Sea Acres National Park
The Sea Acres National Park is a national park, located in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 76-hectare park is situated near the town of Port Macquarie; the park is a popular tourist area with a 1.3-kilometre long boardwalk through a remnant of seaside rainforest. There is an education centre and cafe; the park was declared as a nature reserve in 1987. Recorded within the reserve are over a hundred types of bird species. Rare species include the wompoo rose-crowned fruit-dove and osprey. Reptiles include land mullet and the diamond python. Twenty-one species of mammals have been recorded in the national park, including koala, spotted-tail quoll and the little bent-wing bat. Two rare types of snail are known here. Sea Acres National Park contains one of the largest and most intact segments of coastal rainforest in New South Wales; the remnant rainforest area adjacent to Shelley Beach is noteworthy as much of this sea side type of forest has been cleared for agriculture, mining or housing.
Common species of tree include tuckeroo, red olive berry, white walnut, strangler fig, sour cherry, Francis watergum, maiden's blush and mock olive. Vines are common. Walking stick palms and Bangalow palms are seen. Epiphytes are common in the taller more protected areas; the hare's foot fern is an interesting climbing plant in the rainforest. The taller areas in the gully may be considered more sub-tropical rather than littoral rainforest; the widespread sea hibiscus is found at its southernmost limit of natural distribution at Sea Acres. Another widespread coastal plant is found at or close to its southern limit, the screw pine; this plant is associated with Pacific islands in the tropics. The rare flat fork fern was recorded at Sea Acres, but its exact location is unknown. Rainforest botanist A. G. Floyd suggests that Sea Acres and similar beachside rainforests near Port Macquarie may be botanical refugia from a warmer period. There are non-rainforest areas which include grassland, banksia woodland and eucalyptus forest with tallowwood and Sydney blue gum.
There are infestations of morning glory and bitou bush in the park. Dumping of garden refuse makes the problem worse. Feral dogs and cats have an impact upon local wildlife. Protected areas of New South Wales "Sea Acres Nature Reserve: Plan of management". NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. September 1995. ISBN 0-7310-0899-5. "Amendment to Sea Acres Nature Reserve: Plan of management". NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. 7 November 2006. ISBN 1-74122-264-8
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Bongil Bongil National Park
Bongil Bongil National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 427 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales List of reduplicated Australian place names
Coolah Tops National Park
Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
The Murray River is Australia's longest river, at 2,508 kilometres in length. The Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between the states of New South Wales and Victoria as it flows to the northwest into South Australia, it turns south at Morgan for its final 315 kilometres. The water of the Murray flows through several terminal lakes that fluctuate in salinity including Lake Alexandrina and The Coorong before emptying through the Murray Mouth into the southeastern portion of the Indian Ocean referenced on Australian maps as the Southern Ocean, near Goolwa. Despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times before the advent of largescale river regulation, the mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow; as of 2010, the Murray River system receives 58 percent of its natural flow. It is Australia's most important irrigated region, it is known as the food bowl of the nation.
The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 km long combined Murray–Darling river system which drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales, southern Queensland. Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australia's total land mass; the Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, with a great annual variability of its flow. In its natural state it has been known to dry up during extreme droughts, although, rare, with only two or three instances of this occurring since official record keeping began; the Murray River makes up most of the border between the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales. Where it does, the border is the top of the bank of the Victorian side of the river; this was determined in a 1980 ruling by the High Court of Australia, which settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man, fishing by the river's edge on the Victorian side of the river. This boundary definition can be ambiguous, since the river changes its course over time, some of the river banks have been modified.
West of the line of longitude 141°E, the river continues as the border between Victoria and South Australia for 11 km, where this is the only stretch where a state border runs down the middle of the river. This was due to a miscalculation during the 1840s, when the border was surveyed. Past this point, the Murray River is within the state of South Australia; the following major settlements are located along the course of the river, with population figures from the 2011 Census: The Murray River support a variety of river life adapted to its vagaries. This includes a variety of native fish such as the famous Murray cod, trout cod, golden perch, Macquarie perch, silver perch, eel-tailed catfish, Australian smelt, western carp gudgeon, other aquatic species like the Murray short-necked turtle, Murray River crayfish, broad-clawed yabbies, the large clawed Macrobrachium shrimp, as well as aquatic species more distributed through southeastern Australia such as common longnecked turtles, common yabbies, the small claw-less paratya shrimp, water rats, platypus.
The Murray River supports fringing corridors and forests of the river red gum. The health of the Murray River has declined since European settlement due to river regulation, much of its aquatic life including native fish are now declining, rare or endangered. Recent extreme droughts have put significant stress on river red gum forests, with mounting concern over their long-term survival; the Murray has flooded on occasion, the most significant of, the flood of 1956, which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and which lasted for up to six months. Introduced fish species such as carp, weather loach, redfin perch, brown trout, rainbow trout have had serious negative effects on native fish, while carp have contributed to environmental degradation of the Murray River and tributaries by destroying aquatic plants and permanently raising turbidity. In some segments of the Murray River, carp have become the only species found. Between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunnia.
Lake Bungunnia was formed by earth movements that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period. At its maximum extent Lake Bungunnia covered 33,000 km2, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north and to near Boundary Bend on the Murray in the south; the draining of Lake Bungunnia occurred 600,000 years ago. Deep clays deposited by the lake. Higher rainfall would have been required to keep such a lake full. A species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunnia; the noted Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault. About 25,000 years ago, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault, which runs north-south, 8 to 12 m above the floodplain; this created a complex series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately
Holbrook, New South Wales
Holbrook is a small town in Southern New South Wales, Australia. It is on the Hume Highway, 384 kilometres by road North-East of Melbourne and 492 kilometres by road south-west of Sydney between Tarcutta and Albury; the town is in the Greater Hume Shire, established in May 2004 from the merger of Culcairn Shire with the majority of Holbrook Shire and part of the Hume Shire. At the 2016 census, Holbrook had a population of 1,715 people; the district around Holbrook is renowned for local produce including merino wool and other grains, fat cattle and lamb. The area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people; the explorers Hume and Hovell were the first-known Europeans in the area. They travelled through in 1824 looking for new grazing country in the south of the colony of New South Wales; the town was called Ten Mile Creek and the first buildings were erected in 1836. A German immigrant, John Christopher Pabst, became the publican of the Woolpack Hotel on 29 July 1840 and the area became known as "the Germans".
By 1858 the name had evolved into the official name of Germanton, though the postal area retained the name Ten Mile Creek. In 1876 the name Germanton was gazetted and the old name Ten Mile Creek consigned to history. Ten Mile Creek Post Office opened on 1 January 1857, was renamed Germanton in 1875. During World War I, the town name was deemed unpatriotic so on 24 August 1915 the town was renamed Holbrook in honour of Lt. Norman Douglas Holbrook, a decorated wartime submarine captain and winner of the Victoria Cross. Lt. Holbrook commanded the submarine HMS B11; the town was a stop on Old Sydney Road -- the road between Melbourne. The railway arrived in Germanton in 1902; the town was serviced by the Holbrook branch railway line until the line was closed in 1975. In 2013, a re-alignment of the Hume Highway around Holbrook was completed so it is now possible to by-pass the town. Garryowen was a property and small settlement on Little Billabong Creek, about 13 kilometres north-east of Holbrook, in the mid 19th century.
A larger settlement was never built. To honour Lieutenant Holbrook, the town's namesake, the Holbrook council acquired a portion of the hull of HMAS Otway, an Oberon-class submarine, after it was decommissioned by the Royal Australian Navy in 1995; the Navy gifted the fin from the submarine to the town. This resulted in a fund-raiser by the district to purchase the whole submarine; this drive was successful in raising $100,000 all a gift from Lt Holbrook's widow, Gundula Holbrook. However, this amount was insufficient to purchase all of the Otway. Through negotiations with the scrap yard in Sydney, the town succeeded in purchasing all of the outside casing of Otway above the waterline; this part of the Otway is now displayed in Germanton Park in the heart of Holbrook, having been dedicated on 7–8 June 1997. The National Museum of Australian Pottery is housed in Company building, it features over 1500 pieces made from the earliest colonial potteries up to the end of World War 1. The population of the town was 1,267 people at the 2001 census.
The population of the former Holbrook Shire was 2343 people. The population had declined by 7.4% from 1996 and by 10.3% since 1991. In 2001 the population of Australia increased by 6% from the 1996 census and 12.6% since the 1991 census. Less than 1% of the population identified themselves as being of indigenous origin; the median age of people in Holbrook in the 2001 Census was 40 years. In the 1996 Census the median age of people was 37 years, while in the 1991 Census the median age of people was 34 years; the median age for the whole of Australia in 2001 was 35 years. In the 2001 census, 2104 people stated; this compares with 93 % in 92 % in the 1991 Census. In the 2001 Census, the three most common ancestries identified with were: Australian: 1184 people. In 2001 73% of all Australians were Australian born. Across Australia the three most common ancestries identified with were similar to Holbrook but with a reduced percentage identifying Australian ancestry: Australian: 36%. English was the only language spoken at home by 95.3% of those in the Holbrook local statistical area compared with 80% of Australians.
In the week preceding the 2001 Census, 807 people had used a personal computer at home. The total number of persons who had used the Internet in the week preceding the 2001 Census was 541. 42% of Australians had used a personal computer at home in the preceding week and 37% of Australians had used the internet. In the 2001 Census, there were 1078 married people, 53 separated people, 98 divorced people, 165 widowed people and 397 people who had never been married. 51% of Australians were married at the time of the census. In the 2001 Census, 22 people held graduate diploma or graduate certificate; this compares with 3% of the Australian population. 106 people held a bachelor's degree, compared with 10% of the Australian population. There were 385 people with an advanced diploma, diploma or certificate in the 2001 Census, compared with 22% of the Australian population. 1289 people did not have a qualification, did not state a qualification or stated a qualification outside of the scope of the standard classification.
During the week prior to Census Night 2001, 1021 people in Holbrook statistical local area were employed, representing 96% of the labour force. Of these, 658 people were work