Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles bearing a single letter onto a board divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words that, in crossword fashion, read left to right in rows or downward in columns, be included in a standard dictionary or lexicon; the name is a trademark of Mattel in most of the world, but of Hasbro, Inc. in the United States and Canada. The game is available in 29 languages. There are around 4,000 Scrabble clubs around the world; the game is played by two to four players on a square board with a 15×15 grid of cells, each of which accommodates a single letter tile. In official club and tournament games, play is between two players or between two teams each of which collaborates on a single rack; the board is marked with "premium" squares, which multiply the number of points awarded: eight dark red "triple-word" squares, 17 pale red "double-word" squares, of which one, the center square, is marked with a star or other symbol.
In 2008, Hasbro changed the colors of the premium squares to orange for TW, red for DW, blue for DL, green for TL, but the original premium square color scheme is still preferred for Scrabble boards used in tournaments. In an English-language set, the game contains 100 tiles, 98 of which are marked with a letter and a point value ranging from 1 to 10; the number of points for each lettered tile is based on the letter's frequency in standard English. The game has two blank tiles that are unmarked and carry no point value; the blank tiles can be used as substitutes for any letter. Other language sets use different letter set distributions with different point values. Tiles are made of wood or plastic and are 19 by 19 millimetres square and 4 mm thick, making them smaller than the squares on the board. Only the rosewood tiles of the deluxe edition varies the width up to 2 mm for different letters. Travelling versions of the game have smaller tiles; the capital letter is printed in black at the centre of the tile face and the letter's point value printed in a smaller font at the bottom right corner.
S is one of the most valuable tiles in English-language Scrabble because it can be appended to many words to pluralize them. Q is considered the most troublesome letter, as all words with it contain U. J is difficult to play due to its low frequency and a scarcity of words having it at the end. C and V may be troublesome in the endgame, since no two-letter words with them exist, save for CH in the Collins Scrabble Words lexicon. In 1938, American architect Alfred Mosher Butts created the game as a variation on an earlier word game he invented called Lexiko; the two games had the same set of letter tiles, whose distributions and point values Butts worked out by performing a frequency analysis of letters from various sources, including The New York Times. The new game, which he called "Criss-Crosswords," added the 15×15 gameboard and the crossword-style game play, he manufactured a few sets himself, but was not successful in selling the game to any major game manufacturers of the day. In 1948, James Brunot, a resident of Newtown and one of the few owners of the original Criss-Crosswords game, bought the rights to manufacture the game in exchange for granting Butts a royalty on every unit sold.
Though he left most of the game unchanged, Brunot rearranged the "premium" squares of the board and simplified the rules. In 1949, Brunot and his family made sets in a converted former schoolhouse in Dodgingtown, a section of Newtown, they lost money. According to legend, Scrabble's big break came in 1952 when Jack Straus, president of Macy's, played the game on vacation. Upon returning from vacation, he was surprised to find, he placed a large order and within a year, "everyone had to have one."In 1952, unable to meet demand himself, Brunot sold manufacturing rights to Long Island-based Selchow and Righter, one of the manufacturers who, like Parker Brothers and Milton Bradley Company, had rejected the game. In its second year as a Selchow and Righter-built product, nearly four million sets were sold. Selchow and Righter bought the trademark to the game in 1972. JW Spear began selling the game in Australia and the UK on January 19, 1955; the company is now a subsidiary of Mattel. In 1986, Selchow and Righter was sold to Coleco.
Hasbro purchased the company's assets, including Parcheesi. In 1984, Scrabble was turned into a daytime game show on NBC. Scrabble ran from July 1984 to March 1990, with a second run from January to June 1993; the show was hosted by Chuck Woolery. Its tagline in promotional broadcasts was "Every man. In 2011, a new TV variation of Scrabble
Upwords is a board game invented by Elliot Rudell and published by the Milton Bradley Company, now a division of Hasbro. The game remains under license to Hasbro by Rudell Design, LLC. Upwords is similar to Scrabble, or Words With Friends, in that players build words using letter tiles on a gridded gameboard; the point of difference is that in Upwords letters can be stacked on top of other letters on the gameboard to create new words. The higher the stack of letters, the more points are scored; this makes words built in turns of the game more valuable than earlier words, increasing play intensity and adding a level of strategy unique to Upwords. The memorization of two-letter words is considered a useful skill in this game. Unlike Scrabble, manufactured in the U. S. and Canada by Hasbro, elsewhere in the world by Mattel, Upwords is controlled by Hasbro worldwide. The game is available in about twenty languages, there have been national tournaments played in Hungary and Turkey; each player draws seven tiles to start the game.
The first player forms a word with the tiles that covers one or more of the four central squares and draws more tiles to replace those played. Play continues to the left. Subsequent players may put tiles on the board adjacent to and/or on top of the tiles played, as long as all words formed are found in the dictionary being used. For example, if the word CATER is on the board, a player could put a B and E in front of CATER and put an L on top of the C and a D on top of the R to build BELATED. All tiles played on a turn must fall on one continuous string of squares. Restrictions on stacking tiles are as follows: No stack may be more than five tiles high. No tile may be stacked directly onto a duplicate of itself. At least one tile or stack must be left unchanged. Players may not pluralize a word by adding an S at its end. However, such a play is allowed if the S is part of another complete word, played onto the board in the same turn; this rule is intended to prevent players from capitalizing on one another's words without changing them or playing new ones.
All words must read horizontally from left to right, or vertically from top to bottom. Any word with no stacked letters scores two points per tile, while a word containing stacked letters scores one point per total tile it contains. In the CATER/BELATED example above, CATER would score 10 points. Two bonus points are awarded for using the "Qu" tile in a one-level word, 20 for using all seven tiles in one turn. A player may choose to pass at any time, or discard one tile and draw a replacement instead of playing. Once the draw pile is exhausted, the game ends when either one player has used all of his/her tiles, or no player can form a valid word. Players lose five points for every unused tile. Upwords was played on an 8×8 square board, with 64 letter tiles. Hasbro Europe expanded the gameboard to a 10×10 matrix and 100 tiles, to accommodate the longer words used in foreign languages such as German and Dutch; the 10×10 matrix is employed in worldwide versions of the game. The board is purposely smaller than Scrabble to encourage and force the stacking up of letters upon letters.
It does not have special squares such as "triple word scores" and "double letter scores" that require additional scoring calculations. In the early 1990s, Hasbro licensed electronic marketing rights to Microsoft making the game available electronically. Microsoft no longer has rights to Upwords. In 2013, Upwords was developed by indie software developers Lonely Star Software, under license from Hasbro; the game was released as an app for iOS devices. On 27 March 2014, Lonely Star released the app for Android platform devices. In August 2016, Hasbro introduced a new 10×10 version of Upwords; as of December 2018, Upwords is still available in its "classic" 8×8 version, distributed by Winning Moves
A combination puzzle known as a sequential move puzzle, is a puzzle which consists of a set of pieces which can be manipulated into different combinations by a group of operations. The puzzle is solved by achieving a particular combination starting from a random combination; the solution is required to be some recognisable pattern such as'all like colours together' or'all numbers in order'. The most famous of these puzzles is the original Rubik's Cube, a cubic puzzle in which each of the six faces can be independently rotated; each of the six faces is a different colour, but each of the nine pieces on a face is identical in colour, in the solved condition. In the unsolved condition colours are distributed amongst the pieces of the cube. Puzzles like the Rubik's Cube which are manipulated by rotating a layer of pieces are popularly called twisty puzzles; the mechanical construction of the puzzle will define the rules by which the combination of pieces can be altered. This leads to some limitations.
For instance, in the case of the Rubik's Cube, there are a large number of combinations that can be achieved by randomly placing the coloured stickers on the cube, but not all of these can be achieved by manipulating the cube rotations. Not all the combinations that are mechanically possible from a disassembled cube are possible by manipulation of the puzzle. Since neither unpeeling the stickers nor disassembling the cube is an allowed operation, the possible operations of rotating various faces limit what can be achieved. Although a mechanical realization of the puzzle is usual, it is not necessary, it is only necessary. The puzzle can be realized in virtual space or as a set of mathematical statements. In fact, there are some puzzles. An example is the 4-dimensional 3×3×3×3 tesseract puzzle, simulated by the MagicCube4D software. There have been many different shapes of Rubik type puzzles constructed; as well as cubes, all of the regular polyhedra and many of the semi-regular and stellated polyhedra have been made.
A cuboid is a rectilinear polyhedron. That is. Or in other words, a box shape. A regular cuboid, in the context of this article, is a cuboid puzzle where all the pieces are the same size in edge length. Pieces are referred to as "cubies". There are many puzzles which are mechanically identical to the regular cuboids listed above but have variations in the pattern and colour of design; some of these are custom made in small numbers, sometimes for promotional events. The ones listed in the table below are included because the pattern in some way affects the difficulty of the solution or is notable in some other way. An irregular cuboid, in the context of this article, is a cuboid puzzle where not all the pieces are the same size in edge length; this category of puzzle is made by taking a larger regular cuboid puzzle and fusing together some of the pieces to make larger pieces. In the formulae for piece configuration, the configuration of the fused pieces is given in brackets. Thus, a 2x2x2 is a 2 × 2 × 2 puzzle.
Puzzles which are constructed in this way are called "bandaged" cubes. However, there are many irregular cuboids. N-dimensional sequential move puzzles Puck puzzle WOWCube A large database of twisty puzzles The Puzzle Museum The Magic Polyhedra Patent Page
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles for money or prizes. Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants. Game shows reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the show's sponsor prize suppliers. Game shows began to appear on television in the late 1930s; the first television game show, Spelling Bee, as well as the first radio game show, Information Please, were both broadcast in 1938. Q. a radio quiz show that began in 1939. Truth or Consequences was the first game, its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as television began to pervade the popular culture, game shows became a fixture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives. Higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty-One and The $64,000 Question began a rapid rise in popularity. However, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged and ratings declines led to most of the primetime games being canceled. An early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived. On shows like What's My Line?, I've Got A Secret, To Tell the Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were collectively dropped from television because of their perceived low budget nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game and Hollywood Squares. In the UK, commercial demographic pressures were not as prominent, restrictions on game shows made in the wake of the scandals limited the style of games that could be played and the amount of money that could be awarded.
Panel have continued to thrive. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in strong ratings, combined with low costs of production, have only spurred growth in the UK panel show phenomenon. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals. Lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s. Let's Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game. Though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game show genre in the late 1960s on all three networks; the 1970s saw a renaissance of the game show as new games and massive upgrades to existing games made debuts on the major networks. The New Price Is Right, an update of the 1950s-era game show The Price Is Right, debuted in 1972 and marked CBS's return to the game show format in its effort to draw wealthier, suburban viewers; the Match Game became "Big Money" Match Game 73, which proved popular enough to prompt a spin-off, Family Feud, on ABC in 1976.
The $10,000 Pyramid and its numerous higher-stakes derivatives debuted in 1973, while the 1970s saw the return of disgraced producer and host Jack Barry, who debuted The Joker's Wild and a clean version of the rigged Tic-Tac-Dough in the 1970s. Wheel of Fortune debuted on NBC in 1975; the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971, barred networks from broadcasting in the 7–8 p.m. time slot preceding prime time, opening up time slots for syndicated programming. Most of the syndicated programs were "nighttime" adaptations of network daytime game shows; these game shows aired once a week, but by the late 1970s and early 1980s most of the games had transitioned to five days a week. Game shows were the lowest priority of television networks and were rotated out every thirteen weeks if unsuccessful. Most tapes were destroyed until the early 1980s. Over the course of the late 1980s and early 1990s, as fewer new hits were produced, game shows lost their permanent place in the daytime lineup. ABC transitioned out of the daytime game show format in the mid-1980s.
NBC's game block lasted until 1991, but the network attempted to bring them back in 1993 before cancelling its game show block again in 1994. CBS phased out most of its game shows, except for The Price Is Right, by 1993. To the benefit of the genre, the moves of Wheel of Fortune and a modernized revival of Jeopardy! to syndication in 1983 and 1984 was and remains successful. Cable television allowed for the debut of game shows such as Supermarket Sweep, Trivial Pursuit and Family Challenge, Double Dare, it opened up a underdeveloped ma
Tiling puzzles are puzzles involving two-dimensional packing problems in which a number of flat shapes have to be assembled into a larger given shape without overlaps. Some tiling puzzles ask you to dissect a given shape first and rearrange the pieces into another shape. Other tiling puzzles ask you to dissect a given shape while fulfilling certain conditions; the two latter types of tiling puzzles are called dissection puzzles. Tiling puzzles may be made from wood, cardboard, plastic or any other sheet-material. Many tiling puzzles are now available as computer games. Tiling puzzles have a long history; some of the oldest and most famous are the Tangram puzzle. Other examples of tiling puzzles include: Conway puzzle Domino tiling, of which the mutilated chessboard problem is one example Eternity puzzle Geometric magic square Puzz-3D Squaring the square Tantrix T puzzle PentominoesMany three-dimensional mechanical puzzles can be regarded as three-dimensional tiling puzzles. Dissection puzzle Polyforms Sliding puzzle Tessellation Wang tile
Disentanglement puzzles are a type of mechanical puzzle that involves disentangling one piece or set of pieces from another piece or set of pieces. The reverse problem of reassembling the puzzle can be as hard as—or harder than—disentanglement. There are several different kinds of disentanglement puzzles, though a single puzzle may incorporate several of these features. Wire-and-string puzzles consist of: one piece of string, ribbon or similar, which may form a closed loop or which may have other pieces like balls fixed to its end. One or several pieces of stiff wire sometimes additional pieces like wooden ball through which the string is threaded. One can distinguish three subgroups of wire-and-string puzzles: Closed string subgroup: The pieces of string consist of one closed loop, as in the Baguenaudier puzzle; the string has to be disentangled from the wire. Unclosed loose string subgroup: The pieces of string are not closed, are not attached to the wire. In this case the ends of the string are fitted with a ball, cube or similar which stops the string from slipping out too easily.
The string has to be disentangled from the wire. Sometimes other tasks have to be completed instead, such as shifting a ring or ball from one end of the string to another end. Unclosed fixed string subgroup: The pieces of string are not closed, but are somewhere on its length attached to the wire. In these puzzles the string is not to be disentangled from the wire. One possible task may be to shift a ball from one end of the string to another end. One difficult puzzle was designed by R. Boomhower in 1966 and has been modified into different designs. Different versions include a paddle-shaped design, a vertical beam on a wood support, two vertical beams on a wood support. Variations have the string passing through the slot once or two times. Names have included the Boomhower puzzle, T-Bar puzzle, Wit's End puzzle, the Mini Rope Bridge puzzle; some sources identify a topologically-equivalent puzzle called the Mystery Key issued by the Peter Pan company in the 1950s. Wire puzzles consist of more entangled pieces of more or less stiff wire.
The pieces may not be closed loops. The closed pieces might have more complex shapes; the puzzle must be solved by disentangling the two pieces without bending or cutting the wires. Early wire puzzles were made from similar material. A plate-and-ring puzzle consists of three pieces: one plate or similar displaying many holes and/or indentations a closed or nearly closed ring or a similar item; the plate as well as the ring are made from metal. The ring has to be disentangled from the plate; some puzzles have been created which may appear deceptively simple, but are impossible to solve. One such puzzle is the "Notorious Figure Eight Puzzle", it is sometimes sold with instructions giving hints as to its level of difficulty, a "solution" is provided but is vague and impossible to follow, but the puzzle is impossible to solve. Most puzzle solvers try to solve such puzzles by mechanical manipulation, but some branches of mathematics can be used to create a model of disentanglement puzzles. Applying a configuration space with a topological framework is an analytical method to gain insight into the properties and solution of some disentanglement puzzles.
However, some mathematicians have stated that capturing the important aspects of many such puzzles can be difficult, there is no universal algorithm that will provide the solution to such puzzles. Borromean rings, a method of linking three closed loops, found in some disentanglement puzzles Human knot Unknotting problem Unlink
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention. Although people's attention is held by different things, because individuals have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognisable and familiar. Storytelling, drama and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens; the process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; the experience of being entertained has come to be associated with amusement, so that one common understanding of the idea is fun and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose.
This may be the case in the various forms of ceremony, religious festival, or satire for example. Hence, there is the possibility that what appears as entertainment may be a means of achieving insight or intellectual growth. An important aspect of entertainment is the audience, which turns a private recreation or leisure activity into entertainment; the audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, television show, or film. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts. Most forms of entertainment have persisted over many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture and fashion for example with stage magic. Films and video games, for example, although they use newer media, continue to tell stories, present drama, play music. Festivals devoted to music, film, or dance allow audiences to be entertained over a number of consecutive days; some activities that were once considered entertaining public punishments, have been removed from the public arena.
Others, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainment with wider appeal for bigger audiences. In the same way, other necessary skills, such as cooking, have developed into performances among professionals, staged as global competitions and broadcast for entertainment. What is entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another; the familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a unlimited potential for creative remix. This has ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes and structures. Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as education and marketing though they have learned how to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different goals. Sometimes entertainment can be a mixture for both; the importance and impact of entertainment is recognised by scholars and its increasing sophistication has influenced practices in other fields such as museology.
Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is "the attainment of gratification". No other results or measurable benefit are expected from it; this is in contrast to marketing. However, the distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more "entertaining" and entertainment or marketing seek to be more "educational"; such mixtures are known by the neologisms "edutainment" or "infotainment". The psychology of entertainment as well as of learning has been applied to all these fields; some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of the two. Some people are entertained by the idea of their unhappiness. An entertainment might produce some insight in its audience. Entertainment may skillfully consider universal philosophical questions such as: "What is the meaning of life?". Questions such as these drive many narratives and dramas, whether they are presented in the form of a story, play, book, comic, or game. Dramatic examples include Shakespeare's influential play Hamlet, whose hero articulates these concerns in poetry.
Novels give great scope for investigating these themes. An example of a creative work that considers philosophical questions so entertainingly that it has been presented in a wide range of forms is The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. A radio comedy, this story became so popular that it has appeared as a novel, television series, stage show, audiobook, LP record, adventure game and online game, its ideas became popular references and has been tran