rock groups including the Ian Campbell Folk Group and Jethro Tull, he has appeared on some of the most significant albums of his era, as well as undertaking solo projects. His style of playing bass has been influential in folk rock music. David Pegg was born on 2 November 1947, at Acocks Green, England, he began to learn guitar when 14 or 15, inspired by The Shadows, played in a school band at Yardley Grammar School. After leaving school he worked as an insurance clerk for about a year while playing in a part-time bands the Crawdaddys and The Roy Everett Blues Band, who supported several performers from the flourishing Birmingham beat scene of the time, including the Spencer Davis Group and The Moody Blues. In 1966 he auditioned for The Uglys, featuring Steve Gibbons and was beaten to the position by friend and guitarist Roger Hill, but was offered the job of bass guitarist and switched instruments.
The Uglys cut one single before Pegg and Hill left to form a blues trio, The Exception, with singer Alan Eastwood. At this period he played with Robert Plant and in his next band, The Way of Life, the drummer was John Bonham both went to form Led Zeppelin. In 1967 he joined the Ian Campbell Folk Group, where he switched to stand-up bass, learnt to play the mandolin and acquired his affection for folk music, it was where he came to the attention of local folk guitarist Ralph McTell and former Campbell Group and future Fairport Convention member Dave Swarbrick. By early 1969 he had moved back to electric bass with The Beast, with Cozy Powell and Dave Clempson, before the latter left for Colosseum. Soon after this he joined the Birmingham band Dave Peace Quartet, played bass on their electric blues album "Good Morning Mr Blues" released on SAGA FID 2155. One week after seeing Fairport for the first time on his twenty-first birthday he was called by Swarbrick to audition for the band after the departure of Ashley Hutchings, soon to found Steeleye Span.
Pegg joined Fairport Convention towards the end of 1969 and formed a strong playing partnership with drummer Dave Mattacks and good relationships with the other members. Although Hutchings had been a solid and melodic bass player, it is acknowledged that Pegg played with greater virtuosity and energy. Ashley Hutchings credits Pegg with being the musician who began the technique of playing jigs and reels on the bass, rather than just a supportive bass line, subsequently adopted by most British folk rock and folk punk bassists. All this was obvious on the 1970 tour of Britain and America, recordings from which surfaced on the Live at the L. A. Troubadour album, his first album with the group, Full House, showed more technically accomplished playing from the band, showing Pegg's musical influence on the group. On joining the band Pegg had moved his family from Birmingham and into the former pub, the Angel in Hadham, Hertfordshire along with other group members and their families; this became the theme for the title track of the next album Angel Delight, for which Pegg received his first writing credit.
On the next album Babbacombe Lee, a folk-rock opera masterminded by Swarbrick, he played a much greater role, contributing to seven of the fifteen tracks. The next album Rosie contained three of his contributions, including the song Peggy's Pub a statement of a lifelong ambition. In 1971 when Simon Nicol and Dave Mattacks left the band and Swarbrick were the only remaining members and, as a bewildering succession of personnel came and left again over the next five years, their partnership was critical in keeping the band running; some of these performers, like Sandy Denny and her husband Trevor Lucas, were acknowledged songwriters and as a result, although he still made contributions and took part in collaborations, Pegg's song-writing took a back seat to his instrumental and organisational skills. After the financial disaster that followed the Rising for the Moon tour, which prompted Denny and Jerry Donahue to quit the band, Pegg became determined for the group to take control of their finances and direction and took over a larger and larger responsibility.
Pegg and Swarbrick renewed contact with Nicol in 1975 forming a low key trio, Three Desperate Mortgages, which toured student venues across Britain. With only Pegg and replacement drummer Bruce Rowland left, they persuaded Nicol to rejoin the band during the Gottle O'Geer album sessions; the remaining quartet signed up with Vertigo, produced two albums, The Bonny Bunch of Roses and Tipplers Tales. Although well crafted these albums did not sell well and Vertigo bought them out of their contract. With Swarbrick suffering acute hearing problems and with no recording contract the group decided to disband and played a final concert at Cropredy in Oxfordshire on 4 August 1979, close to where Pegg lived. While with Fairport, Pegg had played on a wide variety and huge number of albums for other performers. Among the most significant were: Nick Drake's Bryter Layter, he appeared on three Ralph McTell albums, including Streets, Slide Aside the Screen, which Pegg produced. He could confidently look forward to mor
Fairport Convention are a British folk rock band, formed in 1967 by Richard Thompson, Simon Nicol, Ashley Hutchings, Shaun Frater, with Frater replaced by Martin Lamble after their first gig. They started out influenced by American folk rock and singer-songwriter material, with a setlist dominated by covers of Bob Dylan and Joni Mitchell songs and a sound that earned them the nickname “the British Jefferson Airplane.” Vocalists Judy Dyble and Iain Matthews joined them before the recording of their self-titled debut in 1968. Denny began steering the group towards traditional British music for their next two albums, What We Did on Our Holidays and Unhalfbricking the latter featured fiddler Dave "Swarb" Swarbrick, most notably on the song A Sailor's Life, which laid the groundwork for British folk rock by being the first time a traditional British song was combined with a rock beat. However, shortly before the album's release, a crash on the M1 killed Lamble and Thompson's then-girlfriend, Jeannie Franklyn.
For this album Swarb joined full-time alongside Dave Mattacks on drums. Both Denny and Hutchings left before the year's end; the 1970s saw numerous lineup changes around the core of Swarb and Pegg, with Nicol absent for the middle of the decade, declining fortunes as folk music fell out of mainstream favour. Denny, whose partner Trevor Lucas had been a guitarist in the group since 1972, returned for the pop-orientated Rising for the Moon in 1975 in a final bid to crack America, they played a farewell concert in the village of Cropredy, where they’d held small concerts since 1976, this marked the beginning of the Cropredy Festival which has become the largest folk festival in Britain, with annual attendance of 20,000. The band was reformed by Nicol and Mattacks in 1985, joined by Maartin Allcock and Ric Sanders and they have remained active since. Allcock was replaced by Chris Leslie in 1996, Gerry Conway replaced Mattacks in 1998, with this lineup remaining unchanged since and marking the longest-lasting of the group's history.
Their 28th studio album, 50:50@50, released to mark their 50th anniversary, was released in 2017, they continue to headline Cropredy each year. Despite little mainstream success – with their only top 40 single being Si Tu Dois Partir, a French-language cover of the Dylan song If You Gotta Go, Go Now from Unhalfbricking – Fairport Convention remain influential in British folk rock and British folk in general. Liege & Lief was named the "Most Influential Folk Album of All Time" at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards in 2006, Pegg's playing style, which incorporates jigs and reels into his basslines, has been imitated by many in the folk rock and folk punk genres. Additionally, many former members went on to form other notable groups in the genre, including Fotheringay, Steeleye Span, the Albion Band. Hers ended with her death in 1978, though she is now regarded as Britain's finest female singer-songwriter, her song Who Knows Where the Time Goes? – recorded by Fairport on Unhalfbricking – has become a signature for herself and the band.
Bassist Ashley Hutchings met guitarist Simon Nicol in North London in 1966 when they both played in the Ethnic Shuffle Orchestra. They rehearsed on the floor above Nicol's father's medical practice in a house called "Fairport" on Fortis Green in Muswell Hill – the same street on which Ray and Dave Davies of the Kinks grew up; the house name lent its name to the group they formed together as Fairport Convention in 1967 with Richard Thompson on guitar and Shaun Frater on drums. After their initial performance at St Michael's Church Hall in Golders Green on 27 May 1967, they had their first of many line-up changes as one member of the audience, drummer Martin Lamble, convinced the band that he could do a better job than Frater and replaced him, they soon added a female singer, Judy Dyble, which gave them a distinctive sound among the many London bands of the period. Fairport Convention were soon playing at underground venues such as UFO and The Electric Garden, which became the Middle Earth club.
After only a few months, they caught the attention of manager Joe Boyd who secured them a contract with Polydor Records. Boyd suggested they augment the line-up with another male vocalist. Singer Iain Matthews joined the band and their first album, Fairport Convention, was recorded in late 1967 and released in June 1968. At this early stage Fairport looked to North American folk and folk rock acts such as Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan, The Byrds for material and inspiration; the name "Fairport Convention" and the use of two lead vocalists led many new listeners to believe that they were an American act, earning them the nickname'the British Jefferson Airplane' during this period. Fairport Convention played alongside Jefferson Airplane at the First Isle of Wight Festival, 1968. After disappointing album sales they signed a new contract with Island Records. Before their next recording Judy Dyble was replaced by the band with Sandy Denny, a
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Bonny Bunch of Roses (album)
The Bonny Bunch of Roses is the 12th studio album by Fairport Convention. This album had the highest number of traditional songs that Fairport had recorded since Liege & Lief. For this album, Simon Nicol returned after an absence of five years although he had contributed some guitar to the previous record, Gottle O'Geer and mixed the album, it was March 1977 at Island Studios, London. All tracks credited to "Trad." Unless otherwise noted "Jams O'Donnells Jig" - 2:33 "The Eynsham Poacher" - 2:22 "Adieu Adieu" - 2:26 "The Bonny Bunch of Roses" - 12:19 "The Poor Ditching Boy" - 3:56 "General Taylor" - 3:39 "Run Johnny Run" - 4:34 "The Last Waltz" - 3:02 "Royal Seleccion No 13" - 4:15 Dave Swarbrick - fiddle, mandocello, vocals Simon Nicol - electric and acoustic guitars, dulcimer, piano Dave Pegg - bass guitar, mandolin, vocals Bruce Rowland - drums, electric piano
Rising for the Moon
Rising for the Moon is the tenth studio album by the British folk rock band Fairport Convention, released in 1975. It reached number 52 in the UK albums charts; this was the last Fairport album to feature vocalist Sandy Denny. During this period, the band was dubbed by some fans—in a tongue-in-cheek manner—as "Fotheringay Convention" and "Fotheringport Confusion", as the core of Fotheringay joined the remaining members of the early 1970s version of Fairport for this version of the band. Lucas, an Australian, Donahue, an American, joined Pegg and drummer Mattacks in 1973 for the recording of the album Rosie. Denny travelled with the band while they began performing with them on stage; this was the first Fairport Convention album not to involve John Wood in the production, the only one not to feature any traditional material. With a number of solid songs penned, they entered the studio for recording sessions. Although still rooted in the folk-rock vein, producer Glyn Johns brought a more polished and pop-influenced sound to the recording.
Mattacks was replaced by drummer Bruce Rowland. This was the last Fairport record to reach the UK charts prior to Red & Gold in 1989; the band pinned their hopes on Rising For The Moon to be their breakthrough album. Carrying on as Fairport Convention, Pegg and Rowland recruited several short-term replacements before persuading founder member Simon Nicol to return. "Tears" - 4:09 "Rising for the Moon" - 3:06 "Stranger to Himself" - 2:17 "One More Chance" - 3:46 Sandy Denny - vocals, electric piano Trevor Lucas - vocals, rhythm guitar Dave Swarbrick - vocals, viola, dulcimer, acoustic guitar Jerry Donahue - lead guitar Dave Pegg - bass, electric guitar, backing vocals Dave Mattacks - drums Bruce Rowland - drums Humphries, Patrick. Meet on the Ledge: A History of Fairport Convention. London: Eel Pie Publishing. ISBN 0-906008-46-8. Roberts, David, ed.. British Hit Albums. London: Guinness World Records. ISBN 1-904994-10-5