Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Tuncurry, New South Wales
Tuncurry is a coastal town in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Mid-Coast Council LGA, about 308 km north north east of Sydney. It is immediately adjacent to its town of Forster, which is the larger of the two towns. At the 2011 census, the Forster-Tuncurry area had a population of 18,904 people and this number grows considerably in the tourist season. The population of Tuncurry alone was 5,800, the first land grant in this area was in 1875. The settlement was originally called North Shore and North Forster and was renamed Tuncurry meaning plenty of fish in 1891, the area was well known in the early days for its timber cutting and sawmills. Timber was collected from the lakes and rivers by the logpunts, a bridge over the Coolongolook River that marks the entrance to Wallis Lake was built in 1959 linking Forster and Tuncurry and replacing the punt service that had operated since 1890. Because of its close driving proximity to Sydney, Forster-Tuncurry has established itself as a summer holiday destination, where in the hotter months.
The school holidays in the months bring large numbers of holidaymakers. Tuncurrys Nine Mile Beach is a swimming and fishing spot. Tuncurry Rockpool is a shark netted swimming enclosure, formed by breakwalls which mark the entrance to Wallis Lake, tuncurrys lakefront areas are characterised by wharves and jetties which provide mooring for fishing boats and pleasure craft. The regions local cinema, Great Lakes Cinema 3, is based on the Tuncurry side of the bridge, wallamba River Forster-Tuncurry Visitor Guide - www. Tuncurry. com. au MidCoast Council
Telegherry River, a perennial river of the Mid-Coast Council system, is located in the Mid North Coast and Upper Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia. The river descends 771 metres over its 28 kilometres course, rivers of New South Wales List of rivers in New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Karuah River and Great Lakes catchments
Great Lakes Council
Great Lakes Council was a local government area in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is situated adjacent to the shores of Port Stephens, Myall Lakes and Wallis Lake and the Pacific Highway, on 12 May 2016 the Council was dissolved and the area included in the Mid-Coast Council, along with City of Greater Taree and Gloucester Shire. The Great Lakes area is home to the significant, Ramsar Convention listed Myall Lakes wetlands. These wetlands are an important foundation for the economies of the suburbs of the Great Lakes Council local government area, particularly the recreational fisheries. A2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing, in the initial proposal, the Great Lakes Council was not included in any amalgamation proposals. However, Gloucester Shire Council submitted a proposal to amalgamate the Gloucester, Great Lakes. The outcome of an independent review was completed by May 2016, at the 2011 census, there were 34,430 people in the Great Lakes Council local government area, of these 49.0 per cent were male and 51.0 per cent were female.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.8 per cent of the population, which was higher than the national and state averages of 2.5 per cent. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 15.4 per cent of the population, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,52.4 per cent were married and 15.0 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Great Lakes Council between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 4.00 per cent, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, the median weekly income for residents within the Great Lakes Council area was nearly half the national average. At the time of its dissolution, the Great Lakes Council was composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward, all Councillors were elected for a fixed four-year term of office. The Mayor was elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council
Dungog, New South Wales
Dungog is a country town on the Williams River in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Located in the middle of dairy and timber country, it is the centre of the Dungog Shire local government area, the area includes the Fosterton Loop,22 kilometres of road, used in the annual Pedalfest. A small portion of Dungog lies in the Mid-Coast Council LGA, the traditional owners of the area now known as Dungog are the Gringai clan of the Wonnarua people, a group of indigenous people of Australia. By 1825 Robert Dawson had named the Barrington area, while surveyor Thomas Florance named the Chichester River in 1827, two years George Boyle White explored the sources of the Allyn and Williams rivers. With a Court of Petty Sessions in 1833 and gazetted in 1838 as the village of Dungog, it had a house, lockup. Lord St, as were Dowling, Chapman, Brown, the descendants of some of these, notably the Dowlings and Hookes, still live in and around Dungog. Others, such as John Lord, went bankrupt or, as did Myles, sold out early, Dungog village gradually grew from a mere 25 houses in the 1846 census.
By 1854, four licences for publicans were granted in Dungog, James Stephenson, Dungog Inn, Joseph Finch, Settlers’ Arms, Joseph Robson, Trades’ Arms, two of these continue to operate today. Before the 1920s there was little building beyond Lord St. Even in 1892, at the opening of Dungog Cottage Hospital on Hospital Hill to the west, boosted by the dairy industry, which began to develop in the 1890s, Dungog grew more rapidly, receiving a further boost with the arrival of the railway in 1911. Many of the finest houses and commercial buildings still to be here were built between the end of the nineteenth and the first two decades of the following century. Coolalie and Coimbra, as well as the Angus & Coote, now J A Rose building and the Dark stores all date from this period of expansion. The architects and builders used for these projects were locals, such as C H Button, Town Clerk and architect, or J A Hall, builder, as well as those from Maitland, such as architect J A Pender. Around 1926, Dowling Street was first fully kerbed and the present alignment of the facades was established.
Money and new businesses were entering the town at this time, while things may have slowed a little thereafter, many new buildings and houses continued to be built in the following years. The Catholic community built a new place of worship in Brown St in 1933, in 1935 the Bank of NSW replaced its old building on the corner of Dowling and Mackay Sts with one in the, very modern Georgian Revival Style. The Second World War was just beginning when the Dungog Chronicle reported, since the 1950s, few new public buildings and shops have been erected but homes have continued to be built in weatherboard, fibro or concrete, following the fashions of the time. While dairying has declined, the industry has remained, and although most timber is now locked up in national parks
Royal Society of New South Wales
The Royal Society of New South Wales is a learned society based in Sydney, Australia. It is the oldest such society in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere, the Governor of New South Wales is the vice-regal patron of the Society. The Society was established as the Philosophical Society of Australasia on 27 June 1821, in 1850, after a period of informal activity, the Society was revived and its name became the Australian Philosophical Society and, in 1856, the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. The Society was granted Royal Assent on 12 December 1866 and at time was renamed the Royal Society of New South Wales. Membership is open to any person interested in the promotion of studies in Science, Literature, the Society is based in Sydney and has an active branches in Mittagong in the Southern Highlands of NSW. Regular monthly meetings and public lectures are attended by both members and visitors. The Society publishes a journal, the Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales.
The Society was formed with a view to enquiring into the branches of physical science of this vast continent. On his arrival in Sydney late in 1821, the newly appointed Governor, following a period of informal activity, the Society was revitalised and renamed the Australian Philosophical Society on 19 January 1850. The society was renamed the Philosophical Society of New South Wales in 1856, on 12 December 1866, Queen Victoria granted Royal Assent to change its name to The Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society was incorporated by Act of the New South Wales Parliament in 1881, the rules of the Society provided that the Governor of New South Wales should be President ex officio. After the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, the Governor-General became Patron of the Society, from 1938 to 2014, the Society was under the joint patronage of the Governor-General of Australia and the Governor of NSW. The Society now has a single Vice-Regal Patron, the Governor of NSW, the Societys journal, the Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales is one of the oldest peer-reviewed publications in the Southern Hemisphere.
Much innovative research of the 19th and early 20th centuries was first brought to the attention of the world through the Journal. The Journal and Proceedings are exchanged with hundreds of institutions worldwide, issues are published June and December each year. The Society welcomes scholarly work to be considered for publication in the Journal, preference is given to work done in Australia which has relevance to New South Wales. Intending authors must read the style guide, available via the Society’s web site, the Society recognises outstanding contributions to science, literature or philosophy with the position of Distinguished Fellow. Distinguished Fellows of the Society are entitled to use the postnominal Dist FRSN, there can be up to 25 Distinguished Fellows at any one time
Maitland, New South Wales
It is on the New England Highway about 17 km from its start at Hexham. The city centre is located on the bank of the Hunter River. Surrounding areas include the cities of Cessnock and Singleton local government areas, originally Maitland was a culmination of three separate towns which arose roughly all around the same time. West Maitland, now just Maitland, was a privately founded town grew because of its proximity to the river. The other areas were East Maitland, which was established by the colonial New South Wales government, and Morpeth, another private town founded by Lieutenant Close, each town functioned as if they were separate municipalities. The name, was reported in 1885 to have had its name taken from Sir George Maitland, under Secretary for the Colonies, and M. P. for the Borough of Whitchurch, in Hampshire, England. The present city was proclaimed in 1945 with the amalgamation of the three local government areas, the citys boundaries have been increased by incorporating parts of other local government areas since then.
West Maitland was founded in 1820 close to the reach of the Hunter River where vessels with a shallow draft could navigate. Nearby Morpeth served as the head of navigation for larger ships, originally the route river route between Morpeth and West Maitland was 26 kilometres, today after various floods and river course changes this has reduced to just 9 kilometres. Maitland was therefore the point at which goods were unloaded for, and distributed to, there were large warehouses built, which faced onto the main High Street and backed onto the Hunter River. For almost 20 years until the Victorian gold rush, Maitland was the second largest town in Australia, the arrival of the railway from Newcastle in the 1850s, coupled with the increasing silting of the river and larger ships spelt the end of the traditional river traffic. The first electricity connected in the area was to Maitland Town Hall in 1922, to the Halls front light. The first bridge to link West Maitland with what is now the suburb of Lorn was opened in 1869 and named in honour of the Governor of New South Wales, the 4th Earl of Belmore.
Although the bridge proved vital to the development, the floods of 1893,1913 and 1930 began to heighten the need for a new bridge that could withstand periodic flooding. A second Belmore Bridge, designed to withstand the impact of debris during floods, was adjacent to the 1869 bridge in 1964. The new bridge, which redirected traffic away from St. Andrews Street to a new intersection at the Maitland Court House, is one of the three main river crossings. Maitlands proximity to the Hunter River has resulted in a succession of floods since European settlement, over 200 floods have occurred on the Hunter River since settlement,13 of those higher than the rivers normal peak limit of 10.7 metres. Of these 13, all have had an effect on the city of Maitland
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
Stroud, New South Wales
Stroud is a small country town one hour north of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. It is part of the Mid-Coast Council local government area, the major road through Stroud is the Bucketts Way. At the 2006 census, Stroud had a population of 669, the township of Stroud can trace its beginning back to the late 1820s when it became the headquarters for a public funded company known as the Australian Agricultural Company. In 1824, this received a grant of one million acres of land between Port Stephens and the Manning River. This land was to be used for agriculture, Stroud was a self-contained village by 1832 and, as early as 1836, the Companys storehouses and much of the convict labour force were located there. By 1850, it had become the Companys headquarters, land was subdivided for private settlement in 1849, with settlers arriving from England the following year to take up land grants there. Many fine buildings were constructed at Stroud, some of these are still in use today, Stroud House, St Johns Church and Quambi School House, and the underground grain silos, built by the A. A.
Company for the storage of grain, in 2007 the Stroud Raiders a mens football team reformed. With strong performances through the year the Raiders were the Minor and Major Premiers for 2007, there is a womens football team called the Supercats. Stroud has a cricket team and these teams share the Stroud Showground. Stroud used to have four tennis courts which were home to the Stroud Tennis Club and bowls are played at the Stroud and District Country Club. Some of the facilities, along with houses and camping grounds. The Stroud Show is usually the first weekend after Easter, the Stroud International Brick and Pin Throwing Contest is usually held on a Saturday in July. This coincides with the event in three other Strouds, Oklahoma and Ontario. The Stroud Rodeo is usually the weekend in September. Retreats and conferences are held at the Franciscan Monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Stroud has a primary school which was established in 1884. It was not possible for the North Coast railway line to serve Stroud, a railway station was established at Stroud Road but this is now closed and the nearest station is at Dungog.
Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK Karuah River and Great Lakes catchments
Doryanthes excelsa, commonly known as Gymea lily, is a flowering plant in the family, Doryanthaceae and is endemic to coastal areas of New South Wales near Sydney. It has sword-like leaves more than 1 metre long and when it flowers, the apex of the spike bears a large cluster of bright red flowers, each 10 centimetres across. Its common name is derived from the given to the plant by the indigenous Eora people. Gymea lilies have a rosette of large numbers of sword-shaped, strap like leaves 1–2.5 metres long and 10 centimetres wide, the leaves are bright green and glabrous. In winter the flower grows from the centre of the rosette until it is up to 6 metres high. At the top of the spike, a head of flowers 30 centimetres in diameter develops, each flower being bright red, trumpet-shaped, the head is surrounded by reddish-brown bracts, sometimes making it difficult to see the flowers from the ground. Flowering occurs in spring and is followed by oval-shaped reddish-brown capsules, in late summer, the capsule splits open and releases the seeds which are 15–23 millimetres long.
Doryanthes excelsa was first formally described in 1802 by the Portuguese polymath, the description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek δόρυ meaning a spear, the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning high, lofty or distinguished. Doryanthes excelsa and Doryanthes palmeri are the two members of the family Doryanthaceae. Doryanthes has inspired the naming of the journal of history and heritage for Southern Sydney founded by Dharawal historian Les Bursill, Doryanthes excelsa occurs in woodland and dry sclerophyll forest in coastal areas and adjacent mountains from Karuah to Mount Keira. It usually grows in soils derived from sandstone, aboriginal people roasted the young stems of gymea lily for eating. They roasted the roots to make a kind of cake, fibres from the leaves were used for making brushes and matting. Gymea lilies are hardy and adaptable plants often used in gardening, not only in the Sydney region but in other coastal areas such as Brisbane.
Plants can be grown from seed but may not flower for up to eight years, flowering can be encouraged by fire and by carefully placing a stone in the centre of the rosette
William Parry (explorer)
His 1819 voyage through the Parry Channel was probably the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, Parry was born in Bath, the son of Dr. Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby. He was educated at King Edwards School, from 1813–1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross and this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island. Partly as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in the HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon, others on the expedition were Edward Sabine, science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had plates on their bows. They carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers, instead of taking Rosss easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound.
Fighting his way through ice he reached clear water on 28 July and he passed Rosss farthest west and kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back, continuing west they passed 110°W which entitled them to a £5,000 award offered by Parliament. Finally blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the shore of Melville Island. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September, here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F, the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, there was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the shore of the island which he named Hecla.
It was the first of August before the ships were able to out of the harbor. They got as far west as 113°46W before turning back and it was too late in the season and new ice was already beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man,1819 was unusually ice-free and no ship was able to travel so far west until Edward Belchers expedition in 1850