Cultural economics is the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. Here, culture is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups, programmatic issues include whether and how much culture matters as to economic outcomes and what its relation is to institutions. Applications include the study of religion, social norms, social identity, beliefs in redistributive justice, hatred, terrorism and the culture of economics. Methods include case studies and theoretical and empirical modeling of cultural transmission within, in 2013 Said E. Dawlabani added the value systems approach to the cultural emergence aspect of macroeconomics. Cultural economics develops from how wants and tastes are formed in society and this is partly due to nurture aspects, or what type of environment one is raised in, as it is the internalization of one’s upbringing that shapes their future wants and tastes. Acquired tastes can be thought of as an example of this, a key thought area that separates the development of cultural economics from traditional economics is a difference in how individuals arrive at their decisions.
These trajectories consist of regularities, which have built up throughout the years. Economists have started to look at cultural economics with a thinking approach. In this approach, the economy and culture are each viewed as a system where “interaction and feedback effects were acknowledged, and where in particular the dynamic were made explicit. ”In this sense, the interdependencies of culture. The book explores the intersections of multiple disciplines such as development, organizational behavior. The advancing pace of new technology is transforming how the public consumes and shares culture, the cultural economic field has seen great growth with the advent of online social networking which has created productivity improvements in how culture is consumed. New technologies have lead to cultural convergence where all kinds of culture can be accessed on a single device, throughout their upbringing, younger persons of the current generation are consuming culture faster than their parents ever did, and through new mediums.
The smartphone is an example of this where books, talk, artwork. This field has seen growth through the advent of new economic studies that have put on a cultural lens. For example, a recent study on Europeans living with their families into adulthood was conducted by Paola Sapienza, the study found that those of Southern European descent tend to live at home with their families longer than those of Northern European descent. Sapienzas work is an example of how the growth of economics is beginning to spread across the field. An area that cultural economics has a presence in is sustainable development. Sustainable development has been defined as “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…”, culture plays an important role in this as it can determine how people view preparing for these future generations
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation, and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area. It includes the combination of the institutions, entities, decision-making processes. As such, a system is a type of social system. The mode of production is a related concept, all economic systems have three basic questions to ask, what to produce, how to produce and in what quantities, and who receives the output of production. The study of systems includes how these various agencies and institutions are linked to one another. The analysis of economic systems traditionally focused on the dichotomies and comparisons between market economies and planned economies, and on the distinctions between capitalism and socialism, the categorization of economic systems expanded to include other topics and models that do not conform to the traditional dichotomy. Today the dominant form of organization at the world level is based on market-oriented mixed economies.
Economic systems is the category in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes that includes the study of such systems, there are multiple components to economic systems. Decision-making structures of an economy determine the use of inputs, distribution of output, the level of centralization in decision-making. Decisions might be carried out by industrial councils, by a government agency, in one view, every economic system represents an attempt to solve three fundamental and interdependent problems, What goods and services shall be produced, and in what quantities. How shall goods and services be produced and that is, by whom and with what resources and technologies. For whom shall goods and services be produced and that is, who is to enjoy the benefits of the goods and services and how is the total product to be distributed among individuals and groups in the society. Thus every economy is a system that allocates resources for exchange, the system is stabilized through a combination of threat and trust, which are the outcome of institutional arrangements.
The means of production may be owned privately, by the state, a decision-making system, this determines who is eligible to make decisions over economic activities. Economic agents with decision-making powers can enter into binding contracts with one another, a coordination mechanism, this determines how information is obtained and used in decision-making. An incentive system, this induces and motivates economic agents to engage in productive activities and it can be based on either material reward or moral suasion. The incentive system may encourage specialization and the division of labour, organizational form, there are two basic forms of organization and regulators. Economic actors include households, work gangs and production teams, joint-ventures, economically regulative organizations are represented by the state and market authorities, the latter may be private or public entities
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms – i. e. inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Measurement of economic growth uses national income accounting, since economic growth is measured as the annual percent change of gross domestic product, it has all the advantages and drawbacks of that measure. The rate of economic growth refers to the annual rate of growth in GDP between the first and the last year over a period of time. Implicitly, this rate is the trend in the average level of GDP over the period. An increase in economic growth caused by efficient use of inputs is referred to as intensive growth. GDP growth caused only by increases in the amount of available for use is called extensive growth. The economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries´statistical agencies, the rate of growth of GDP/capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis.
The rate of change of GDP/population is the sum of the rates of change of four variables plus their cross products. Increases in labor productivity have historically been the most important source of real per capita economic growth, increases in productivity lower the real cost of goods. Over the 20th century the price of many goods fell by over 90%. Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital, the rapid economic growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was remarkable because it was in excess of population growth, providing an escape from the Malthusian trap. Countries that industrialized eventually saw their population growth slow down, a known as the demographic transition. Increases in productivity are the factor responsible for per capita economic growth – this has been especially evident since the mid-19th century. Most of the growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, energy. The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs, both of these changes increase output.
The increased output included more of the goods produced previously and new goods
Economic geography is the study of the location and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography, many economists have approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researchers methodological approach, neoclassical location theorists, following in the tradition of Alfred Weber, tend to focus on industrial location and use quantitative methods. Economists such as Paul Krugman and Jeffrey Sachs have analyzed many traits related to economic geography, the name geographical economics has been suggested as an alternative. Some of the first traces of the study of aspects of economic activities can be found in seven Chinese maps of the State of Qin dating to the 4th century BC. Ancient writings can be attributed to the Greek geographer Strabos Geographika compiled almost 2000 years ago, the earliest travel journals included descriptions of the native peoples, the climate, the landscape, and the productivity of various locations.
These early accounts encouraged the development of trade patterns and ushered in the era of mercantilism. World War II contributed to the popularization of geographical knowledge generally, during environmental determinisms time of popularity, Ellsworth Huntington and his theory of climatic determinism, while greatly criticized, notably influenced the field. Valuable contributions came from location theorists such as Johann Heinrich von Thünen or Alfred Weber, other influential theories include Walter Christallers Central place theory, the theory of core and periphery. Fred K. Well-known economic geographers of this period include William Garrison, Brian Berry, Waldo Tobler, Peter Haggett, regional economic geography examines the economic conditions of particular regions or countries of the world. It deals with economic regionalization as well as economic development. Historical economic geography examines the history and development of economic structure. Critical economic geography is a taken from the point of view of contemporary critical geography.
Behavioral economic geography examines the processes underlying spatial reasoning, locational decision making. Economic geography is sometimes approached as a branch of anthropogeography that focuses on systems of human economic activity. Spatiotemporal systems of analysis include economic activities of region, mixed social spaces, analysis may focus on production, exchange and consumption of items of economic activity. It thus focuses on structures of agricultural landscapes and asks for the processes that lead to spatial patterns. While most research in this area concentrates rather on production than on consumption, the latter approach of agricultural geography is often applied within regional geography
Heterodox economics is an umbrella term used to cover various approaches, schools, or traditions. These include anarchist, Marxian, evolutionary, Austrian, social, post-Keynesian, Mainstream economics may be called orthodox or conventional economics by its critics. Alternatively, mainstream economics deals with the rationality–individualism–equilibrium nexus and heterodox economics is more radical in dealing with the institutions–history–social structure nexus, many mainstream economists dismiss heterodox economics as fringe and irrelevant, with little or no influence on the vast majority of academic economists in the English-speaking world. A recent review documents several prominent groups of heterodox economists since at least the 1990s as working together with an increase in coherence across different constituents. Along these lines, the International Confederation of Associations for Pluralism in Economics does not define heterodox economics and has avoided defining its scope, ICAPE defines its mission as promoting pluralism in economics.
One study suggests four key factors as important to the study of economics by self-identified heterodox economists, natural systems, uncertainty, a number of heterodox schools of economic thought challenged the dominance of neoclassical economics after the neoclassical revolution of the 1870s. Other heterodox schools active before and during the Great Depression included Technocracy, physical scientists and biologists were the first individuals to use energy flows to explain social and economic development. by expending what is called power or energy. Austrians and post-Keynesians who dissented from this emerged as clearly defined heterodox schools. In addition, the Marxist and institutionalist schools remained active, as a consequence, some heterodox economists, such as John B. Davis, proposed that the definition of economics has to be adapted to this new. There is no single heterodox economic theory, there are many different heterodox theories in existence, what they all share, however, is a rejection of the neoclassical orthodoxy as representing the appropriate tool for understanding the workings of economic and social life.
The reasons for this rejection may vary, some of the elements commonly found in heterodox critiques are listed below. One of the most broadly accepted principles of economics is the assumption of the rationality of economic agents. Indeed, for a number of economists, the notion of rational maximizing behavior is taken to be synonymous with economic behavior, when some economists studies do not embrace the rationality assumption, they are seen as placing the analyses outside the boundaries of the Neoclassical economics discipline. Neoclassical economics begins with the a priori assumptions that agents are rational and these assumptions provide the backbone for rational choice theory. Many heterodox schools are critical of the homo economicus model of behavior used in standard neoclassical model. A typical version of the critique is that of Satya Gabriel, Neoclassical economic theory is grounded in a conception of human psychology. It is assumed that all beings make economic decisions so as to maximize pleasure or utility
Ecological economics was founded in the 1980s as a modern discipline in the works of and interactions between various European and American academics. The related field of economics is, in general, a more politically applied form of the subject. According to ecological economist Malte Faber, ecological economics is defined by its focus on nature, issues of intergenerational equity, irreversibility of environmental change, uncertainty of long-term outcomes, and sustainable development guide ecological economic analysis and valuation. Positional analysis, which attempts to time and justice issues, is proposed as an alternative. Ecological economics shares many of its perspectives with feminist economics, including the focus on sustainability, justice, the first principles, deriving from the radiochemist FA Soddy, were laid out in his 1926 book Wealth and Debt in 1926. Early modern interest in ecology and economics dates back to the 1940s in the work of K. William Kapp and Karl Polanyi, the first organized meetings of modern ecological economists occurred in the 1980s.
These began in 1982, at the instigation of Lois Banner, most were ecosystem ecologists or mainstream environmental economists, with the exception of Daly. In 1987, Daly and Costanza edited an issue of Ecological Modeling to test the waters, a book entitled Ecological Economics, by Juan Martinez-Alier, was published that year. 1989 saw the foundation of the International Society for Ecological Economics and publication of its journal, Ecological Economics, Robert Costanza was the first president of the society and first editor of the journal, currently edited by Richard Howarth. European conceptual founders include Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, K. William Kapp, some key concepts of what is now ecological economics are evident in the writings of E. F. Other figures include ecologists C. S. Holling, H. T, odum and Robert Costanza, biologist Gretchen Daily and physicist Robert Ayres. CUNY geography professor David Harvey explicitly added ecological concerns to political economic literature and this parallel development in political economy has been continued by analysts such as sociologist John Bellamy Foster.
The antecedents can be traced back to the Romantics of the 19th century as well as some Enlightenment political economists of that era, concerns over population were expressed by Thomas Malthus, while John Stuart Mill predicted the desirability of the stationary state of an economy. Mill thereby anticipated insights of modern ecological economists, but without having had their experience of the social and ecological costs of the Post–World War II economic expansion. As Martinez-Alier explores in his book the debate on energy in systems can be traced into the 19th century e. g. Nobel prize-winning chemist. His magnum opus, The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, has been highly influential, in addition, the journal Ecological Economics has itself been criticized for swamping the field with mainstream economics. Once consumed, natural inputs pass out of the economy as pollution, the sink function describes an environments ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution, when waste output exceeds the limit of the sink function, long-term damage occurs.
Some persistent pollutants, such as organic pollutants and nuclear waste are absorbed very slowly or not at all
Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues. Particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, toxic substances, solid waste. Environmental economics is distinguished from ecological economics in that ecological economics emphasizes the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem with its focus upon preserving natural capital, central to environmental economics is the concept of market failure. Market failure means that markets fail to allocate resources efficiently, as stated by Hanley and White in their textbook Environmental Economics, A market failure occurs when the market does not allocate scarce resources to generate the greatest social welfare. A wedge exists between what a person does given market prices and what society might want him or her to do to protect the environment. Such a wedge implies wastefulness or economic inefficiency, resources can be reallocated to make at least one person better off without making anyone worse off.
Common forms of failure include externalities, non-excludability and non-rivalry. An externality exists when a person makes a choice that affects people in a way that is not accounted for in the market price. An externality can be positive or negative, but is associated with negative externalities in environmental economics. For instance, water seepage in residential buildings happen in upper floor affect the lower floor, or a firm emitting pollution will typically not take into account the costs that its pollution imposes on others. As a result, pollution may occur in excess of the efficient level. When it is too costly to some people from access to an environmental resource. In either case of non-exclusion, market allocation is likely to be inefficient and these challenges have long been recognized. Hardins concept of the tragedy of the commons popularized the challenges involved in non-exclusion and common property, the basic problem is that if people ignore the scarcity value of the commons, they can end up expending too much effort, over harvesting a resource.
Hardin theorizes that in the absence of restrictions, users of a resource will use it more than if they had to pay for it and had exclusive rights. See, Ostroms work on how people using real common property resources have worked to establish self-governing rules to reduce the risk of the tragedy of the commons. The mitigation of climate change effects is an example of a public good and this is a public good since the risks of climate change are both non-rival and non-excludable. Such efforts are non-rival since climate mitigation provided to one does not reduce the level of mitigation that anyone else enjoys and they are non-excludable actions as they will have global consequences from which no one can be excluded
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers, Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services and the demanders of labour services, and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and it is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. There are theories which have developed a concept called human capital, there are two sides to labour economics. Labour economics can generally be seen as the application of microeconomic or macroeconomic techniques to the labour market, microeconomic techniques study the role of individuals and individual firms in the labour market. Macroeconomic techniques look at the interrelations between the market, the goods market, the money market, and the foreign trade market. It looks at how these interactions influence macro variables such as employment levels, participation rates, aggregate income, the labour force is defined as the number of people of working age, who are either employed or actively looking for work.
The participation rate is the number of people in the force divided by the size of the adult civilian noninstitutional population. The unemployment level is defined as the labour force minus the number of people currently employed, the unemployment rate is defined as the level of unemployment divided by the labour force. The employment rate is defined as the number of people currently employed divided by the adult population, in these statistics, self-employed people are counted as employed. Variables like employment level, unemployment level, labour force, and they can be contrasted with flow variables which measure a quantity over a duration of time. Changes in the force are due to flow variables such as natural population growth, net immigration, new entrants. Technological advancement often reduces frictional unemployment, for example, internet search engines have reduced the cost, structural unemployment – This reflects a mismatch between the skills and other attributes of the labour force and those demanded by employers.
The process of globalization has contributed to changes in labour markets. Natural rate of unemployment – This is the summation of frictional and structural unemployment and it is the lowest rate of unemployment that a stable economy can expect to achieve, given that some frictional and structural unemployment is inevitable. Economists do not agree on the level of the rate, with estimates ranging from 1% to 5%. The estimated rate varies from country to country and from time to time, demand deficient unemployment – In Keynesian economics, any level of unemployment beyond the natural rate is probably due to insufficient goods demand in the overall economy. During a recession, aggregate expenditure is deficient causing the underutilisation of inputs, neoclassical economists view the labour market as similar to other markets in that the forces of supply and demand jointly determine price and quantity
Political economy is a term used for studying production and trade, and their relations with law and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth. Political economy originated in moral philosophy and it was developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, or polities, hence the term political economy. In the late 19th century, the term came to replace political economy. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and it is available as an area of study in certain colleges and universities. Originally, political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters was organized in nation-states, in that way, political economy expanded the emphasis of economics, which comes from the Greek oikos and nomos. Thus, political economy was meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, the phrase économie politique first appeared in France in 1615 with the well-known book by Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’economie politique.
The French physiocrats, along with Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George, the worlds first professorship in political economy was established in 1754 at the University of Naples Federico II in southern Italy. The Neapolitan philosopher Antonio Genovesi was the first tenured professor, in 1763, Joseph von Sonnenfels was appointed a Political Economy chair at the University of Vienna, Austria. Thomas Malthus, in 1805, became Englands first professor of economy, at the East India Company College, Haileybury. This left the class of 1998 as the last to be graduated with a Master of Arts in Political Economy. In the United States, political economy first was taught at the College of William and Mary, an early and continuing focus of that research program is what came to be called constitutional political economy. Other traditional topics include analysis of public policy issues as economic regulation, rent-seeking, market protection, institutional corruption. From the mid-1990s, the field has expanded, in part aided by new data sets that allow tests of hypotheses on comparative economic systems.
New political economy may treat economic ideologies as the phenomenon to explain, Charles S. Maier suggests that a political economy approach interrogates economic doctrines to disclose their sociological and political premises. In sum, regards economic ideas and behavior not as frameworks for analysis and this approach informs Andrew Gambles The Free Economy and the Strong State, and Colin Hays The Political Economy of New Labour. It informs much work published in New Political Economy, a journal founded by Sheffield University scholars in 1996. International political economy is a field comprising approaches to the actions of various actors. They are associated with the journal The Review of International Political Economy, there is a more critical school of IPE, inspired by thinkers such as Antonio Gramsci and Karl Polanyi, two major figures are Matthew Watson and Robert W. Cox
History of economic thought
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day. It encompasses many disparate schools of economic thought, ancient Greek writers such as the philosopher Aristotle examined ideas about the art of wealth acquisition, and questioned whether property is best left in private or public hands. In the Middle Ages, scholasticists such as Thomas Aquinas argued that it was an obligation of businesses to sell goods at a just price. Fan Li, an adviser to King Goujian of Yue, wrote on economic issues, chanakya wrote the Arthashastra, a treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy. Ancient Athens, a society, developed an embryonic model of democracy. Xenophons Oeconomicus is a dialogue principally about household management and agriculture, Platos dialogue The Republic describing an ideal city-state run by philosopher-kings contained references to specialization of labor and to production.
Plato was the first to advocate the theory of money. Aristotles Politics analyzed different forms of the state as a critique of Platos model of a philosopher-kings, of particular interest for economists, Plato provided a blueprint of a society based on common ownership of resources. Aristotle viewed this model as an oligarchical anathema, though Aristotle did certainly advocate holding many things in common, he argued that not everything could be, simply because of the wickedness of human nature. It is clearly better that property should be private, wrote Aristotle, but the use of it common, in Politics Book I, Aristotle discusses the general nature of households and market exchanges. Aristotle himself highly disapproved of usury and cast scorn on making money through a monopoly, not useful as a means to any of the necessities of life. Thomas Aquinas was an Italian theologian and economic writer and he taught in both Cologne and Paris, and was part of a group of Catholic scholars known as the Schoolmen, who moved their enquiries beyond theology to philosophical and scientific debates.
In the treatise Summa Theologica Aquinas dealt with the concept of a just price, similar in many ways to the modern concept of long run equilibrium, a just price was just sufficient to cover the costs of production, including the maintenance of a worker and his family. Aquinas argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices simply because buyers had a pressing need for a product, Aquinas discusses a number of topics in the format of questions and replies, substantial tracts dealing with Aristotles theory. Questions 77 and 78 concern economic issues, primarily what a just price might be, Aquinas argued against any form of cheating and recommended always paying compensation in lieu of good service. Whilst human laws might not impose sanctions for unfair dealing, divine law did, one of Aquinas main critics was Duns Scotus, originally from Duns Scotland, who taught in Oxford and Paris. If people did not benefit from a transaction, in Scotus view, Scotus said merchants perform a necessary and useful social role by transporting goods and making them available to the public.
Jean Buridan was a French priest, buridanus looked at money from two angles, its metal value and its purchasing power, which he acknowledged can vary
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices, unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans. Also unlike many other fields of economics, there is no consensus on what students should know, different approaches may consider the factors that contribute to economic convergence or non-convergence across households and countries. The earliest Western theory of development economics was mercantilism, which developed in the 17th century, earlier theories had given little attention to development. For example, Scholasticism the dominant school of thought during medieval feudalism, emphasized reconciliation with Christian theology and ethics, the 16th- and 17th-century School of Salamanca, credited as the earliest modern school of economics, likewise did not address development specifically.
Mercantilism held that a nations prosperity depended on its supply of capital and it emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs. Mercantilist development theory advocated colonialism, in France, mercantilist policy is most associated with 17th-century finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose policies proved influential in American development. Mercantilist ideas continue in the theories of nationalism and neomercantilism. A significant difference from mercantilism was the de-emphasis on colonies, in favor of a focus on domestic production, the names most associated with 19th-century economic nationalism are the American Alexander Hamilton, the German-American Friedrich List, and the American Henry Clay. Hamiltons 1791 Report on Manufactures, his opus, is the founding text of the American System. The key authors are Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Kurt Mandelbaum, Ragnar Nurkse, only after the war did economists turn their concerns towards Asia and Latin America.
At the heart of these studies, by such as Simon Kuznets and W. Arthur Lewis was an analysis of not only economic growth. The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five stages of development which all countries must go through during the process of development. Such theories have been criticized for not recognizing that, while necessary and that is to say that this early and simplistic theory failed to account for political and institutional obstacles to development. Furthermore, this theory was developed in the years of the Cold War and was largely derived from the successes of the Marshall Plan. This has led to the criticism that the theory assumes that the conditions found in developing countries are the same as those found in post-WWII Europe. There are two forms of structural-change theory, W
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the operational analysis is used in the British military, as an intrinsic part of capability development, management. In particular, operational analysis forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisals and it is often considered to be a sub-field of applied mathematics. The terms management science and decision science are used as synonyms. Operation research is concerned with determining the maximum or minimum of some real-world objective. Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety of industries, nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system. Because of the computational and statistical nature of most of these fields, OR has ties to computer science.
In the decades after the two wars, the techniques were more widely applied to problems in business, industry. Early work in research was carried out by individuals such as Charles Babbage. Percy Bridgman brought operational research to bear on problems in physics in the 1920s, modern operational research originated at the Bawdsey Research Station in the UK in 1937 and was the result of an initiative of the stations superintendent, A. P. Rowe. Rowe conceived the idea as a means to analyse and improve the working of the UKs early warning radar system, initially, he analysed the operating of the radar equipment and its communication networks, expanding to include the operating personnels behaviour. This revealed unappreciated limitations of the CH network and allowed action to be taken. Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett, Cecil Gordon, Solly Zuckerman, other names for it included operational analysis and quantitative management. During the Second World War close to 1,000 men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research, about 200 operational research scientists worked for the British Army.
Patrick Blackett worked for different organizations during the war. In 1941, Blackett moved from the RAE to the Navy, after first working with RAF Coastal Command, in 1941, blacketts team at Coastal Commands Operational Research Section included two future Nobel prize winners and many other people who went on to be pre-eminent in their fields. They undertook a number of analyses that aided the war effort. Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member, so small convoys can travel faster and it was argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect