Riji are the pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia, around present day Broome. The word Riji is from the Baada language. Another word for it is jakuli. Rijis were worn as pubic coverings, like a loin cloth, attached with hairstring from a belt or band around the waist. Only men initiated to the highest degree could traditionally wear them, they were incised with sacred patterns, which could be tribal insignia, or have other meanings, or tell stories. Riji are associated with water, spiritual powers and healing due to the luminous shimmering quality of their surfaces. Bardi equate the light reflecting off the shells to lightning flashes, which are prominent during the monsoon, to lights flashing off the cheeks of the Rainbow Serpent, linked to water and rain. One of the unique patterns used in the Kimberley region of Western Australia is a pattern of interlocking designs; the incised designs are highlighted with a mixture of ochre and Spinifex resin, rubbed into the grooves.
Decorated and plain pearl shells are used for trade. Riji were objects of great value and were traded with inland Aborigines along ancient trade routes over vast areas of the continent, they have been found at Yuendumu in the desert, south-eastern Arnhem Land and South Australia. Plain pearl shells were decorated further along trade routes, far from their place of origin. Aboriginal artists Aubrey Tigan and Butcher Joe Nangan created riji out of mother-of-pearl buttons and cloth. Artists still make Riji today in the Broome area; some use sacred patterns, while others choose to use more modern designs. Http://www.nga.gov.au/Exhibition/Tactility/Detail.cfm? IRN=83544
Dreamtime is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs. It was used by Francis Gillen adopted by his colleague Baldwin Spencer and thereafter popularised by A. P. Elkin, however revised his views; the Dreaming is used to represent Aboriginal concepts of "time out of time" or "everywhen", during which the land was inhabited by ancestral figures of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities. These figures were distinct from "gods" as they did not control the material world and were not worshipped, but only revered; the concept of the dreamtime has subsequently become adopted beyond its original Australian context and is now part of global popular culture. The term is based on a rendition of the indigenous word alcheringa, used by the Aranda people of Central Australia, although it has been argued that it is based on a misunderstanding or mistranslation; some scholars suggest that the word's meaning is closer to "eternal, uncreated."
Anthropologist William Stanner remarked: "why the blackfellow thinks of'dreaming' as the nearest equivalent in English is a puzzle", said that the concept was best understood by non-Aboriginal people as "a complex of meanings". By the 1990s, "Dreamtime" and "the Dreaming" had acquired their own currency in popular culture, based on idealised or fictionalised conceptions of Australian mythology. Since the 1970s, "Dreaming" and "Dream time" have returned from academic usage via popular culture and tourism and are now ubiquitous in the English vocabulary of indigenous Australians in a kind of "self-fulfilling academic prophecy"; the station-master and amateur ethnographer Francis Gillen first used the terms in an ethnographical report in 1896. With Walter Baldwin Spencer, Gillen published a major work, Native Tribes of Central Australia, in 1899. In that work, they spoke of the Alcheringa as "the name applied to the far distant past with which the earliest traditions of the tribe deal". Five years in their Northern tribes of central Australia, they gloss the far distant age as "the dream times", link it to the word alcheri meaning "dream", affirm that the term is current among the Kaitish and Unmatjera.
Early doubts about the precision of Spencer and Gillen's English gloss were expressed by the German Lutheran pastor and missionary Carl Strehlow in his 1908 book Die Aranda, who noted that his Arrente contacts explained altjira, whose etymology was unknown, as an eternal being who had no beginning. In the Arrernte tongue, the proper verb for "to dream" was altjirerama, i.e. "to see god". Strehlow theorised that the noun is the somewhat rare word altjirrinja, of which Spencer and Gillen gave a corrupted transcription and a false etymology. "The native," they concluded, "knows nothing of'dreamtime' as a designation of a certain period of their history."Strehlow gives Altjira or Altjira mara as the Arrente word for the eternal creator of the world and humankind. Strehlow describes him as a tall strong man with red skin, long fair hair and emu legs, with many red-skinned wives and children. In Strehlow's account, Altjira lives in the sky. However, by the time Strehlow was writing, his contacts had been converts to Christianity for decades, critics suggested that Altjira had been used by missionaries as a word for the Christian God.
In 1926, Spencer conducted a field study to challenge Strehlow's conclusion about Altjira and the implied criticism of Gillen and Spencer's original work. Spencer found attestations of altjira from the 1890s that used the word to mean "associated with past times" or "eternal", not "god". Academic Sam Gill finds Strehlow's use of Altjira ambiguous, sometimes describing a supreme being and sometimes describing a totem being, but not a supreme one, he attributes the clash to Spencer's cultural evolutionist beliefs that Aboriginal people were at a pre-religion "stage" of development, while Strehlow as a Christian missionary found presence of belief in the divine a useful entry point for proselytising. Linguist David Campbell Moore is critical of Spencer and Gillen's "Dreamtime" translation, concluding: "Dreamtime" was a mistranslation based on an etymological connection between "a dream" and "Altjira" which held only over a limited geographical domain. There was some semantic relationship between "Altjira" and "a dream", but to imagine that the latter captures the essence of "Altjira" is an illusion.
The complex of religious beliefs encapsulated by "Dreamtime" is called: "Ngarrankarni" or "Ngarrarngkarni" by the Gija people "the Jukurrpa" or "Tjukurpa" by the Warlpiri people and in the Pitjantjatjara dialect "the Ungud" or "Wungud" by the Ngarinyin people "Manguny" in the language Martu Wangka "Wongar" in North-East Arnhem Land "Daramoolen" in Ngunnawal language and Ngarigo language "Nura" in the Dharug languageIn English, anthropologists have variously translated words translated as "Dreamtime" or "Dreaming" in a variety of other ways, including "everywhen", "world-dawn", "Ancestral past", "Ancestral present", "Ancestral now", "Abiding Events" or "Abiding Law". Most translations of "Dreamtime" into other languages are based on the translation of the word "dream". Examples include Espaces de rêves in Snivanje in Croation. Related entities are known as Mura-mura as Tjukurpa in Pitjantjatjara. "Dreaming" is now used as a term for a system of totemic symbols, so that an indigenous Australian may "own" a spe
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A boomerang is a thrown tool constructed as a flat airfoil, designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight. A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower, it is well known as a weapon used by Indigenous Australians for hunting. Boomerangs have been used for hunting, as well as sport and entertainment, they are thought of as an Australian icon, come in various shapes and sizes. A boomerang is a throwing stick with certain aerodynamic properties, traditionally made of wood but boomerang-like devices have been made from bones. Modern boomerangs used for sport may be made from plywood, plastics such as ABS, phenolic paper, or carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. Boomerangs come in many shapes and sizes depending on their geographic or tribal origins and intended function. Many people think of a boomerang as the Australian type, although today there are many types of more usable boomerangs, such as the cross-stick, the pinwheel, the tumble-stick, the Boomabird and many other less common types.
An important distinction should be made between returning non-returning boomerangs. Returning boomerangs are examples of the earliest heavier-than-air human-made flight. A returning boomerang has two or more airfoil wings arranged so that the spinning creates unbalanced aerodynamic forces that curve its path so that it travels in an ellipse, returning to its point of origin when thrown correctly. While a throwing stick can be shaped overall like a returning boomerang, it is designed to travel as straight as possible so that it can be aimed and thrown with great force to bring down the game, its surfaces are therefore symmetrical and not with the aerofoils that give the returning boomerang its characteristic curved flight. The most recognisable type of the boomerang is the L-shaped returning boomerang. Returning boomerangs were used to decoy birds of prey, thrown above the long grass to frighten game birds into flight and into waiting nets. Modern returning boomerangs can be of various sizes; the origin of the term is certain, but many researchers have different theories on how the word entered into the English vocabulary.
One source asserts that the term entered the language in 1827, adapted from an extinct Aboriginal language of New South Wales, but mentions a variant, wo-mur-rang, which it dates to 1798. The boomerang was first encountered by western people at Farm Cove, Australia, in December 1804, when a weapon was witnessed during a tribal skirmish:... the white spectators were justly astonished at the dexterity and incredible force with which a bent, edged waddy resembling a Turkish scimytar, was thrown by Bungary, a native distinguished by his remarkable courtesy. The weapon, thrown at 20 or 30 yards distance, twirled round in the air with astonishing velocity, alighting on the right arm of one of his opponents rebounded to a distance not less than 70 or 80 yards, leaving a horrible contusion behind, exciting universal admiration. David Collins listed "Wo-mur-rāng" as one of eight aboriginal "Names of clubs" in 1798. A 1790 anonymous manuscript on aboriginal language of New South Wales reported "Boo-mer-rit" as "the Scimiter".
In 1822, it was described in detail and recorded as a "bou-mar-rang" in the language of the Turuwal people of the Georges River near Port Jackson. The Turawal used other words for their hunting sticks but used "boomerang" to refer to a returning throw-stick. Boomerangs were used as hunting weapons, percussive musical instruments, battle clubs, fire-starters, decoys for hunting waterfowl, as recreational play toys; the smallest boomerang may be less than 10 centimetres from tip to tip, the largest over 180 cm in length. Tribal boomerangs may be painted with designs meaningful to their makers. Most boomerangs seen today are of the tourist or competition sort, are invariably of the returning type. Depictions of boomerangs being thrown at animals, such as kangaroos, appear in some of the oldest rock art in the world, the Indigenous Australian rock art of the Kimberly region, up to 50,000 years old. Stencils and paintings of boomerangs appear in the rock art of West Papua, including on Bird's Head Peninsula and Kaimana dating to the Last Glacial Maximum, when lower sea levels led to cultural continuity between Papua and Arnhem Land in Northern Australia.
The oldest surviving Australian Aboriginal boomerangs come from a cache found in a peat bog in the Wyrie Swamp of South Australia and date to 10,000 BC. Although traditionally thought of as Australian, boomerangs have been found in ancient Europe and North America. There is evidence of the use of non-returning boomerangs by the Native Americans of California and Arizona, inhabitants of southern India for killing birds and rabbits; some boomerangs were not thrown at all, but were used in hand to hand combat by Indigenous Australians. Ancient Egyptian examples, have been recovered, experiments have shown that they functioned as returning boomerangs. Hunting sticks discovered in Europe seem to have formed part of the Stone Age arsenal of weapons. One boomerang, discovered in Obłazowa Cave in the Carpathian Mountains in Poland was made of mammoth's tusk and is believed, based on AMS dating of objects found with it, to be about 30,000 years old. In the Netherlands, boomerangs have been found in Vlaardingen and Velsen from the first century BC.
King Tutankhamun, the famous Pharaoh of a
In modern archery, a compound bow is a bow that uses a levering system of cables and pulleys, to bend the limbs. In general, compound bows are used in target practice and hunting; the pulley/cam system grants the user a mechanical advantage, so the limbs of a compound bow are much stiffer than those of a recurve bow or longbow. This rigidity makes the compound bow more energy-efficient than other bows, as less energy is dissipated in limb movement; the higher-rigidity, higher-technology construction improves accuracy by reducing the bow's sensitivity to changes in temperature and humidity. The pulley/cam system confers a benefit called "let-off." As the string is drawn back, the cams rotate. The cams are eccentric rather than round, so their effective radius changes as they rotate; each of a compound bow's two cams features two tracks: an inner track which connects to the opposite limb or opposite cam through cables, an outer track through which the bowstring runs. As the bow is drawn, the ratio of bowstring pay-out and cable take-up relative to limb-weight and leverage of the cams changes.
By manipulation of the shapes of these cam tracks, different draw-stroke profiles can be created. A compound bow can be soft-drawing with a slow build-up to peak weight and a gradual let-off with a long "valley" at the end, it can be hard-drawing with a fast build-up to peak draw-weight, a long plateau where weight is maintained, a quick let-off with a short valley. The let-off itself is the result of the cam profiles having passed center and approaching a condition similar to a cam-lock. In some compound bows, if the draw-stops or draw-length modules are removed, they will self-lock at full draw and require professional equipment to unlock safely. Many compound bows offer 70 - 85% let off once they pulled to full draw; this allows the shooter to concentrate on his intended target at which he is shooting. The compound bow was first developed in 1966 by Holless Wilbur Allen in Billings, a US patent was granted in 1969; the compound bow has become popular. In the United States, the compound is the dominant form of bow.
In literature of the early 20th century, before the invention of compound bows, composite bows were described as "compound". This usage is now outdated. A bow's central mount for other components such as the limbs, sights and quivers is called the riser. Risers are designed to be as rigid as possible; the central riser of a compound bow is made of aluminum, magnesium alloy, or carbon fiber and many are made of 7075 aluminum alloy. Limbs are made of fiberglass-based composite materials and are capable of taking high tensile and compressive forces; the limbs store all the energy of the bow – no energy is stored in the pulleys and cables. Draw weights of adult compound bows fall between 40 and 80 pounds, enabling arrow speeds of 250 to 370 feet per second. In the most common configuration, there is a wheel at the end of each limb; the shape of the cam may vary somewhat between different bow designs. There are several different concepts of using the cams to store energy in the limbs, these all fall under a category called bow eccentrics.
The four most common types of bow eccentrics are Hybrid Cam, Dual Cam and Binary Cam. However, there are other less common designs, like the Quad Cam and Hinged. Cams are described using their "let-off" rating; as a cam is rotated, the force required to hold the bow in position reaches a peak and decreases as the bow approaches maximum extension. The percent-difference between the maximum force encountered during the draw and the force required to hold the bow in full extension is the "let-off"; this value is between 65% and 80% of the peak weight for designed compound bows, although some older compound bows provided a let-off of only 50% and some recent designs achieve let-offs in excess of 90%. The photo on the right shows the axle attaching the limb to cam is mounted at the edge of the cam as opposed to the center; as the string is drawn the cam imparts force to compress the limb. The archer has the'short' side of the cam, with the leverage being a mechanical disadvantage. High energy input is therefore required.
When near full draw is reached, the cam has turned to its full extent, the archer has gained mechanical advantage, the least amount of force needs to be applied to the string to keep the limbs bent. This is known as "let off"; the lower holding weight enables the archer to maintain the bow drawn and take more time to aim. This let-off enables the archer to shoot a compound bow with a much higher peak draw weight than other bows. However, there are some youth-oriented compound bows with low draw weights that have no let-off and have a maximum draw length deliberately set farther than the majority of young shooters would reach; this makes the bow function similar to a recurve, with the draw length determined by the shooter's preferred anchor point. This removes the necessity to adjust the bow draw length or use a different bow for different shooters. An example of this type of bow is the Genesis, standard equipment in the U. S. National Archery in the Schools Program. Compound bow strings and cables are made of high-modulus polyethylene and are designed to have great tensile strength and minimal stretchability, so that the bow transfers its energy to the arrow as efficiently and durably as possible.
In earlier models of compound bows, the cables were made of plastic-coated steel. The function of the cam systems is to maximize the energy storage throughout the draw cyc
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is semi-arid; this includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which break in pieces. Although rain occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind; this wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms.
Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits; the grains are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones; these areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and spines to deter herbivory; some annual plants germinate and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture.
Animals need to find enough food and water to survive. Many stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day, they tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall, they reproduce while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life; the cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts across the Sahara Desert, traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold and other goods.
Large numbers of slaves were taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction takes place in deserts, the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy. English desert and its Romance cognates all come from the ecclesiastical Latin dēsertum, a participle of dēserere, "to abandon"; the correlation between aridity and sparse population is complex and dynamic, varying by culture and technologies. In English before the 20th century, desert was used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity. Phrases such as "desert island" and "Great American Desert", or Shakespeare's "deserts of Bohemia" in previous centuries did not imply sand or aridity. A desert is a region of land, dry because it receives low amounts of precipitation has little coverage by plants, in which streams dry up unless they are supplied by water from outside the area. Deserts receive less than 250 mm of precipitation each year; the potential evapotranspiration may be large but the actual evapotranspiration may be close to zero.
Semideserts are regions which receive between 250 and 500 mm and when clad in grass, these are known as steppes. Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls and humidity, sometimes additional factors. For example, Arizona, receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year, is recognized as being located in a desert because of its aridity-adapted plants; the North Slope of Alaska's Brooks Range receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year and is classified as a cold desert. Other regions of the world have cold deserts, including areas of the Himalayas and other high-altitude areas in other parts of the world. Polar deserts cover much of the ice-free
Woomera, South Australia
Woomera Woomera Village, is a town located in the Far North region of South Australia in Australia 446 kilometres north of Adelaide. In common usage, "Woomera" refers to the wider RAAF Woomera Range Complex, a large Australian Defence Force aerospace and systems testing range covering an area of 122,000 square kilometres operated by the Royal Australian Air Force. Woomera township is part of RAAF Base Woomera which, along with the Woomera Test Range, forms the larger entity known as the Woomera Range Complex, promulgated by Chief of Air Force in June 2014; as at the 2016 census the Woomera Village had a population of 146, its usual population varies between 150 and 200 people, yet the village can provide accommodation and services for up to 500 people per day. Although the complex is closed to the public, Woomera Village is open to the public; the location of the Woomera Village can be described as being in the outback desert area of South Australia. It is 446 kilometres north-west of Adelaide and is in the State region known as the Far North.
There are 27 pastoral stations within the Woomera Prohibited Area, which forms the ground space of the Woomera Test Range, there are four major mines - Challenger, Prominent Hill, Peculiar Knob, Cairn Hill. There is a long-established precious gems field near the Coober Pedy end of the Stuart Highway which cuts through the middle of the Range; the settlement draws its name, from a suggestion from RAAF Group Captain Alfred George Pither and was subsequently chosen by the Board of the Long Range Weapons Establishment in April 1947. The new Village was established on Commonwealth land procured for the purpose, named after the Aboriginal spear throwing implement the woomera which extends the range a spear can be thrown. Construction of Woomera Village began in mid-1947 to cater for thousands of people moving there as part of the Anglo-Australian Project; the project lasted for 34 years and saw Woomera become one of the most secret allied establishments in operation during the Cold War. During its heyday, the village population reached around 7,000 as people lived and worked at Woomera and at Koolymilka campsite near Range Head 42 kilometres west of Woomera village within the Woomera Prohibited Area.
However, by the end of the 1960s the Anglo-Australian Joint Project was winding down following the UK Government's reduction in further experimental work. Woomera Village operated as a "closed town" between 1947 and 1982, when the facility supported the operations of the Woomera Rocket Range during the Anglo-Australia Project. Since 1982, the general public has been able to stay at Woomera. However, only Australian Government personnel and contractors to the Commonwealth are able to live at Woomera on a permanent basis; the settlement was established in 1947 as a result of the Department of Defence establishment of the adjacent rocket testing range. Following its construction over 1947–53, Woomera Village operated under a specialised Commonwealth/Defence township management model rather than a local government model. At the height of its operations, over 7,000 people lived in Woomera Village. To service the needs of the town during this period, the Woomera Board, staffed by members of the Defence community at Woomera elected to the Board by town residents acted in the role provided by a local government council.
However, the creation of a Defence Estate management organisation in the 1990s shifted the focus of the Board's activities away from estate and infrastructure management toward principally that of a base welfare organisation supporting the small permanent community and the large number of transit Defence personnel who deploy to Woomera each year. Woomera Village, when established, was administered by the Long Range Weapons Establishment under the terms of the'Anglo-Australian Joint Project'. LRWE was based at Salisbury to the north of Adelaide city, the site now occupied by Defence Science & Technology Group; when the Anglo-Australian Joint Project began to wind down in the early 1970s, the village population began to drop from its peak of about 7000 residents in the mid-1960s. However, with the establishment of the USAF/ADF Joint Defence Communications Facility in 1969 at the nearby Nurrungar site 18 kilometres south of Woomera, along with its 1100 permanent staff, the village population stabilized at around 4,500 people.
In the late 1990s, as the Nurrungar program was winding down, the ADF reassessed the role of Woomera in its future force structure. What became apparent to the ADF at that time was that the Woomera Test Range was the only land-based test range left in the Western world capable of testing the next generation of weapons systems within a instrumented, land-based, specialized range; this assessment was to result, positively, in redefining the future role and strategic importance of the Woomera Range Complex within Australia's long-term Defence requirements. Woomera Village is a Department of Defence-owned and operated facility. RAAF Base Woomera, when it was established in January 2015 included the RAAF Woomera Airfield, 6 kilometres north of Woomera Village; the aerodrome lies within the'Red Zone' of the Woomera Prohibited Area and public access to this part of the base is not permitted. Woomera Village, however, is within a "Green Zone" of the WPA and thus public access to the facilities and services of Woomera, inc