Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Swedish Trade Union Confederation
The Swedish Trade Union Confederation referred to as LO, is a national trade union centre, an umbrella organisation for fourteen Swedish trade unions that organise "blue-collar" workers. The Confederation, which gathers in total about 1.5 million employees out of Sweden's 10 million people population, was founded in 1898 by blue-collar unions on the initiative of the 1897 Scandinavian Labour Congress and the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which exclusively was made up by trade unions. In 2017 union density of Swedish blue-collar workers was 61%, a decline by fifteen percentage points since 2006. A contributing factor was the raised fees to union unemployment funds in January 2007 made by the new centre-right government; the fourteen affiliates of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation span both the private and the public sector. The member unions are independent, with the role of the Confederation limited to the co-ordination of wage bargaining, international activities, trade union education and other areas.
Another important task is to promote the organisation's views to decision-makers and the general public. It has representatives on the governing bodies of many government authorities; the Confederation is responsible for research and signing labour market insurance schemes. The member unions, carry the responsibility for the administration of the unemployment insurance funds. While its Danish sister organisation, the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions, cut its formal ties to the country's Social Democratic party in 1995, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation maintains a strong cooperation with the Social Democrats. Although the organisations are independent from each other, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation has a representative on the party’s executive committee elected by the Party Congress. Both the Confederation and the member unions contribute substantial amounts of money to the party; until 1987 there was a system of collective membership in the Social Democratic Party for members in the confederation, in which the local union could apply for membership in the Social Democratic Party enrolling all its members into the Social Democratic Party.
Until The Swedish Trade Union Confederation owned 50.1% of the evening newspaper Aftonbladet, the largest daily newspaper in Scandinavia. As of 2012, the organisation owns 9% of the newspaper; the organisation bought Aftonbladet in 1956 but sold off 49.9 percent to Norwegian media company Schibsted on 2 May 1996. The number of member unions have been reduced by mergers. Most the Forest and Wood Workers' Union and the Graphic Workers' Union merged into the single union GS Union on 1 June 2009. Building Maintenance Workers' Union Building Workers' Union Commercial Employees' Union Electricians' Union Food Workers' Union Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union GS Union following the 1 June 2009 merger of Forest and Wood Workers' Union Graphic Workers' Union IF Metall following the January 1, 2006 merger of Industrial Union Metalworkers' Union Municipal Workers' Union Musicians' Union Painters' Union Paper Workers' Union Transport Workers' Union Union for Service and Communications Employees Fredrik Sterky, 1898–1900 Herman Lindqvist, 1900–1920 Arvid Thorberg, 1920–1930 Edvard Johanson, 1930–1936 Albert Forslund, February–September 1936 August Lindberg, 1936–1947 Axel Strand, 1947–1956 Arne Geijer, 1956–1973 Gunnar Nilsson, 1973–1983 Stig Malm, 1983–1993 Bertil Jonsson, 1994–2000 Wanja Lundby-Wedin, 2000—2012 Karl-Petter Thorwaldsson, 2012–present Danish Confederation of Trade Unions Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden Rehn–Meidner Model Anders Kjellberg The Membership Development of Swedish Trade Unions and Union Confederations Since the End of the Nineteenth Century.
Research Reports 2017:2. Lund: Department of Sociology, Lund University Swedish Trade Union Confederation - Official main site Swedish Trade Union Confederation Official site
Gällivare is a locality and the seat of Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 8,449 inhabitants in 2010. The town was founded in the 17th century. Together with nearby towns Malmberget and Koskullskulle it forms a conurbation with some 15,000 inhabitants; this conurbation is the second northernmost significant urban area of Sweden after Kiruna. Gällivare is situated at the northern end of the Inlandsbanan railway line, just about 100 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle. Gällivare is located in a major iron ore mining region. Adjacent to Gällivare is Malmberget, known as a site for iron ore extraction from deep mines by LKAB. Outside Gällivare lies the ski resort Dundret, equipped with six ski lifts and ten groomed slopes along with a conference center and hotel; the ski season stretches from the end of October all the way into early May. The town has been host for several World Cup skiing events, both cross-country. Gällivare is the central place for the Firstborn Laestadian movement.
It was the host town for the 2008 VIVA World Cup and the filming spot for Avicii's single "Addicted to You". As expected given its high latitude Gällivare has a cold climate. Under the Köppen climate classification it is classified as a subarctic climate. Winters are severe by Scandinavian standards, but are somewhat moderated by marine air from the North Atlantic and certain cities on the North American Great Plains much further south such as Winnipeg and Grand Forks lower than 50 degrees latitude have colder January averages than Gällivare has; the winter temperature varies a lot due to the location between the open ocean and the large snow covered land mass, can be −30 °C one day and 0 °C next. Gällivare experiences midnight sun for a significant period of summer, but due to its proximity to the Arctic Circle to the south sees some glimpses of daylight during winter solstice; as a result of the midnight sun and its inland position, temperatures can get hot in summer, with an all-time high of 34.5 °C.
Some inhabitants near Gällivare in the village of Tjautjas 20 km outside Gällivare, have a remarkably high incidence of congenital insensitivity to pain, an rare disease which inhibits the sensation of pain and cold. There have been nearly 40 reported cases in the area; the following sports clubs are located in Gällivare: Gällivare Malmbergets FF
Communist Party of Sweden (1967)
Kommunistiska Förbundet Marxist-Leninisterna was formed at the 1967 party congress of VPK, when a pro-Chinese group left the party. KFML was oriented towards the People's Republic of China and Marxism-Leninism as interpreted by Mao Zedong known as Maoism. KFML was the first of the many New Left-groups that surged in Sweden during the 1970s. KFML had a important and leading role in the mass solidarity work with the Vietnamese people. In 1970 a left wing faction based in Gothenburg broke away and formed KFML. In 1973 KFML took the name Sveriges Kommunistiska Parti, the old party name of VPK. SKP held its first party congress January 4–7, 1973; the second party congress was held in Gustavsberg April 15–19, 1976. In 1980 SKP suffered another split; the expelled formed Sveriges Kommunistiska Parti. The 1980s meant crisis for SKP, they were divided on the issue of the new leadership in China under Deng Xiaoping. Vietnam, which had meant so much in the solidarity work of KFML/SKP, Cambodia, "their" ally, had become involved in the Cambodian-Vietnamese War, fighting against each other.
And SKP, who had succeeded in getting famous in Swedish politics, had not been able to expand and get more than fractions of a percent in votes. From 1982 and onwards, they supported the Swedish Social Democratic Party in the national elections. Many members, both leaders and base militants left the movement; the party became ideologically disoriented. The 4th congress of the party was held June 16–17, 1984. Roland Pettersson was elected chairman. In the 1985 general election, the party won representation in the municipal councils in Gällivare, Vallentuna, Laxå, Vadstena and Sigtuna. At the 5th congress of the party SKP changed its name to Solidaritetspartiet, adopted a non-communist programme; the new name was registered on November 28. It is probable that the name was inspired by the Polish Solidarity movement under Lech Wałęsa, as the party supported their struggle. There was a small section. There were other, alternative proposals, such as Demokratiska Socialister, Sveriges Socialistiska Vänsterparti and Sveriges Revolutionära Socialister.
The name of the party publication became a triweekly. The Mariestad branch of the party, which had municipal representation, broke with the and formed Municipal Left; the Mariestad branch had objected to the decision by the congress to remove the ban on local organizations to receive government financing. The 5th congress elected the following central committee: Jan-Olof Norell Inga Allard Björn Fredriksson Tomas Jonsson Tomas Junkka Göran Lundin Lars-Åke Lönn Lisa Norman Lars Ströman Pia Ryberg Sanna Vestin Göran WicksellIn the 1988 general election, the party contested the municipal elections in Sigtuna and Vallentuna. In Laxå party took part in the elections as Municipal Left, on the list "VPK/Kommunal Vänster" a cooperation between the party and VPK. In Katrineholm, the party contested on the list of "VPK-Kommunal Vänster", together with VPK, SP and independents. In Hammarö it contested on the list of "Vänsterpartiet Kommunisterna/Kommunal Vänster". In Gällivare the party contested on the lists of United Socialists.
In Vallentuna the vore-share increased from 414 to 596. The party got two seats, Norell and Wicksell became municipal councillors. In Sigtuna the seat of the party was retained, the vote-share increased from 300 to 350; the party lost its municipal representation in Gällivare. VPK/Kommunal Vänster won five seats in Laxå. In Hammarö VPK/Kommunal Vänster won three seats. VPK-Kommunal Vänster failed to win any seat in Katrineholm. Ahead of the party congress on November 4–5, 1989 the central committee had proposed that the party be disbanded. By this time the party had only a handful of functioning local units, there was a strong trend towards dissolving the national organization and let the local units continue to function on the municipal left in cooperation with other forces; the congress did. The congress decided that Solidaritets-Gnistan would cease to function as an external publication; the congress elected the following central committee: Jan-Olof Norell Inga Allard Christin Almgren Leif Franzén Björn Fredriksson Tomas Jonsson Pia Ryberg Lars Ströman Anna-Maria Valladolid Göran Wicksell Sanna VestinIn the new central committee 4 out of 11 members came from Vallentuna.
The congress decided that another congress would convene in the summer of 1990 to decide the future of the party. The last issue of Solidaritets-Gnistan was published on December 13, 1989. By 1990 the party ceased to function as a nationwide party; the party transformed into an municipal party in Vallentuna. Solidaritetspartiet ran in the municipal elections in Vallentuna until 1994, when they got 6% and 3 seats, they did not run in the 1998 elections. It is unclear whether the party still exists, but it is at least registered with the Swedish authorities. Clarté functioned as the youth and students wing of the party. Röd Ungdom was founded as the youth league of SKP, it published. RU held its fourth congress on April 24–25, 1982. Notably the congress opposed the party line of voting in favour of the Social Democrats in the upcoming elections. Instead the youth wing appealed for blank voting. A resolution adopted by the congress read "...none of the parliamentary p