Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Adenanthos cygnorum known as common woollybush or just woollybush, is a tall shrub in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to Western Australia occurring in the south west of the State from north of Geraldton south to Kojonup, it is common on road verges and in disturbed areas of Perth. Common woollybush grows, it has soft grey-green or grey-blue foliage, consisting of packed, hairy leaves on pliable, hairy stems. It is woolly both in feel, hence the common name; the leaves have nectaries at the tips. The nectar filled cups are taken by the ants to their nests to be consumed, the seeds becoming inaccessible to birds, etc. Like most other Adenanthos species, but unusually for Proteaceae, the flowers of common woollybush are not large and showy, but are rather small and hidden within the foliage; the stems of the plant are bored into by moths. A species of Adenanthos, a genus, restricted to the Southwest botanical province. Adenanthos cygnorum was first collected by the English botanist and plant-collector Allan Cunningham in 1818 at the Swan River, Western Australia.
The specific name cygnorum, from the Latin cygnus meaning swan, refers to the type locality. There are two subspecies: Adenanthos cygnorum subsp. Cygnorum and Adenanthos cygnorum subsp. Chamaephyton; the latter is a mat-forming shrub. The brown honeyeater has been observed feeding at the flowers of A. cygnorum. It is susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback. "Adenanthos cygnorum". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Adenanthos cygnorum". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. Powell, Robert. Leaf and Branch: Trees and Tall Shrubs of Perth. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. ISBN 0-7309-3916-2
Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight. The word comes from the Greek sklēros and phyllon. Sclerophyllous plants occur in many parts of the world, but are most typical in the chaparral biomes, they are prominent throughout western and southern parts of Australia, in the Mediterranean forests and scrub biomes that cover the Mediterranean Basin, Californian chaparral and woodlands, Chilean Matorral, the Cape Province of South Africa. The sclerophyll leaves have three leaf stress traits used to cope with hot and dry summers: the leaves are hard due to lignin, which prevents wilting and allows plants to grow; the term was coined by A. F. W. Schimper in 1898 as a synonym of xeromorph, but was changed. Most areas of the Australian continent able to support woody plants are occupied by sclerophyll communities as forests, savannas or heathlands. Common plants include the Proteaceae, tea-trees, acacias and eucalypts.
The most common sclerophyll communities in Australia are savannas dominated by grasses with an overstorey of eucalypts and acacias. Acacia shrublands cover extensive areas. All the dominant overstorey acacia species and a majority of the understorey acacias have a scleromorphic adaptation in which the leaves have been reduced to phyllodes consisting of the petiole. Many plants of the sclerophyllous woodlands and shrublands produce leaves unpalatable to herbivores by the inclusion of toxic and indigestible compounds which assure survival of these long-lived leaves; this trait is noticeable in the eucalypt and Melaleuca species which possess oil glands within their leaves that produce a pungent volatile oil that makes them unpalatable to most browsers. These traits make the majority of woody plants in these woodlands unpalatable to domestic livestock, it is therefore important from a grazing perspective that these woodlands support a more or less continuous layer of herbaceous ground cover dominated by grasses.
Sclerophyll forests cover a much smaller area of the continent, being restricted to high rainfall locations. They have a eucalyptus overstory with the understory being hard-leaved. Dry sclerophyll forests are the most common forest type on the continent, although it may seem barren dry sclerophyll forest is diverse. For example, a study of sclerophyll vegetation in Seal Creek, found 138 species. Less extensive are wet sclerophyll forests, they have a taller eucalyptus overstory than dry sclerophyll forests, 30 metres or more, a soft-leaved dense understory. They require ample rainfall — at least 1000mm. Sclerophyllous plants are anything but newcomers. By the time of European settlement, sclerophyll forest accounted for the vast bulk of the forested areas. Most of the wooded parts of present-day Australia have become sclerophyll dominated as a result of the extreme age of the continent combined with Aboriginal fire use. Deep weathering of the crust over many millions of years leached chemicals out of the rock, leaving Australian soils deficient in nutrients phosphorus.
Such nutrient deficient soils support non-sclerophyllous plant communities elsewhere in the world and did so over most of Australia prior to European arrival. However such deficient soils cannot support the nutrient losses associated with frequent fires and are replaced with sclerophyllous species under traditional Aboriginal burning regimens. With the cessation of traditional burning non-sclerophyllous species have re-colonised sclerophyll habitat in many parts of Australia; the presence of toxic compounds combined with a high carbon: nitrogen ratio make the leaves and branches of scleromorphic species long-lived in the litter, can lead to a large build-up of litter in woodlands. The toxic compounds of many species, notably Eucalyptus species, are volatile and flammable and the presence of large amounts of flammable litter, coupled with an herbaceous understorey, encourages fire. All the Australian sclerophyllous communities are liable to be burnt with varying frequencies and many of the woody plants of these woodlands have developed adaptations to survive and minimise the effects of fire.
Sclerophyllous plants resist dry conditions well, making them successful in areas of seasonally variable rainfall. In Australia, they evolved in response to the low level of phosphorus in the soil — indeed, many native Australian plants cannot tolerate higher levels of phosphorus and will die if fertilised incorrectly; the leaves are hard due to lignin, which prevents wilting and allows plants to grow when there isn't enough phosphorus for substantial new cell growth. Mediterranean forests and scrub Chaparral California chaparral and woodlands Chilean Matorral Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest Fynbos Garrigue Kwongan Mallee Woodlands and Shrublands Maquis shrubland Matorral
Adenanthos × cunninghamii
Adenanthos × cunninghamii known as woollybush, Albany woollybush or prostrate woollybush, is a hybrid shrub in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, it has an spreading habit, growing to 1.5 m in height. Young branches are covered by short white hairs; the leaves are about 25 mm long, divided into three narrow segments, each of, further divided into two laciniae. Thus most leaves have 6 laciniae, though sometimes there are 8, rarely fewer than six; each lacinia is somewhat concave, with a linear margin. The single red flowers appear again in March, it has a similar appearance to Adenanthos sericeus, but has leaf segments that are flattened rather than cylindrical like those of A. sericeus. The hybrid was formally described as a species Adenanthos cunninghamii by Swiss botanist Carl Meissner, his description published in 1845 in the first volume of Plantae Preissianae; the specific epithet honours Allan Cunningham. A genetic analysis of Adenanthos cunninghamii was undertaken in 2003.
This analysis confirmed that it is a hybrid between Adenanthos cuneatus. The hybrid occurs in the vicinity of Torndirrup National Park including Shire Reserve to the south west of Albany as well as Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve and Gull Rock, east of Albany, it is found in low woodland and heathland on deep, sandy soils. Adenanthos × cunningamii is classified as "Priority Four - Rare" on the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List; as Adenanthos cunningamii it was listed as "Endangered" under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 until its removal from the list in 2006. As a hybrid, it did not qualify as a species under section 528 of the Act, it is moderately susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback. Albany Woollybush is grown for its silvery foliage, rather than its insignificant flowers, though the latter produce copious nectar that attracts honeyeaters. Although it is from a dry summer climate, it adapts to humid summer conditions.
It prefers a position in full sun or part shade and draining light soil. Plants can be propagated easily from cuttings of semi-mature current season's growth. "Adenanthos × cunninghamii Meisn". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Adenanthos × cunninghamii Meisn". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. "Adenanthos × cunninghamii Meisn". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Adenanthos cunninghamii – Albany Woollybush, Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia
Adenanthos meisneri known as prostrate woollybush, is a species of shrub in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, it grows to 1 metre high and has leaves are up to 80 mm in length and about 7 mm wide. The flowers appear predominantly between December in the species' native range; these have a red-purple to pale violet glandular hairs. The style is up to 40 mm long; the species was first formally described in 1845 by botanist Johann Lehmann in Plantae Preissianae The type specimen was collected from the foot of the Darling Scarp by Ludwig Preiss in 1839. It is susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback. "Adenanthos meisneri Lehm. Ex Meisn". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Adenanthos meisneri Lehm. Ex Meisn". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. "Adenanthos meisneri Lehm. Ex Meisn". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Adenanthos macropodianus known as gland flower, or Kangaroo Island gland flower, is a species of shrub in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to Kangaroo Island in South Australia. First published as a variety of A. sericeus in 1870, it was promoted to species rank in 1978. Adenanthos macropodianus has an erect habit growing to 1 metre in height although plants as high as 3 metres have been recorded; the leaves, which are up to 15 mm long, are silvery, lobed into nine or more soft, hairy laciniae about half a millimetre in diameter. The flowers, which appear throughout the year, have a pink to red perianth and a style up to 30 mm long. Early botanical collectors of this taxon include Ferdinand von Mueller and Frederick George Waterhouse. Mueller regarded it as a distinct species, provisionally labelling it A. barbata in his herbarium, but publication fell to George Bentham, who regarded it as a variety of A. sericea. In 1870. Bentham published it as A. sericea var. brevifolia, in Volume 5 of his landmark Flora Australiensis.
He divided the genus into two sections. Stenolaema because its perianth tube is straight and not swollen above the middle; this division of the genus is still accepted today. Stenolaema is now renamed to the autonym A. sect. Adenanthos. Early in the 1970s, Ernest Charles Nelson began investigating the question of why there are so many plant species with disjunct distribution patterns in southern Australia. One such species was A. sericea, the Kangaroo Island variety of which occurred about 2500 km east of the nearest population of the Western Australian variety. This led Nelson to undertake a full taxonomic revision of Adenanthos, in the course of which he concluded that A. sericea var. brevifolia warranted species rank because leaves are much smaller and have fewer laciniae than the Western Australian A. sericea. In 1978 he published a new description of the taxon, giving it species rank with the name Adenanthos macropodiana, synonymizing A. sericea var. brevifolia with it. The specific epithet macropodiana is a reference to Macropus, the genus to which all terrestrial kangaroos belong, referring to the fact that it is only found on Kangaroo Island.
Nelson refined Bentham's arrangement by dividing A. sect. Adenanthos into two subsections, with A. macropodiana placed into A. subsect. Adenanthos for reasons including the length of its perianth; however he discarded his own subsections in his 1995 treatment of Adenanthos for the Flora of Australia series of monographs. By this time, the ICBN had issued a ruling that all genera ending in -anthos must be treated as having masculine gender; the placement of A. macropodianus in Nelson's arrangement of Adenanthos may be summarised as follows: Adenanthos A. sect. Eurylaema A. sect. Adenanthos A. drummondii A. dobagii A. apiculatus A. linearis A. pungens A. gracilipes A. venosus A. dobsonii A. glabrescens A. ellipticus A. cuneatus A. stictus A. ileticos A. forrestii A. eyrei A. cacomorphus A. flavidiflorus A. argyreus A. macropodianus A. terminalis A. sericeus A. × cunninghamii A. oreophilus A. cygnorum A. meisneri A. velutinus A. filifolius A. labillardierei A. acanthophyllusHybrids with A. terminalis, the only other Adenanthos species that occurs on Kangaroo Island, have been reported.
This species is endemic to Kangaroo Island, South Australia, making it one of only two Adenanthos species to occur outside Western Australia. It grows on sandy siliceous soils amongst tall scrub. Plants found growing in association with it include Eucalyptus species, Banksia ornata and Banksia marginata, it is said to be common in Flinders Chase. In 1988 the species was not known in cultivation, though there was speculation that its tolerance of salt spray may render it useful for coastal gardens; the Wittunga Botanic Garden and Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, Australia have a number of plants in cultivation. "Adenanthos macropodianus". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Adenanthos macropodianus E. C. Nelson". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government