Edward Hungerford (Roundhead)
Sir Edward Hungerford of Corsham, Wiltshire and of Farleigh Castle in Wiltshire, Member of Parliament, was a Parliamentarian commander during the English Civil War. He occupied and plundered Salisbury in 1643, took Wardour and Farleigh castles. Hungerford was the eldest son of Sir Anthony Hungerford of Black Bourton, by his first wife Lucy Hungerford, a daughter of Sir Walter Hungerford of Farleigh Castle. In 1614 he was elected Member of Parliament for Wootton Bassett in the Addled Parliament, he was elected as M. P. for Chippenham in 1621 and for Wiltshire in 1624. He was a Deputy Lieutenant for Wiltshire in 1624. In 1625 he was created a Knight of the Bath, he was elected MP for Cricklade in 1628 and sat until 1629 when King Charles I decided to rule without parliament for eleven years. He was Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1631. In April 1640, Hungerford was elected MP for Chippenham in the Short Parliament, he was re-elected MP for Chippenham for the Long Parliament in November 1640. At the outbreak of the Civil War he took the side of Parliament, on 11 July 1642 was sent to execute the militia ordinance in Wiltshire.
He was excluded from pardon in the king's declaration of grace to the inhabitants of Wiltshire of 2 November 1642, having been put in command of the Wiltshire forces, made Devizes his headquarters. In December 1642 he attacked Lord Cottington at Fonthill, threatening to bring his troops into Fonthill House, where Lord Cottington lay sick, unless he paid £1,000 to Parliament. Against such treatment Lord Cottington appealed to Parliament, the Speaker desired Sir Edward to desist. In January 1643 Hungerford had a violent quarrel with Sir Edward Baynton, the parliamentarian governor of Malmesbury, each accusing the other of intended treachery. In February 1643 he occupied and plundered the city of Salisbury, but finding himself unsupported by the county, evacuated Devizes and retired to the city of Bath; when Waller recaptured Malmesbury for Parliament he appointed Hungerford governor, but while Hungerford was still at Bath seeking supplies, Malmesbury was abandoned by the officer whom he had nominated to represent him.
Hungerford published a'Vindication' of his conduct, dated at Bath 28 April 1643. After taking part with Sir William Waller in the Battle of Lansdowne and Battle of Roundway Down, Hungerford besieged Lady Arundel in Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, he treated the lady with little grace, carrying her with scant ceremony to Hatch and thence to Shaftesbury, keeping her all the while "without a bed to lie on". Subsequently, Hungerford attacked Farleigh Castle, garrisoned for the king and under the command of Colonel John Hungerford, said to have been Sir Edward's half-brother; the castle surrendered to Sir Edward in September 1645. He had a reversionary right to the property under the will of Sir Edward Hungerford, his maternal uncle, but the testator's widow had a life-interest, remained there until 1653. In 1620 he married Margaret Holliday, a daughter and coheiress of William Holliday, an Alderman of the City of London; the marriage was without progeny. She survived him until 1672, when she was buried at Farleigh.
Hungerford died in 1648 and was buried in St Anne's Chapel, the north transept chapel of St Leonard's Chapel within the walls of Farleigh Castle. His magnificent tomb chest, with effigies of himself and his wife, survives, his will was proved on 26 October 1648. In 1653 his widow Margaret petitioned the Council of State to pay her £500, a small part of the sum borrowed from her husband by Parliament. Parliament had ordered repayment in 1649. Oliver Cromwell appears to have interested himself in her case. Sir Edward's reversionary interest in the Farleigh estates passed to his royalist half-brother Anthony Hungerford. England and Wales Parliament. Proceedings in Parliament 1614. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. 172. American Philosophical Society. P. 470. ISBN 9780871691729. Willis, Browne. Notitia Parliamentaria, Part II: A Series or Lists of the Representatives in the several Parliaments held from the Reformation 1541, to the Restoration 1660... London. Pp. onepage&q&f=, false 174, 184, 195, 226.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Hungerford, Edward". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. P. 661. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William John. "Hungerford, Edward". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 28. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 254, 255.notes supplied by C. H. Firth.
1832 United Kingdom general election
The 1832 United Kingdom general election, the first after the Reform Act, saw the Whigs win a large majority, with the Tories winning less than 30% of the vote. The Earl Grey had been Prime Minister since November 1830, he headed the first predominantly Whig administration since the Ministry of All the Talents in 1806–07. In addition to the Whigs themselves, Grey was supported by other allied politicians; the Whigs and their allies were coming to be referred to as liberals, but no formal Liberal Party had been established at the time of this election, so all the politicians supporting the ministry are referred to as Whig in the above results. The Leader of the House of Commons since 1830 was Viscount Althorp, who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; the last Tory prime minister, at the time of this election, was the Duke of Wellington. After leaving government office, Wellington continued to lead the Tory peers and was the overall Leader of the Opposition; the Tory Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons was Bt.
John Wilson Croker had used the term "conservative" in 1830, but the Tories at the time of this election had not yet become known as the Conservative Party. This distinction would take hold after the Liberal Party was created. In Irish politics, Daniel O'Connell was continuing his campaign for repeal of the Act of Union, he had founded the Irish Repeal Association and it presented candidates independent of the two principal parties. Following the passage of the Reform Act 1832 and related legislation to reform the electoral system and redistribute constituencies, the tenth United Kingdom Parliament was dissolved on 3 December 1832; the new Parliament was summoned to meet on 29 January 1833, for a maximum seven-year term from that date. The maximum term could be and was curtailed, by the monarch dissolving the Parliament, before its term expired. At this period there was not one election day. After receiving a writ for the election to be held, the local returning officer fixed the election timetable for the particular constituency or constituencies he was concerned with.
Polling in seats with contested elections could continue for many days. The general election took place between December 1832 and January 1833; the first nomination was on 8 December, with the first contest on 10 December and the last contest on 8 January 1833. It was usual for polling in the University constituencies and in Orkney and Shetland to take place about a week after other seats. Disregarding contests in the Universities and Orkney and Shetland, the last poll was on 1 January 1833. For the distribution of constituencies in the unreformed House of Commons, before this election, see the United Kingdom general election, 1831. Apart from the disenfranchisement of Grampound for corruption in 1821 and the transfer of its two seats as additional members for Yorkshire from 1826, there had been no change in the constituencies of England since the 1670s. In some cases the county and borough seats had remained unaltered since the 13th century. Welsh constituencies had been unchanged since the 16th century.
Those in Scotland had remained the same since 1708 and in Ireland since 1801. In 1832 politicians were facing an unfamiliar electoral map, as well as an electorate including those qualified under a new uniform householder franchise in the boroughs; however the reform legislation had not removed all the anomalies in the electoral system. Table of largest and smallest electorates 1832–33, by country and number of seats Monmouthshire is included in Wales in these tables. Sources for this period may include the county in England. Table 1: Constituencies and MPs, by type and country Table 2: Number of seats per constituency, by type and country List of United Kingdom general elections List of MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1832 Craig, F. W. S. British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987, Dartmouth: Gower, ISBN 0900178302 Rallings, Colin. British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, Ashgate Publishing Ltd Walker, B. M. ed. Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland 1801–1922, Royal Irish Academy Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results
1754 British general election
The 1754 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 11th Parliament of Great Britain to be summoned, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. Owing to the extensive use of corruption and the Duke of Newcastle's personal influence in the pocket boroughs, the government was returned to office with a working majority; the old parties had disappeared completely by this stage. While'Tory' and'Whig' were still used to refer to particular political leanings and tendencies, parties in the old sense were no longer relevant except in a small minority of constituencies, such as Oxfordshire, with most elections being fought on local issues and the holders of political power being determined by the shifting allegiance of factions and aristocratic families rather than the strength or popularity of any organised parties. A small group of members of parliament still considered themselves Tories, but they were totally irrelevant to practical politics and excluded from holding public office.
The resulting eleventh Parliament of Great Britain was convened on 31 May 1754 and sat through eight sessions until its dissolution on 20 April 1761. See British general election, 1796 for details; the constituencies used were the same throughout the existence of the Parliament of Great Britain. The general election was held between 13 April 1754 and 20 May 1754. At this period elections did not take place at the same time in every constituency; the returning officer in each county or parliamentary borough fixed the precise date. 11th Parliament of Great Britain MPs elected in the British general election, 1754 British general election, 1754 British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, compiled and edited by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher
Royal Wootton Bassett
Royal Wootton Bassett Wootton Bassett, is a small market town and civil parish in Wiltshire, with a population of 11,043 in 2001, increasing to 11,385 in 2011. Situated in the north of the county, it lies 6 miles to the west of the major town of Swindon and 10 miles northeast of Calne. From 1447 until 1832 Wootton Bassett was a parliamentary borough which elected two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons. In 1832 it was abolished by the Great Reform Act; the town was granted royal patronage in March 2011 by Elizabeth II in recognition of its role in the early-21st-century military funeral repatriations, which passed through the town. This honour was conferred in a ceremony on 16 October 2011 – the first royal patronage to be conferred upon a town since 1909. AD 681 is taken as the starting point for recorded history of Wootton Bassett known as Wodeton, it being referred to in that year in a Malmesbury Abbey charter granting land to the Abbot. Archaeological discoveries in the area tend to confirm the tradition that the original "Wodeton" was near the present Dunnington Road.
Under continuous occupation throughout Celtic and Romano-British periods, the land was granted in 681 AD to Malmesbury Abbey. Further grants of land nearby appear in the records from time to time, but of Wodeton itself we hear no more until it was sacked by the marauding Danes in 1015, whereupon the survivors decided to move uphill to the site of the present High Street. Wootton Bassett is mentioned in the Domesday Book where it was noted that Miles Crispin held the rights and these included "land for 12 ploughs...a mill...and 24 acres of meadow...33 acres of pasture and woodland, two leagues by a league". It was said to be worth nine pounds. In the early 21st century, the town paid informal tributes during military repatriation funeral processions which passed through the town, which attracted significant media coverage. On 16 March 2011, Prime Minister David Cameron announced, at the start of Prime Minister's Questions, that while "from September, military repatriations will no longer pass through the town of Wootton Bassett", "Her Majesty has agreed to confer the title'Royal' upon the town, as an enduring symbol of the nation’s admiration and gratitude".
The addition to the town's name was enacted through Letters Patent and became effective on 16 October 2011, when The Princess Royal visited the town to present formally the Letters Patent to the town council. Royal Wootton Bassett has become the third Royal town in the country after Royal Leamington Spa and Royal Tunbridge Wells, the first to receive the status in over 100 years. Suburbs of Royal Wootton Bassett include Noremarsh, Coped Hall and Vastern. Bishop Fowley is shown, on the Andrews' and Dury's Map of Wiltshire, 1810 as being an outlying hamlet SW of the town; the Wootton Bassett Mud Spring is a 8,000 m2 geological Site of Special Scientific Interest, notified in 1997. The first tier of local government is Royal Wootton Bassett Town Council, with 16 members elected by voters in three wards. Councillors elect one of their number to serve as mayor for a period of one year; the town falls under the auspices of Wiltshire Council, a unitary authority established in 2009 as part of wider local government changes in England.
In the national government, since the 1997 general election the town has been represented by the Conservative MP James Gray, as the elected member for the North Wiltshire parliament constituency. In the European Parliament, the town is part of the South West England constituency. Royal Wootton Bassett is twinned with Blain in western France; the original Wootton Bassett UK Parliamentary constituency was abolished in 1832. The right of the town to send two representatives to Parliament was first gained as early as 1446 and before the Reform Act 1832, Wootton Bassett was known as a Rotten Borough due to the way in which elections were conducted, which were the antithesis of modern democratic elections. Voters were required to state their preferences in public before representatives of each side, were bribed. In 1754 the accounts of a successful candidate show that his supporters were paid £30 each for their vote, in the run up to the election the candidates secured the allegiance of public houses in the town, where voters were plied with free refreshments.
Free beer was provided by men who carried containers about the town. The same accounts show; the United Kingdom Census 2001 recorded the town's population as 11,043, indicating that the town tripled in population total during the previous 50 years. Since the opening of the M4 motorway, the town has become attractive to commuters, many travelling to the towns and cities of Swindon, Chippenham and Bristol; the town has a significant Royal Air Force population due to its proximity to RAF Lyneham. Royal Wootton Bassett has a secondary school, Royal Wootton Bassett Academy, which in a 2013 Ofsted inspection was assessed as "outstanding" in every category. There are four primary schools: St Bartholomew's Primary Academy, Longleaze Primary School, Noremarsh Junior School and Wootton Bassett Infants’ School; the town is home to detachments of the Army Cadet Force and the Sea Cadets. The town has always been a market town, hence with many trades associated with farming and agriculture. In 1908 Wiltshire United Dairies built a creamery in the town.
Merged in 1916 to form United Dairies, in 1931 a private siding was opened
Newgate Prison was a prison at the corner of Newgate Street and Old Bailey just inside the City of London, England at the site of Newgate, a gate in the Roman London Wall. Built in the 12th century and demolished in 1904, the prison was extended and rebuilt many times, remained in use for over 700 years, from 1188 to 1902. In the early 12th century, Henry II instituted legal reforms that gave the Crown more control over the administration of justice; as part of his Assize of Clarendon of 1166, he required the construction of prisons, where the accused would stay while royal judges debated their innocence or guilt and subsequent punishment. In 1188, Newgate was the first institution established to meet that purpose. A few decades in 1236, in an effort to enlarge the prison, the king converted one of the Newgate turrets, which still functioned as a main gate into the city, into an extension of the prison; the addition included new dungeons and adjacent buildings, which would remain unaltered for two centuries.
By the 15th century, Newgate was in need of repair. Following pressure from reformers who learned that the women's quarters were too small and did not contain their own latrines – obliging women to walk through the men's quarters to reach one – officials added a separate tower and chamber for female prisoners in 1406; some Londoners bequeathed their estates to repair the prison. The building was collapsing and decaying, many prisoners were dying from the close quarters, rampant disease, bad sanitary conditions. Indeed, one year, 22 prisoners died from "gaol fever"; the situation in Newgate was so dire. The executors of Lord Mayor Dick Whittington were granted a licence to renovate the prison in 1422; the gate and gaol were rebuilt. There was a new central hall for meals, a new chapel, the creation of additional chambers and basement cells with no light or ventilation. There were three main wards: the Master’s side for those could afford to pay for their own food and accommodations, the Common side for those who were too poor, a Press Yard for special prisoners.
The king used Newgate as a holding place for heretics and rebellious subjects brought to London for trial. The prison housed both male and female debtors. Prisoners were separated into wards by gender. By the mid-15th century, Newgate could accommodate 300 prisoners. Though the prisoners lived in separate quarters, they mixed with each other and visitors to the prison; the prison was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, was rebuilt in 1672 by Sir Christopher Wren. His design extended the complex into new buildings on the south side of the street. In 1770, construction was begun to add a new sessions house. Parliament granted £50,000 towards the cost, the City of London provided land measuring 1,600 feet by 50 feet; the work followed the designs of George Dance. The new prison was constructed to an architecture terrible design intended to discourage law-breaking; the building was laid out around a central courtyard, was divided into two sections: a "Common" area for poor prisoners and a "State area" for those able to afford more comfortable accommodation.
Each section was further sub-divided to accommodate debtors. Construction of the second Newgate Prison was finished when it was stormed by a mob during the Gordon riots in June 1780; the building was gutted by fire, the walls were badly damaged. Dance’s new prison was completed in 1782. During the early 19th century the prison attracted the attention of the social reformer Elizabeth Fry, she was concerned at the conditions in which female prisoners were held. After she presented evidence to the House of Commons improvements were made. In 1858, the interior was rebuilt with individual cells; the prison closed in 1902, was demolished in 1904. All manner of criminals stayed at Newgate; some committed acts of petty crime and theft and entering homes or committing highway robberies, while others performed serious crimes such as rapes and murders. The number of prisoners in Newgate for specific types of crime grew and fell, reflecting public anxieties of the time. For example, towards the tail end of Edward I's reign, there was a rise in street robberies.
As such, the punishment for drawing out a dagger was 15 days in Newgate. Upon their arrival in Newgate, prisoners were chained and led to the appropriate dungeon for their crime. Those, sentenced to death stayed in a cellar beneath the keeper’s house an open sewer lined with chains and shackles to encourage submission. Otherwise, common debtors were sent to the "stone hall" whereas common felons were taken to the "stone hold"; the dungeons were so depraved that physicians would not enter. The conditions did not improve with time. Prisoners who could afford to purchase alcohol from the prisoner-run drinking cellar by the main entrance to Newgate remained perpetually drunk. There were lice everywhere, jailers left the prisoners chained to the wall to languish and starve; the legend of the "Black Dog", an emaciated spirit thought to represent the brutal treatment of prisoners, only served to emphasize the harsh conditions. From 1315 to 1316, 62 deaths in Newgate were under investigation by the coroner, prisoners were always desperate to leave the prison.
The cruel treatment from guards did nothing to help the unfortunate prisoners. According to medieval statute, the prison was to be managed by two annually elected sheriffs, who in turn would sublet the admi
Scot and lot
Scot and lot is a phrase common in the records of English medieval boroughs, referring to local rights and obligations. The term scot comes from the Old English word sceat, meaning a sceat, an ordinary coin in Anglo-Saxon times, equivalent to the penny. In Anglo-Saxon times, a payment was levied locally to cover the cost of establishing drainage, embankments, of low-lying land, observing them to ensure they remain secure; this payment was a sceat, so the levy itself became to be called sceat. In burghs, sceat was levied to cover maintenance of the town defences. In Norman times, under the influence of the word escot, in Old French, the vowel changed, the term became scot. In 19th century Kent and Sussex, low-lying farmland was still being called scot-land. Scot, though became a general term for local levies. Lot means portion/share, hence lottery, allotment; the phrase scot and lot thus meant the local levies someone paid, the share they received of local provisions. Parliament had evolved from the king's baronial court, with the commons being populated by representatives of the landholders who were too minor to call in person.
Burghs were somewhat outside the feudal system, making their franchise ambiguous. Before the mid 19th century, burghs varied in their choice of franchise. In some burghs, the franchise was set at lot. In mediaeval times, this could mean dozens of people, by the 19th century tens of thousands of people could qualify in a single scot and lot burgh. In Gatten, only two people qualified under scot and lot; the quirks of the existing system, such as Gatton, was one of the reasons for the 1832 Great Reform Act. A cognate term, exists in the udal law of Orkney and Shetland; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Scot and Lot". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 411. Danby Palmer Fry,'On the Phrase Scot and Lot', in Trans. Philological Society, pp. 167–197. Gross, Gild Merchant, i. c. iv. Pollock and Maitland, Hist. Eng. Law, p. 647
Edmund Brydges, 2nd Baron Chandos
Edmund Brydges, 2nd Baron Chandos was an English peer and politician. He was a Knight of the Garter, Baron Chandos, Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire and Vice-Admiral of Gloucestershire, he was the eldest son and heir of John Brydges, 1st Baron Chandos of Sudeley Manor and Elizabeth Grey, daughter of Edmund Grey, 9th Lord Grey of Wilton. He succeeded to the barony on 12 April 1557 upon the death of his father, he served in the army in France in 1544 and in Scotland, being knighted in 1547 at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. He was elected Member of Parliament for Wootton Bassett in 1545 and knight of the shire for Gloucestershire in 1553, he was elevated to Knight of the Garter in 1572. He was the first husband of Dorothy Bray, several years prior to their marriage in 1546, had engaged in a love affair at court with William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton. Chandos and Dorothy together had a daughter. Chandos died in 1573 and was succeeded by his eldest son Giles Brydges, 3rd Baron Chandos and, after the death of Giles in 1594, by his younger son William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos.
"Brydges, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900