Working time in the United Kingdom
Working time in the United Kingdom is regulated in UK labour law in respect of holidays, daily breaks, night work and the maximum working day under the Working Time Regulations 1998. While the traditional mechanisms for ensuring a "fair day's wage for a fair day's work" is by collective agreement, since 1962 the UK created minimum statutory rights for every individual at work; the WTR 1998 follow the requirements of the Working Time Directive, which allowed an "opt out" from the maximum working week, set at 48 hours. Other reforms have included the 28 holiday minimum per year, 20 minute breaks for each six hours worked, a maximum of 8 hours work on any given night. Eight-hour day Three-Day Week Flexitime The most concrete measure of the WTR 1998 is, following basic rights in international law, mandating a minimum period of 28 days, or four full weeks, in paid holidays for all workers each year. There is no qualifying period for this, or any other working time right, because beyond the importance of the law in seeking to strike a balance between work and life, sufficient periods of rest and leisure are seen as a critical element of workers health and safety.
Nor is it possible for an employer to give a worker "rolled up holiday pay", for instance an additional 12.5% in a wage bill, in lieu of taking actual holidays. The employer must make sure the worker does in fact take paid holidays, if the worker has not done so and the job terminates, the employer must give an additional payment for the unused holiday entitlement. British Airways plc v Williams UKSC 16, 3 CMLR 19 Zentralbetriebsrat der Landeskrankenhäuser Tirols IRLR 631 workers who move from full to part-time cannot lose their holiday entitlement. NHS Leeds v Larner EAT, Bean J held that the entitlement to paid annual leave under WTR 1998 rr 13 and 13A for a worker, absent for the whole year because of sickness did not depend on the worker submitting a request for that annual leave before the end of the pay year. Stringer v Revenue and Customs Commissioners All ER 906 and Pereda v Madrid Movilidad SA ECR I-8405 followed. Where a person works at night, she may only do 8 hours in any 24-hour period on average, or 8 hours at most is dangerous.
It can be called a night shift. Every worker must receive at least 11 consecutive hours of rest in a 24-hour period, in every day workers must have at least a 20-minute break in any 6-hour period; the most controversial and known provisions in the working time laws, concern the maximum working week. Under the Directive, this is 48 hours. Although people in the United Kingdom work the longest hours on average in Europe, among the longest in the developed world, highest work related stress and absentee rates, successive UK governments have remained sceptical about the maximum working week's merit; the maximum does not apply to anyone, self-employed or who can set their own hours of work, as it is aimed to protect workers who possess less bargaining power and autonomy over the way they do their jobs. All UK workers may "opt out" of the 48-hour week by individually signing an opt out form. Theoretically a worker may always change her mind after having opted out, without suffering any detriment. If the employer has not got the worker to opt out the 48-hour week is not a rigid maximum, but is taken as an average over 17 weeks.
The same rules have developed as for the minimum wage, regarding "on call" time, so that people with jobs involving long periods where they must make themselves available, but not be active, are regarded as working if they are bound to remain awake and close to their workplace. This created a significant problem for junior doctors, where the culture has been in all European countries that long hours are expected; the European Court of Justice's decision in Landeshauptstadt Kiel v Jaegar that junior doctors' on call time was working time led a number of countries to exercise the same "opt out" derogation as the UK, albeit limited to medical practice. The Health and Safety Executive is the UK body charged with enforcing the working time laws, though it has purposively taken a "light touch" approach to enforcement. Trades Union Congress UK labour law P Davies and M Freedland, Kahn-Freund’s Labour and the Law 18 12 S Webb and B Webb, Industrial Democracy 12 The Trades Union Congress website website
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week. The practice sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties; the term "shift work" includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts. In medicine and epidemiology, shift work is considered a risk factor for some health problems in some individuals, as disruption to circadian rhythms may increase the probability of developing cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and obesity, among other conditions. Shift work can contribute to strain in marital and personal relationships. A marriage where one partner works an irregular shift is six times more to end in divorce than a marriage where both partners work days. Shift work increases the risk for the development of many disorders. Shift work sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia, excessive sleepiness, or both.
Shift work is considered essential for the diagnosis. The risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 is increased in shift workers men. People working rotating shifts are more vulnerable than others. Women whose work involves night shifts have a 48% increased risk of developing breast cancer; this may be due to alterations in circadian rhythm: melatonin, a known tumor suppressor, is produced at night and late shifts may disrupt its production. The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer listed "shift work that involves circadian disruption" as a probable carcinogen. Shift work may increase the risk of other types of cancer. Working rotating shift work during a two-year interval has been associated with a 9% increased the risk of early menopause compared to women who work no rotating shift work; the increased risk among rotating night shift workers was 25% among women predisposed to earlier menopause. Early menopause can lead to a whole host of other problems in life. A recent study, found that women who worked rotating night shifts for more than six years, eleven percent experienced a shortened lifespan.
Women who worked rotating night shifts for more than 15 years experienced a 25 percent higher risk of death due to lung cancer. Shift work increases the risk of developing cluster headaches, heart attacks, stress, sexual dysfunction, dementia, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, reproductive disorders. Shift work can worsen chronic diseases, including sleep disorders, digestive diseases, heart disease, epilepsy, mental disorders, substance abuse and any health conditions that are treated with medications affected by the circadian cycle. Artificial lighting may additionally contribute to disturbed homeostasis. Shift work may increase a person's risk of smoking; the health consequences of shift work may depend on chronotype, that is, being a day person or a night person, what shift a worker is assigned to. When individual chronotype is opposite of shift timing, there is a greater risk of circadian rhythms disruption. Nighttime workers sleep an average of 1-4 hours less than daytime workers.
Different shift schedules will have different impacts on the health of a shift worker. The way the shift pattern is designed affects how shift workers sleep and take holidays; some shift patterns can exacerbate fatigue by limiting rest, increasing stress, overworking staff or disrupting their time off. Muscle health is compromised by Shift work: Altered sleep and altered eating times. Changes to appetite regulating hormones, more snacking and full center of the brain not working properly, changes in total energy expenditure. Increased snacking, increased binge drinking and reduced protein intake. All these factor can contribute to negative protein balance, increases in insulin resistance and increases in fat. Which can lead to weight gain and more long term health challenge. Compared with the day shift and accidents have been estimated to increase by 15% on evening shifts and 28% on night shifts. Longer shifts are associated with more injuries and accidents: 10-hour shifts had 13% more and 12-hour shifts had 28% more than 8-hour shifts.
Other studies have shown a link between workplace injuries and accidents. Workers with sleep deprivation are far more to be injured or involved in an accident. One study suggests that, for those working a night shift, it may be advantageous to sleep in the evening rather than the morning; the study's evening sleep subjects had 37% fewer episodes of attentional impairment than the morning sleepers. There are alertness in healthy shift-workers, they are: sleep inertia, acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deficit. The circadian phase is fixed in humans. Sleep during the day is less consolidated than night-time sleep. Before a night shift, workers sleep less than before a day shift; the effects of sleep inertia wear off after 2–4 hours of wakefulness, such that most workers who wake up in the morning and go to work suffer some degree of sleep inertia at the beginning of their shift. The relative effects of sleep inertia vs. the other factors are hard to quantify. Acute sleep deprivation occurs during long shifts with no breaks, as well as during night shifts when the worker
David Hunt, Baron Hunt of Wirral
David James Fletcher Hunt, Baron Hunt of Wirral MBE PC, is a British Conservative politician, was a member of the Cabinet during the Margaret Thatcher and John Major administrations, while being appointed to serve on the Privy Council in 1990. Hunt was educated at Liverpool College, an independent school for boys, in Liverpool, at the time in Lancashire, followed by the University of Bristol, where he studied Law. In 1965, representing the university, he won The Observer Mace debating competition, speaking with Bob Marshall Andrews. In 1995, the competition was renamed the John Smith Memorial Mace and is now run by the English-Speaking Union. Born in Glyn Ceiriog in 1942, the son of former Royal Naval Reserves Officer Alan N Hunt OBE and Jessie E E Northrop, David Hunt was the middle child of three, with two sisters. Growing up, David was an active member of the Young Conservatives where he was inspired into running for political office for the Conservative Party. Hunt unsuccessfully contested Bristol South in 1970.
In the 1973 Birthday Honours, he was appointed to the Order of the British Empire as a Member for'political services in the West of England'. He unsuccessfully contested Kingswood in 1974. Hunt became the Member of Parliament for Wirral after winning a by-election in 1976; the seat was broken up and Hunt became Member of Parliament for the new Wirral West constituency in 1983. In Government he served as a whip and junior minister under Margaret Thatcher, who made him Secretary of State for Wales in 1990, shortly before her resignation that year. In the Conservative Party leadership election, 1990 he is believed to have been the only member of the Cabinet to vote for Michael Heseltine on the first ballot, he remained at the Welsh Office until 1993 served as Secretary of State for Employment from 1993 to 1994 and as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1994 to 1995. In the Cabinet reshuffle of 1995, Hunt was offered the position of Health Secretary, turned down, that position going to Stephen Dorrell.
He returned to the Welsh Office, whilst remaining Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, for two weeks during the leadership election in mid-1995 as acting Secretary of State for Wales after the incumbent, John Redwood stepped down in order to be a candidate. He lost his seat in the Labour landslide at the 1997 general election. In the 1997 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hunt of Wirral of Wirral in the county of Merseyside. Lord Hunt was senior partner at the national law firm Beachcroft Wansbroughs between 1996 and 2005, he is now chairman of the firm's financial services division and is regarded as a major figure in the world of insurance and financial services. On certain Bills he used to step back up to the opposition front bench in the House of Lords, on an ad hoc basis. On 7 October 2008, David Cameron formally appointed him to the front bench to shadow Peter Mandelson in the House of Lords on Department for Business and Regulatory Reform matters.
Hunt was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by the University of Bristol on 21 February 2008. He is vice-president of the Holocaust Educational Trust, he became chairman of the Press Complaints Commission on 17 October 2011. In December 2011 he recommended closing the PCC and replacing it with an alternative independent press regulator. 1942-1973: Mr David Hunt 1973-1976: Mr David Hunt 1976-1990: Mr David Hunt 1990-1997: The Right Honourable David Hunt 1997: The Right Honourable David Hunt 1997-: The Right Honourable The Lord Hunt of Wirral Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by David Hunt Profile at the Conservative Party website Profile at Beachcroft LLP
Labour law is the area of law most relating to the relationship between trade unions and the government. While the development of the field in different jurisdictions has resulted in different specific meanings of what is meant by labour law, it is used in reference to employment contexts that involve a trade union, while the term employment law is used for workplaces where the legal relationship is directly between the employer and the employee. While in some jurisdictions the term may be used to refer to such law that may not involve trade unions, the genesis of the term is inseparable and begins with the labour union movements. At the statutory level, Labour law is concerned with the establishment of a labour-relations framework that provides for orderly and peaceful industrial relations between employers and organized workers, includes rules on forming a union, conditions under which the union becomes bargaining agent and lock-outs, process for negotiations, other structural elements that permit the employer and the union to bargain a collective agreement and fill-in the rest specific to rules and conditions relating to the workplace.
It arises from and in the context of British common law and related jurisdictions, to which it is historically linked as wage work begins in the Industrial Revolution, in this way, labour law and related concepts mark a departure from the tradition of contract law that existed for master-servant relations to that point. Labour law is not the law that regulates minimum standards of employment in most British common law jurisdictions, but is the law that pertains to the rules meant to provide a framework for labour relations and collective bargaining. Employment law, or employment standards law, refers to the regulations in statute law that establish minimum conditions relating to the employment of persons, such as minimum working age, minimum hourly wage, so on. Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories. Workers sought better conditions and the right to join a labour union, while employers sought a more predictable and less costly workforce.
The state of labour law at any one time is therefore both the product of, a component of struggles between various social forces. As England was the first country to industrialize, it was the first to face the appalling consequences of industrial revolution in a less regulated economic framework. Over the course of the late 18th and early to mid-19th century the foundation for modern labour law was laid, as some of the more egregious aspects of working conditions were ameliorated through legislation; this was achieved through the concerted pressure from social reformers, notably Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, others. A serious outbreak of fever in 1784 in cotton mills near Manchester drew widespread public opinion against the use of children in dangerous conditions. A local inquiry, presided over by Dr Thomas Percival, was instituted by the justices of the peace for Lancashire, the resulting report recommended the limitation of children's working hours. In 1802, the first major piece of labour legislation was passed − the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act.
This was the first, albeit modest, step towards the protection of labour. The act abolished night work, it required the provision of a basic level of education for all apprentices, as well as adequate sleeping accommodation and clothing. The rapid industrialisation of manufacturing at the turn of the 19th century led to a rapid increase in child employment, public opinion was made aware of the terrible conditions these children were forced to endure; the Factory Act of 1819 was the outcome of the efforts of the industrialist Robert Owen and prohibited child labour under nine years of age and limited the working day to twelve. A great milestone in labour law was reached with the Factory Act of 1833, which limited the employment of children under eighteen years of age, prohibited all night work and, provided for inspectors to enforce the law. Pivotal in the campaigning for and the securing of this legislation were Michael Sadler and the Earl of Shaftesbury; this act was an important step forward, in that it mandated skilled inspection of workplaces and a rigorous enforcement of the law by an independent governmental body.
A lengthy campaign to limit the working day to ten hours was led by Shaftesbury, included support from the Anglican Church. Many committees were formed in support of the cause and some established groups lent their support as well; the campaign led to the passage of the Factory Act of 1847, which restricted the working hours of women and children in British factories to 10 hours per day. These early efforts were principally aimed at limiting child labour. From the mid-19th century, attention was first paid to the plight of working conditions for the workforce in general. In 1850, systematic reporting of fatal accidents was made compulsory, basic safeguards for health and limb in the mines were put in place from 1855. Further regulations, relating to ventilation, fencing of disused shafts, signalling standards, proper gauges and valves for steam-boilers and related machinery were set down. A series of further Acts, in 1860 and 1872 extended the legal provisions and strengthened safety provisions.
Steady development of the coal industry, increasing association among miners, increased scientific knowledge paved the way for the Coa
European Economic and Social Committee
The European Economic and Social Committee is a consultative body of the European Union established in 1958. It is an advisory assembly composed of "social partners", namely: employers and representatives of various other interests, its seat, which it shares with the Committee of the Regions, is the Jacques Delors building on Belliardstraat / Rue Belliard 99 in Brussels. Once known by the acronym "EcoSoc", the body is now referred to as the "EESC", to avoid confusions with the United Nations ECOSOC, it was established by the Treaty of Rome of 1957 in order to unite different economic interest groups to establish a Single Market. The creation of this committee gave them an institution to allow their voices to be heard by the European Commission, the Council and the European Parliament; the EESC declares itself to be "a bridge between Europe and organised civil society". It is mandatory for the Committee to be consulted on those issues stipulated in the Treaties and in all cases where the institutions deem it appropriate.
The Treaty of Maastricht enlarged the Committee's domain. Its influence now extends to matters such as social policy and economic cohesion, education, customers protection, Trans-European Networks, indirect taxation and structural funds. On certain issues the EESC works in partnership with the Committee of the Regions. In latest years the Committee has taken up the challenge of civil society, opening up its forum to representatives of all sectors, developing two complementary missions: Involving civil society organisations more in the European venture, at both national and European level, Boosting the role of civil society organisations in non-member countries or country groupings where the Committee is furthering structured dialogue with civil society organisations, promoting the creation of consultative structures based on its experiences, not least in the countries applying for EU membership, the Mediterranean partner countries, African and Pacific countries, China, Latin America and Brazil.
It is mandatory for the Committee to be consulted on those issues stipulated in the Treaties and in all cases where the institutions deem it appropriate. The EESC may be consulted on an exploratory basis by one of the other institutions, may issue opinions on its own initiative. Own-initiative and exploratory opinions raise the awareness of decision-making bodies, of the Commission in particular, about subjects which have hitherto attracted their attention, if at all. Exploratory opinions drawn up at the request of other institutions before the Commission has drafted its proposals enable the various components of organised civil society represented within the EESC to express the expectations and needs of grassroots stakeholders; the Committee adopts on average 170 opinions a year on a wide range of subjects concerning European integration. It therefore plays an active role in the processes of shaping Community policies and preparing Community decisions. EESC membership numbers 350; the number of members per EU state varies according to the population of each state.
Members of the EESC are divided into three groups of equal number, employees and a third group of various other changing interests such as: farmers, consumer groups, professional associations and so on. Members are appointed by the Council following nominations made by the government of the respective Member State. However, once appointed, the members are independent of their governments, they have a renewable term of office of five years. The President of the EESC, elected for a 2 1⁄2-year term, is Luca Jahier, the previous presidents were Georges Dassis and Henri Malosse. In a report reviewing 50 years of the EESC, C. S. Dimitrioulas cited Jacques Delors as saying that EESC contributions from 1958 to 2008 on civil and social matters were "remarkable". Dimitrioulas commented: "Thanks to its membership and unique role in the EU’s institutional framework, the Committee will in future have special responsibility for making a reality of participatory democracy and for working towards the development of structured dialogue between organised civil society and Union institutions."
Critics observed that while the EESC has undoubtedly performed good works in its time, it has now outlived its usefulness and should be dismantled. The modern EU is replete with advisors: Commissioners have their DGs, MEPs have their own researchers, the ad hoc national ministers attending the Council of Ministers have both their own advisors and the services of COREPER; the vice president of the European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament, Derk Jan Eppink declared, "Over the last eight years, the budgets of the EESC and CoR will have increased by some 50 percent, reaching €130 million and €86.5 million, respectively. There are around 50 officials at each committee with a minimum salary of €123.890, six officials at each committee earning over €180,000 " He stated that there is no information on whether or how the COR and the EESC opinions had influenced legislation, adding that neither Committee had been successful in fulfilling its mandate to "engage participation" from citizens.
The EESC has fought such criticism with arguments of its own. Staffan Nilsson said "It's strange that Liberals, who ask for transparency and for the development of society, would try to discuss the idea
Secretary of State for Employment
The Secretary of State for Employment was a position in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. In 1995 it was merged with Secretary of State for Education to make the Secretary of State for Education and Employment. In 2001 the employment functions were hived off and transferred to the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions; the office was merged with the Department of Social Security to form the Department of Work and Pensions in 2001
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh. First established as a radical political paper in 1817, it began daily publication in 1855 and remained a broadsheet until August 2004, its parent company, JPIMedia publishes the Edinburgh Evening News. As of February 2017, it had an audited print circulation of 19,449, with a paid-for circulation of 88.3% of this figure, about 17,000. Its website, Scotsman.com, had an average of 138,000 unique visitors a day as of 2017. The title celebrated its bicentenary on 25 January 2017; the Scotsman was launched in 1817 as a liberal weekly newspaper by lawyer William Ritchie and customs official Charles Maclaren in response to the "unblushing subservience" of competing newspapers to the Edinburgh establishment. The paper was pledged to "impartiality and independence". After the abolition of newspaper stamp tax in Scotland in 1855, The Scotsman was relaunched as a daily newspaper priced at 1d and a circulation of 6,000 copies.
The fledgling paper was based at 257 High Street on the Royal Mile. In 1860, The Scotsman obtained a purpose built office on Cockburn Street in Edinburgh designed in the Scots baronial style by the architects Peddie & Kinnear; this backed onto their original offices on the Royal Mile. The building bears the initials "JR" for John Ritchie the founder of the company. On 19 December 1904, they moved to huge new offices at the top of the street, facing onto North Bridge, designed by Dunn & Findlay; this huge building had taken three years to build and had connected printworks on Market Street. The printworks connected below road level direct to Waverley station in a efficient production line. In 1953 the newspaper was bought by Canadian millionaire Roy Thomson, in the process of building a large media group; the paper was bought in 1995 by Frederick Barclay for £ 85 million. They moved the newspaper from its Edinburgh office on North Bridge, now an upmarket hotel, to modern offices in Holyrood Road designed by Edinburgh architects CDA, near the subsequent location of the Scottish Parliament Building.
The daily was awarded by the Society for News Design the World’s Best Designed Newspaper™ for 1994. In December 2005, The Scotsman along with its sister titles owned by The Scotsman Publications Ltd was acquired, in a £160 million deal, by Johnston Press, a company founded in Scotland and at the time one of the top three largest local newspaper publishers in the UK. Ian Stewart has been the editor since June 2012, after a reshuffle of senior management in April 2012 during which John McLellan, the paper's editor-in-chief was dismissed. Ian Stewart was editor of Edinburgh Evening News and remains as the editor of Scotland on Sunday. In 2012, The Scotsman was named Newspaper of the Year at the Scottish Press Awards. In 2006 Barclay Brothers sold Barclay House to Irish property magnate Lochlann Quinn, in 2013 Scottish video games maker Rockstar North, of Grand Theft Auto fame, signed the lease, causing Johnston Press group to move out in June 2014. Johnston Press have downsized to refurbished premises at Orchard Brae House in Queensferry Road, Edinburgh, a move, quoted as saving the group £1million per annum in rent.
The newspaper backed a'No' vote in the referendum on Scottish independence. In November 2018, Johnston Press filed for administration. Shortly after filing for administration, the company was bought out by JPIMedia. 1817: William Ritchie 1817: Charles Maclaren 1818: John Ramsay McCulloch 1843: John Hill Burton 1846: Alexander Russel 1876: Robert Wallace 1880: Charles Alfred Cooper 1905: John Pettigrew Croal 1924: George A. Waters 1944: James Murray Watson 1955: John Buchanan 1956: Alastair Dunnett 1972: Eric MacKay 1985: Chris Baur 1988: Magnus Linklater 1994: Andrew Jaspan 1995: James Seaton 1997: Martin Clarke 1998: Alan Ruddock 2000: Tim Luckhurst 2000: Rebecca Hardy 2001: Iain Martin 2004: John McGurk 2006: Mike Gilson 2009: John McLellan 2012: Ian StewartSource: The Scotsman Digital Archive In 1998 The Scotsman was among the first UK newspapers to launch a website updated on a daily basis. Scotsman.com has since grown to become the second biggest newspaper website in Scotland in terms of readership, behind the Daily Record.
As well as reproducing articles from the day's paper, it features online features and video content exclusive to the site. List of newspapers in Scotland List of newspapers by date Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 273–79 Official website The Scotsman Digital Archive 1817-1950 Johnston Press Comprehensive Design Architects