Alcoholics Anonymous is an international mutual aid fellowship with the stated purpose of enabling “its members to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety." It was founded in 1935 by Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. With other early members and Smith developed AA's Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences; the Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes; the first female member Florence Rankin joined AA in March 1937, the first non-Protestant member, a Roman Catholic, joined in 1939. The first Black AA group was established in 1945 in Washington DC by Jim S. an African-American physician from Virginia.
AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements. Close to two million people worldwide are estimated to be members of AA as of 2016. AA derives its name from its first book Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism referred to as the Big Book. AA sprang from The Oxford Group, a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity; some members founded the Group to help in maintaining sobriety. "Grouper" Ebby Thacher was Wilson's former drinking buddy who approached Wilson saying that he had "got religion", was sober, that Wilson could do the same if he set aside objections to religion and instead formed a personal idea of God, "another power" or "higher power". Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B.
Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he drank. Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth, Wilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna. At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a bright flash of light, which he felt to be God revealing himself. Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member, unable to stay sober. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 June 1935, the date marked by AA for its anniversaries. While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for forming a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".
By 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split:...more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and in the strength of this group. Men who had proven over and over again, by painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem. This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves, they did not need the Oxford Group. In 1955, Wilson acknowledged AA's debt, saying "The Oxford Groupers had shown us what to do, and just as we learned from them what not to do." Among the Oxford Group practices that AA retained were informal gatherings, a "changed-life" developed through "stages", working with others for no material gain, AA's analogs for these are meetings, "the steps", sponsorship. AA's tradition of anonymity was a reaction to the publicity-seeking practices of the Oxford Group, as well as AA's wish to not promote, Wilson said, "erratic public characters who through broken anonymity might get drunk and destroy confidence in us."
To share their method and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism, from which AA drew its name. Informally known as "The Big Book", it suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power", they seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of their own understanding. The second half of the book, "Personal Stories", is made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches. In 1941, interviews on American radio and favorable articles in US magazines, including a piece by Jack Alexander in The Saturday Evening Post, led to increased book sales and membership. By 1946, as the growing fellowship quarreled over structure and authority, as well as finances and publicity, Wilson began to form and promote what became known as AA's "Twe
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Protestant work ethic
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a work ethic concept in theology, sociology and history that emphasizes that hard work and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith Calvinism. This contrasts with the focus upon religious attendance and ceremonial sacrament in the Roman Catholic tradition. A person does not need to be a religious Calvinist in order to follow the Protestant work ethic, as it is a part of certain cultures impacted by the Protestant Reformation; the concept is credited with helping to define the societies of Northern and Western Europe. Though some of these countries were more affected by Lutheranism or Anglicanism than Calvinism, local Protestants were influenced by these ideas to a varying degree; as penal law was enacted to uphold the uniform teachings of the Church of England in England, only various English dissenters held to those values. Among them were the Puritans who emigrated to New England, bringing the work ethic with them and helping define the culture of what would become the United States of America.
Immigrants brought their work ethic to the United States of America, South Africa and other European colonies. The phrase was coined in 1904–1905 by Max Weber in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. A number of leading contemporary historians, including historian Fernand Braudel and British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, assert that the existing consensus among scholars is that Protestant Work Ethic theory is false, they refer to the pre-Reformation existence of rapid economic development of Catholic capitalist communities. Protestants, beginning with Martin Luther, reconceptualized worldly work as a duty which benefits both the individual and society as a whole. Thus, the Catholic idea of good works was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace. Whereas Catholicism teaches that good works are required of Catholics as a necessary manifestation of the faith they received, that faith apart from works is dead and barren, the Calvinist theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved.
Since it was impossible to know, predestined, the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect. Protestants were thus supposed to strive for reaching them. Writer Frank Chodorov argued that the Protestant ethic was long considered indispensable for American political figures: There was a time, in these United States, when a candidate for public office could qualify with the electorate only by fixing his birthplace in or near the "log cabin." He may have acquired a competence, or a fortune, since but it was in the tradition that he must have been born of poor parents and made his way up the ladder by sheer ability, self-reliance, perseverance in the face of hardship. In short, he had to be "self made." The so-called Protestant Ethic prevalent held that man was a sturdy and responsible individual, responsible to himself, his society, his God.
Anybody who could not measure up to that standard could not qualify for public office or popular respect. One, born "with a silver spoon in his mouth" might be envied, but he could not aspire to public acclaim. There has been a revitalization of Weber's interest, including the work of Lawrence Harrison, Samuel P. Huntington, David Landes. In a New York Times article, published in June 8, 2003, Niall Ferguson pointed that data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development seems to confirm that "the experience of Western Europe in the past quarter-century offers an unexpected confirmation of the Protestant ethic. To put it bluntly, we are witnessing the fall of the Protestant work ethic in Europe; this represents the stunning triumph of secularization in Western Europe—the simultaneous decline of both Protestantism and its unique work ethic." The Austrian Catholic economist Joseph Schumpeter argued that capitalism began in Italy in the 14th century, not in the Protestant areas of Europe.
Other factors that further developed the European market economy included the strengthening of property rights and lowering of transaction costs with the decline and monetization of feudalism, the increase in real wages following the epidemics of bubonic plague. Becker and Wossmann at the University of Munich have written a discussion paper describing an alternate theory; the abstract to this states that the literacy gap between Protestants and Catholics sufficiently explains the economic gaps, that the "esults hold when we exploit the initial concentric dispersion of the Reformation to use distance to Wittenberg as an instrument for Protestantism." However, they note that, between Luther and 1871 Prussia, the limited data available has meant that the period in question is regarded as a "black box" and that only "some cursory discussion and analysis" is possible. Historian Fernand Braudel wrote "all historians have opposed this tenuous theory, although they have not managed to be rid of it once and for all.
Yet it is false. The northern countries took over the place that earlier had been so long and brilliantly been occupied by the old capitalist centers of the Mediterranean, they invented nothing, either in technology or business management." Social scientist Rodney Stark moreover comments that "during
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph; the definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy".
Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word. In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a balanced mind, you will say "frumious." In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms are examples of blends. In Punch in 1896, the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word." In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.
The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit". David Beckham's English mansion Rowneybury House was nicknamed "Beckingham Palace", a portmanteau of his surname and Buckingham Palace. Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", "advertorial", "infotainment", "infomercial".
A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name. Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r
Stress, either physiological or biological, is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a threat, challenge or physical and psychological barrier. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body; the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis; the second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic and immunological functions. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and stria terminalis.
Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, immune function and susceptibility to diseases. Definitions of stress differ. One system suggests there are five types of stress labeled "acute time-limited stressors", "brief naturalistic stressors", "stressful event sequences", "chronic stressors", "distant stressors". An acute time-limited stressor involves a short-term challenge, while a brief natural stressor involves an event, normal but challenging. A stressful event sequence is a stressor that occurs, continues to yield stress into the immediate future. A chronic stressor involves exposure to a long-term stressor, a distant stressor is a stressor, not immediate. Stress and illness may have intersecting components. Several studies indicate such a link, while theories of the stress–illness link suggest that both acute and chronic stress can cause illness, lead to changes in behavior and in physiology. Behavioral changes can include smoking, changes in eating habits and physical activity.
Physiological changes can include changes in sympathetic activation or HPA activity, immunological function. However, there is much variability in the link between illness; the HPA axis regulates many bodily functions, both behavioral and physiological, through the release of glucocorticoid hormones. The HPA axis activity varies with a spike in the morning; the axis involves the release of corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin from the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH. ACTH may stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol; the HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well. The release of CRH and VP are regulated by descending glutaminergic and GABAergic pathways from the amygdala, as well as noradrenergic projections. Increased cortisol acts to increase blood glucose, blood pressure, surpasses lysosomal, immunological activity. Under other circumstances the activity may differ. Increased cortisol favors habit based learning, by favoring memory consolidation of emotional memories.
Selye demonstrated that stress decreases adaptability of an organism and proposed to describe the adaptability as a special resource, adaptation energy. One study considered adaptation energy as an internal coordinate on the "dominant path" in the model of adaptation. Stress can make the individual more susceptible to physical illnesses like the common cold. Stressful events, such as job changes, may result in insomnia, impaired sleeping, physical and psychological health complaints. Research indicates the type of stressor and individual characteristics such as age and physical well-being before the onset of the stressor can combine to determine the effect of stress on an individual. An individual's personality characteristics and childhood experiences with major stressors and traumas may dictate their response to stressors. Chronic stress and a lack of coping resources available or used by an individual can lead to the development of psychological issues such as delusions and anxiety; this is true regarding chronic stressors.
These are stressors that may not be as intense as an acute stressor like a natural disaster or a major accident, but they persist over longer periods of time. These types of stressors tend to have a more negative effect on health because they are sustained and thus require the body's physiological response to occur daily; this depletes the body's energy more and occurs over long periods of time when these microstressors cannot be avoided. See allostatic load for further discussion of the biological process by which chronic stress may affect the body. For example, studies have found that caregivers those of dementia patients, have higher levels of depression and worse physical health than non-caregivers; when humans are under chronic stress, permanent changes in their physiological and behavioral responses may occur. Chronic stress can include events such as caring for a spouse with dementia, or may result from brief focal events that have long term effects, such as experiencing a sexual assault.
Studies have shown that psychological stress may directly contribute to the disproportionately high rates of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and its etiologic risk factors. Acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events. However, it is possible for individuals to exhibit hardiness—a term
Digital media use and mental health
Digital media use has been complicated by digital media overuse, variously termed digital addictions or digital dependencies. These constructs are biopsychosocial and cultural phenomena, that behave differently in various societies and cultures, they have been under study and analysis for some years, predominantly by psychologists, sociologists and medical experts. Some reviews have considered evidence of benefits of digital media use, stating that current evidence shows "moderate use of digital technology is not intrinsically harmful and may be advantageous in a connected world", however a 2019 systematic review of reviews in the British Medical Journal found no evidence of net health benefits yet proven scientifically. From a medical perspective, 2019 editor of JAMA Pediatrics, amongst multiple other medical experts, considered that internet addiction may be "a 21st century epidemic", in 2018 he commented that childhood internet overuse may be a form of "uncontrolled experiment on... children."
Internet addiction has been considered as a diagnosis since the mid 1990s. A 2014 review of the proposed medical diagnosis of social media addiction considered the exclusion of this diagnosis from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, pointing to a growing body of evidence that suggested its necessity for consideration as a mental disorder; the concept of social media and its relation to addiction has been examined since 2009. However, the use of the English word "addiction" in relation to these phenomena and diagnoses has come under question. Social media has unintentionally altered the ways that children think and develop. While mental health problems have occurred throughout human history, scientists are unclear as to the direct links between social media and mental health outcomes, they appear to depend on the individual, the social media platform used. Founded in current research on the adverse consequences of overusing technology, "digital addiction", or "digital dependence" has been used as an overarching phrase to suggest an increasing trend of compulsive behaviour amongst users of technological devices.
Unrestrained use of technological devices may affect developmental, social and physical well-being and result in symptoms akin to other behavioural addictions. Several clinics worldwide now offer treatment for internet addiction disorder, several studies have sought to establish a connection between the use of the internet and patterns of behaviour. A critical review published in the International Journal of Mental Health Addiction in 2018 considered the term "addiction" in relation to overuse of the internet, questioning its suitability as a separate psychiatric entity, or whether it is a manifestation of other psychiatric disorders, they proposed that there is a lack of recognition and consensus on the concept and diagnoses are difficult, concluding "new media has been subject to such moral panic and thus this serves a historical tradition within societal conception." One review considered "continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language and social-emotional development, applied clinical care".
Due to the ready availability of multiple technologies to children worldwide, the problem is bi-directional, as taking away digital devices may have a detrimental effect. In regard to childhood technology use, the American Academy of Pediatrics developed a Family Media Plan; the intention of such a plan would be to help parents assess and structure their family's use of electronic devices and media more safely. The Canadian Paediatric Society produced a similar guideline. However, a systematic review of reviews published in 2019 commented that these and other national guidelines have been criticised in lacking evidence, they reviewed previous reviews on the issue, concurring that the evidence was of low to moderate quality. However they considered that overall, there is evidence associating sceentime with poorer psychological health including symptoms such as inattention, low self esteem, behavioural issues in childhood and adolescence, they did not find evidence for any positive health benefits of screen time.
In regard to quality of life, they discussed that "Suchert reported that there was a positive association between screentime and poorer psychological well-being or perceived quality of life in 11/15 studies. Costigan reported perceived health in 4/4 studies; as awareness of these issues increased, many disciplines continue to work on their mitigation, on improving understanding of the issues, on potential innovative solutions. The Lancet commission on global mental health and sustainability 2018 report considered benefits and harms of technology, discussing its ethical risks and challenges for those with codified diagnoses and without, it considered the roles of various technologies in mental health in public education, patient screening, training/supervision and system improvement. It commented on the specific risks such as cyber-bullying and confidentiality, potential lawmaker discrimination, future unintended consequences of the widening digital divide in mental health, it commented that digital media use in healthcare is unregulated in most countries, stating that "policies are needed to guide the safe and effective application of digital technologies in health care."
Various technology firms have implemented changes to mitigate the negative effects of excessive Internet use. In December 2017, Facebook admitted passive consumption of social media could be harmful to mental health, although they
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed